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Download XXX The Vietnam War A New Kind of War Click here to listen to the zither, a musical instrument of Vietnam

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  • Slide 1
  • XXX The Vietnam War A New Kind of War Click here to listen to the zither, a musical instrument of Vietnam.
  • Slide 2
  • Introduction Countless Americans, people you can talk to today, vividly remember the Vietnam War. This power point will lead you through the history leading up to the war, the events of the war, the reactions of a variety of groups who were impacted by the war and the policy changes that came about because of the war. You will also learn a bit about Vietnam today. Words printed in green will be explained in the glossary. Words printed in blue can be found on the People and Places page. The bibliography includes books and websites that will help you to study the war in depth. This power point is only a beginning. This topic offers many opportunities to learn from primary sources. Talk with people who lived through this important event in American history. This war changed America. It is difficult to explain all the ways that the war impacted Americans and people in Indo-China, but this war changed the attitude of a generation. Many Americans who lived through this time developed a mistrust of government and political leaders. They also learned caution about involvement in foreign affairs as a result of this experience. No attempt has been made in this project to explain the impact of the war on the people of Vietnam, Cambodia, or Laos, but it is likely they were affected even more than most Americans.
  • Slide 3
  • The Colony of Indochina Struggle in this area of the world began long ago. French missionaries, in the 19th century, came to Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam attempting to convert the people of Indonesia to Christianity. France sent troops to protect these missionaries in 1857. They eventually colonized the area, renaming it French Indochina. From the 1880s until World War II, France governed Vietnam as part of French Indochina. Vietnam was ruled by an emperor, Bao Dai, but France controlled him. The power changed hands during World War II. In 1940, Japanese troops invaded and occupied French Indochina. Vietnamese nationals recognized that the chaos of the war was an opportunity to fight against foreign control of their country. The nationals formed a new group called the Viet Minh, who began guerilla attacks against Japan. Ho Chi Minh was the key leader of this rebel group. During WWII the Viet Minh helped the U.S. by rescuing downed pilots, helping U.S. prisoners escape their Japanese captors and providing valuable secrets about Japan. French Indochina in 1900. Use the colored legend to see the current division of this land.
  • Slide 4
  • Vietnam Declares Independence When Japan formally surrendered in 1945, they gave up Vietnam and declared it an independent nation. Ho Chi Minh used the occasion to announce that Vietnam was now an independent country called the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. France refused to acknowledge Vietnams independence and fought to regain the land they once controlled. The United States, led by President Harry Truman, was asked by Ho Chi Minh to recognize Vietnams independence. Though Ho Chi Minh had been considered an ally during WWII when Japan was the biggest threat, now President Truman feared Communism as the biggest threat. Ho Chi Minh was committed to Socialist beliefs. His ideas were too close to Communist beliefs. Therefore, the United States decided not to recognize Vietnams independence. Flag of France
  • Slide 5
  • The Cold War The world at that time was full of tension. A Cold War was in progress. Though the fighting of World War II ended, a great rivalry over styles of government continued. Some countries felt Democracy was the way to organize government. Other countries believed Communism was a better way to live. The Cold War was not a physical war but a war of ideas about how governments should be organized. This is a brief summary of the beliefs of each group. Democracy led by U.S. Government 1.Capitalism - private ownership of business and property 2.Democracy - government by the people 3.Freedom - protection of individual choice 4.Individualism - people act independently; competition is good Communism led by Soviet Union (and China) 1. Socialism - government ownership of business and property 2.Totalitarianism - rule by one or a few 3.Equality - condition of being equal in housing, education, food and employment 4.Collectivism - all for one, and one for all; cooperation is best
  • Slide 6
