1 k. salah module 3.4: switching circuit switching packet switching

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  • Slide 1
  • 1 K. Salah Module 3.4: Switching Circuit Switching Packet Switching
  • Slide 2
  • 2 K. Salah Switching Networks Long distance transmission is typically done over a network of switched nodes Nodes not concerned with content of data End devices are stations Computer, terminal, phone, etc. A collection of nodes and connections is a communications network Data routed by being switched from node to node
  • Slide 3
  • 3 K. Salah Circuit Switching Dedicated communication path between two stations Three phases: Establish, Transfer, & Disconnect Must have switching capacity and channel capacity to establish connection Must have intelligence to work out routing Inefficient Channel capacity dedicated for duration of connection If no data, capacity wasted Set up (connection) takes time Once connected, transfer is transparent Developed for voice traffic (phone)
  • Slide 4
  • 4 K. Salah Circuit Switch Elements Digital Switch Provide transparent signal path between devices Network Interface Control Unit Establish connections Generally on demand Handle and acknowledge requests Determine if destination is free construct path Maintain connection Disconnect
  • Slide 5
  • 5 K. Salah Circuit Switching Concepts Blocking or Non-blocking Blocking A network is unable to connect stations because all paths are in use Used on voice systems since we have Short duration calls Non-blocking Permits all stations to connect (in pairs) at once Used for some data connections Two types of switches: Space Division Switching Time Division Switching
  • Slide 6
  • 6 K. Salah Space Division Switching Developed for analog environment Separate physical paths Switching is instantaneous Crossbar switch Number of crosspoints grows as square of number of stations Loss of crosspoint prevents connection Inefficient use of crosspoints All stations connected, only a few crosspoints in use. Statistically, only 25% of the crosspoints are used at any time. Non-blocking Multistage Switch Reduced number of crosspoints More than one path through network Increased reliability More complex control May be blocking
  • Slide 7
  • 7 K. Salah Time Division Switching Switching Techniques: TSI (Time Slot Interchange) TST (Time Space Time) TDM Bus
  • Slide 8
  • 8 K. Salah TSI and TST Combining the advantages of Space Division switching and TSI with TST. In TSI: No crosspoints Processing delays RAM Write and Read for each time slot
  • Slide 9
  • 9 K. Salah TDM Bus This is a complete switch architecture found at the receiver end.
  • Slide 10
  • 10 K. Salah Circuit Switching Issues Routing Many connections will need paths through more than one switch Need to find a route with Efficiency and Resilience Public telephone switches are a tree structure Static routing uses the same approach all the time Dynamic routing allows for changes in routing depending on traffic Uses a peer structure for nodes Control Signaling Functions Subscriber to switch Switch to switch ( commonly known as SS7) Transmission of dialed number Call can not be completed indication Call ended indication Signal to ring phone Billing info Equipment and trunk status info Diagnostic info Control of specialist equipment
  • Slide 11
  • 11 K. Salah Packet Switching Data transmitted in small packets Longer messages split into series of packets Each packet contains a portion of user data plus some control info Control info: Routing (addressing) info Packets are received, stored briefly (buffered) and past on to the next node, I.e., Store and forward Advantages: Line efficiency Single node to node link can be shared by many packets over time Packets queued and transmitted as fast as possible Data rate conversion Each station connects to the local node at its own speed Nodes buffer data if required to equalize rates Packets are accepted even when network is busy
  • Slide 12
  • 12 K. Salah Datagram Approach Each packet treated independently Packets can take any practical route Packets may arrive out of order Packets may go missing Up to receiver to re-order packets and recover from missing packets
  • Slide 13
  • 13 K. Salah Virtual Circuit Approach Each packet contains a virtual circuit identifier instead of destination address. No routing decisions required for each packet. Two types: SVC (Switched Virtual Circuit) Connection establishment Data transfer Connection Release PVC (Permanent Virtual Circuit)
  • Slide 14
  • 14 K. Salah Virtual Circuits vs. Datagram Virtual Circuits Network can provide sequencing and error control Packets are forwarded more quickly No routing decisions to make Less reliable Loss of a node looses all circuits through that node Datagram No call setup phase Better if few packets More flexible Routing can be used to avoid congested parts of the network
  • Slide 15
  • 15 K. Salah Circuit-switched vs. Packet Switched Networks


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