packet switching versus circuit switching
Post on 20-Jan-2016
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DESCRIPTIONGreat for bursty data resource sharing no call setup Excessive congestion: packet delay and loss protocols needed for reliable data transfer, congestion control Q: How to provide circuit-like behavior? bandwidth guarantees needed for audio/video apps still an unsolved problem (chapter 6). - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Packet switching versus circuit switchingGreat for bursty dataresource sharingno call setupExcessive congestion: packet delay and lossprotocols needed for reliable data transfer, congestion controlQ: How to provide circuit-like behavior?bandwidth guarantees needed for audio/video appsstill an unsolved problem (chapter 6)Is packet switching a slam dunk winner?
Packet-switched networks: routingGoal: move packets among routers from source to destinationwell study several path selection algorithms (chapter 4)datagram network: destination address determines next hoproutes may change during sessionanalogy: driving, asking directions virtual circuit network: each packet carries tag (virtual circuit ID), tag determines next hopfixed path determined at call setup time, remains fixed thru callrouters maintain per-call state
Access networks and physical mediaQ: How to connect end systems to edge router?residential access netsinstitutional access networks (school, company)mobile access networksKeep in mind: bandwidth (bits per second) of access network?shared or dedicated?
Residential access: point to point accessDialup via modemup to 56Kbps direct access to router (conceptually)ISDN: integrated services digital network: 128Kbps all-digital connection to routerADSL: asymmetric digital subscriber lineup to 1 Mbps home-to-routerup to 8 Mbps router-to-homeADSL deployment - 2 million lines in U.S. and Canada
Residential access: cable modemsHFC: hybrid fiber coaxasymmetric: up to 10Mbps downstream, 1 Mbps upstreamnetwork of cable and fiber attaches homes to ISP routershared access to router among homesissues: congestion, dimensioning deployment: available via cable companies, e.g., MediaOne
Institutional access: local area networkscompany/univ local area network (LAN) connects end system to edge routerEthernet: shared or dedicated cable connects end system and router10 Mbs, 100Mbps, Gigabit Ethernetdeployment: institutions, home LANs soonLANs: chapter 5
Wireless access networksshared wireless access network connects end system to routerwireless LANs:radio spectrum replaces wiree.g., Lucent Wavelan 10 Mbpswider-area wireless accessCDPD: wireless access to ISP router via cellular network
Physical Mediaphysical link: transmitted data bit propagates across linkguided media: signals propagate in solid media: copper, fiberunguided media: signals propagate freely e.g., radioTwisted Pair (TP)two insulated copper wiresCategory 3: traditional phone wires, 10 Mbps ethernetCategory 5 TP: 100Mbps ethernet
Physical Media: coax, fiberCoaxial cable:wire (signal carrier) within a wire (shield)baseband: single channel on cablebroadband: multiple channel on cablebidirectionalcommon use in 10Mbs EthernetFiber optic cable:glass fiber carrying light pulseshigh-speed operation:100Mbps Ethernethigh-speed point-to-point transmission (e.g., 5 Gps)low error rate
Physical media: radiosignal carried in electromagnetic spectrumno physical wirebidirectionalpropagation environment effects:reflection obstruction by objectsinterferenceRadio link types:microwavee.g. up to 45 Mbps channelsLAN (e.g., waveLAN)2Mbps, 11Mbpswide-area (e.g., cellular)e.g. CDPD, 10s Kbpssatelliteup to 50Mbps channel (or multiple smaller channels)270 Msec end-end delaygeosynchronous versus LEOS
Delay in packet-switched networkspackets experience delay on end-to-end pathfour sources of delay at each hopnodal processing: check bit errorsdetermine output linkqueuingtime waiting at output link for transmission depends on congestion level of router
Delay in packet-switched networksTransmission delay:R=link bandwidth (bps)L=packet length (bits)time to send bits into link = L/RPropagation delay:d = length of physical links = propagation speed in medium (~2x108 m/sec)propagation delay = d/sNote: s and R are very different quantities!
Queuing delay (revisited)R=link bandwidth (bps)L=packet length (bits)a=average packet arrival ratetraffic intensity = La/RLa/R ~ 0: average queueing delay smallLa/R -> 1: delays become largeLa/R > 1: more work arriving than can be serviced, average delay infinite!
Protocol LayersNetworks are complex! many pieces:hostsrouterslinks of various mediaapplicationsprotocolshardware, softwareQuestion: Is there any hope of organizing structure of network?
Or at least our discussion of networks?
Organization of air travela series of steps
Organization of air travel: a different viewLayers: each layer implements a servicevia its own internal-layer actionsrelying on services provided by layer below
Layered air travel: servicesCounter-to-counter delivery of person+bags
people transfer: loading gate to arrival gate
runway-to-runway delivery of planeairplane routing from source to destination
Distributed implementation of layer functionalityticket (purchase)
airplane routingticket (complain)
airplane routingDeparting airportarriving airportintermediate air traffic sites
Why layering?Dealing with complex systems:explicit structure allows identification, relationship of complex systems pieceslayered reference model for discussionmodularization eases maintenance, updating of systemchange of implementation of layers service transparent to rest of systeme.g., change in gate procedure doesnt affect rest of systemlayering considered harmful?
Internet protocol stackapplication: supporting network applicationsftp, smtp, httptransport: host-host data transfertcp, udpnetwork: routing of datagrams from source to destinationip, routing protocolslink: data transfer between neighboring network elementsppp, ethernet, ATMphysical: bits on the wire
Layering: logical communication Each layer:distributedentities implement layer functions at each nodeentities perform actions, exchange messages with peers
Layering: logical communication E.g.: transporttake data from appadd addressing, reliability check info to form datagramsend datagram to peerwait for peer to ack receiptanalogy: post officetransporttransport
Layering: physical communication
Protocol layering and dataEach layer takes data from aboveadds header information to create new data unitpasses new data unit to layer below
Internet structure: network of networksroughly hierarchicalnational/international backbone providers (NBPs)e.g. BBN/GTE, Sprint, AT&T, IBM, UUNetinterconnect (peer) with each other privately, or at public Network Access Point (NAPs) regional ISPsconnect into NBPslocal ISP, companyconnect into regional ISPs
NBP ANBP Bregional ISPregional ISP
National Backbone Providere.g. BBN/GTE US backbone network