  • The French Indochina War and Dien Bien Phu Motivated by the fear of Communism, the United States assisted France, an ally, in her attempt to regain control of Vietnam. The French troops quickly regained control in the major cities of Vietnam, while the Viet Minh maintained control in the countryside. Native resentment toward the French was building. The French troops had easily outnumbered the 2000 members of the Viet Minh in 1946. By the late 1940s, the Viet Minh had grown to hundreds of thousands of soldiers who were frequently attacking the French to force them to withdraw. After nearly 10 years of fighting, on May of 1954, the Viet Minh attacked the French fortress at Dien Bien, in northwestern Vietnam. The resulting Battle of Dien Bien Phu was an overwhelming victory for the Viet Minh. France was humiliated in this defeat. France was forced by public opinion in her own country to reach a peace agreement. This peace conference would be held in Geneva, Switzerland. Fall of Dien Bien Phu
  • Slide 7
  • A Divided Country At the Geneva Conference, France asked other world powers to help draw up a plan for French withdrawal from the region. Vietnamese independence was the goal of this plan. The agreement announced on July 21, 1954, called for the French to withdraw her troops to the southern region of Vietnam until they could safely be removed from the country. Viet Minh forces moved into the northern region. Vietnam was temporarily divided at the 17th parallel to allow for a cooling-off period. During this time, the warring factions among the Vietnamese were asked to return to their native farms. The Geneva Conference called for elections to be held in 1956 to bring the country together under a government chosen by the people of both regions of Vietnam. The goal was to unite the people north and south of the 17th parallel into one peaceful, independent country. Vietnamese women work in rice paddy Demilitarized Zone at 17th parallel
  • Slide 8
  • Domino Theory As early as the Truman administration, the U.S. was convinced that Communism was an evil, capable of taking over the world. Russia was the leading power of this evil. Communist China was also perceived as a threat. President Dwight D. Eisenhower described this danger in an image called the Domino Theory. According to the theory, unless key areas in Asia received help from the United States, they would fall under Communist domination. Once one country fell, others would follow as if in a row of dominoes. The U.S. policy of containment began. The United States would assist countries who were threatened by Russia and Communist China in an effort to contain the evil of Communism. Dwight D. Eisenhower The foreign policy of the United States after WWII was driven by a fear of the spread of Communism.
  • Slide 9
  • The Elections The United States was not about to risk having a communist-leaning government control Vietnam. They refused to sign the Geneva plan for elections. The United States supported Ngo Dinh Diem as leader of the anti-communist regime in South Vietnam. Diem refused to participate in the planned elections in which the former Viet Minh leader, Ho Chi Minh, was favored to win. Diem, instead, held his own elections in South Vietnam only and then declared South Vietnam an independent nation called The Republic of South Vietnam. Vietnamese Communists saw this action as an attempt by the U.S. to interfere with the independence promised in the Geneva Convention. The United States had stepped into a complicated situation. Demilitarized Zone at 17th parallel
  • Slide 10
  • South Vietnam Under Diem In 1955, the United States intended to help Diem rebuild a Democratic Vietnam. This included creating the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN). Using these troops, Diem took land away from peasants and returned it to former landlords. He also forced many villagers to move from their ancestral lands to controlled settlements, called strategic hamlets, where he could prevent Communist activity. He forced the sons of these villagers to serve in the ARVN. Most rural residents of South Vietnam were still committed to national liberation and a re- unified Vietnam. They resented Diems leadership. Diems support was mostly concentrated in the cities and with his fellow Catholics. The Buddhists, a religious group that included the majority of Vietnamese people, were persecuted. Buddhist monks publicly opposed Diems rule. Now even South Vietnam was divided: Catholics against Buddhists, rural verses urban. The outcry against Diems leadership was growing. Protestors in Saigon gathered to express dissatisfaction with Diems rule Buddhist monks
  • Slide 11
  • Ho Chi Minh Meanwhile, North Vietnam had elected Ho Chi Minh as their leader. He continued to promote national liberation, reunification of Vietnam and reconstruction of society along Socialist principles. The Viet Minh, who had returned to their native villages in South Vietnam, still held the same beliefs as Ho Chi Minh and began to organize resistance to Diem. They formed a group called the National Liberation Front (NLF). Membership in the group was open to anyone who opposed Diems rule and supported a unified Vietnam. The NLF began t