week 3 noun phrase (2)

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E_English Grammar CourseUnit 3 NOUN PHRASE (cont.)

Issues NOUN

PHRASE Complex NP Modification Premodification Postmodification Multiple modification

Basic NP Determiners Predeterminers Central determiners Postdeterminers

Noun phrasesNoun Phrase= typically constructed by either a noun or a pronoun as the head & other constituents as modifiers Eg. A nice girl leaning against the wall

Basic NP Complex NP

Noun phrasesNoun PhraseBasic NP Complex NP

Basic Noun phrasesBasic NP

(Determiners)E.g.: All these 10

+

Head nounpupils

DeterminersDeterminers = words of close-system used before a N to determine the precise meaning of the N Pre-determiners Central determiners Post-determiners

DeterminersDeterminers Pre-determiners mutually exclusive E.g.: all girls, both girls BUT NOT: all both girls all, both, half multipliers fractions such, what

DeterminersDeterminers Pre-determiners+ before: all, both, half articles (a, an, the, zero article) E.g.: all the time possessive determiners (my, his, her, etc.) E.g.: both his sisters demonstrative determiners (this, that, etc.) E.g.: half those days quantitative determiners (no, each, any, some, enough, (n)either, every)

+ not before:

DeterminersDeterminers Pre-determiners+ take partitive of-phrases all, both, half optional with nouns E.g.: all (of) the time obligatory with pronouns E.g.: all of them, both of us, half of it + all, both: occur after the head, either immediately or after the operator E.g.: They (all) were (all) accepted.

DeterminersDeterminers Pre-determiners+ used to denote the quantity of the nouns E.g.: twice her age, double their salaries + occur with the determiners a, every, each and per to indicate frequency E.g.: once a week, twice every day, three times each year multipliers Once, twice, three times, double, etc.

DeterminersDeterminers Pre-determinersfraction (one-third, two-fifths, three-quarters, etc.)

+ the fractions have the alternative of- construction.E.g.: He took only two-thirds of the books. + the indefinite article can replace one. E.g.: He did it in one-third / a third (of) the time it took me.

DeterminersDeterminers Pre-determiners+ occur before the head noun + such: combined with all, quantifiers, cardinal numbers E.g.: What/ Such a surprise! no/many/41 such incidents Such/ what

Central DeterminersDeterminersCentral determiners 6 classes based on their co-occurrence with the noun classes (singular count, plural count, and non-count)

(1) the, possessive wh-words, Some, any (stressed), no

(2) zero article some, any (unstressed) enough

(3) a(n) every each Either neither

(4)

(5)

(6)

this that

these those

much

Central DeterminersCentral Determiners in respect to their co-occurrence with the noun classes COUNT SINGULAR PLURALbottle furniture bottles

NON-COUNT

Central DeterminersDeterminersCentral determiners (1) the, possessive wh-words, Some, any (stressed), no E.g.: - Do you want me to turn off the light? - I love my family. - What colour do you like? - I have some friends in London. - I wont give this pen to any student. - She has no idea at all.

Central DeterminersDeterminersCentral determiners

(2) zero article some, any (unstressed) enough

E.g.: - Love is not everything. - I did not have enough time to do this. - I want some beer, please. - Have we got any wine for tonight?

Central DeterminersDeterminersCentral determiners (3) a(n) every each Either neither

E.g.: - My friend gave me a flower / an apple. - I want to ask each/every person individually. - You can put it on either table. - Neither party accepted such a proposal.

Central DeterminersDeterminersCentral determiners

(4)

this that

E.g.:

This chair is mine and that table is yours. I cant stand this silence.

Central DeterminersDeterminersCentral determiners

(5)

these those

E.g.: - Did you read these stories yesterday? - Have you seen those girls?

Central DeterminersDeterminersCentral determiners

(6)

much

E.g.: He wants much sugar in his coffee.

Central DeterminersDeterminersPost determinersCardinal numerals Ordinal numerals/general ordinals Close-system quantifiers Open-class quantifiers

Central DeterminersDeterminersPost determinersCardinal numerals Ordinal numerals/general ordinals Close-system quantifiers Open-class quantifiers

include: one, two, three, etc. E.g.: my three son his two books

Central DeterminersDeterminersPost determinersCardinal numerals Ordinal numerals/general ordinals Close-system quantifiers Open-class quantifiers

ordinal numerals: first,second, third, etc. general ordinals: next, last, past, (an)other, additional, further E.g.: the first time another candidate

Central DeterminersDeterminersPost determinersCardinal numerals Ordinal numerals/general ordinals Close-system quantifiers Open-class quantifiers

before count Ns: many, (a) few, several before non-count Ns: much, (a) little E.g.: a few words much stress

Central DeterminersDeterminersPost determiners include:Cardinal a great deal of, lots of, a good number of, etc. a lot of, numerals verbs has number concord with the second nouns, not the quantity nouns (lot, deal, lots, plenty, etc.)ordinals Ordinal numerals/general E.g.: Lots of food was on the table. There was a lot of food on the table. Close-system quantifiers Open-class quantifiers

Noun phrasesNoun PhraseBasic NP Complex NP

Complex noun phraseComplex NP

Pre+ modificationE.g.: All the 11

PostHead noun + modificationpupils playing football

ModificationModification

functionRestrictive Permanent

status

Non-restrictive

Temporary

ModificationModification helps identify the head & indicate a functionRestrictive

status limitation on the possible reference of the headPermanent

tends to come after the headNon-restrictive

tends to be given more prosodic emphasis TemporaryTemporary

than the head E.g.: The flowers in your garden are nice.

ModificationModification gives additional information to the head functionRestrictive

Non-restrictive

but is not essential for identifying the status head the reference: unique or as member of a Permanent class that has been independently identified tends to come before the head Temporary tends to be unstressed in pre-head position E.g.: The book, which I gave you yesterday, is quite readable. (member of a class) She is his poor, old mother. (unique)

ModificationModification

function Have reference to characteristic features Non-restrictive Mainly the items which are placed in premodification position E.g.: an ugly man Restrictive the easy-going ladyPermanent

status

Temporary

ModificationModification

functionNon-restrictive Have reference only to a specific time Mainly those adjectives which have to be Permanent

status

predicate Restrictive E.g.: A man who is timid = A timid man A man who is afraid # An afraid man

Temporary

PremodificationPremodifications-genitive -ing/-ed participles sentence adverbials noun adjectives multiple premodification

PremodificationPremodifications-genitive -ing/-edparticiples

E.g.: Mary's brother is very sentencenaughty.

adverbial noun adjective multiple premodification

PremodificationPremodifications-genitive -ing/-ed participles sentence E.g.: He has rented a crumbling cottage. adverbial noun

The wanted man was last seen in Paris.

Note: the participles denote the permanent. She is an interesting girl vs. She interests me.

E.g. adjective

multiple premodification The man who is married = the married man

PremodificationPremodifications-genitive -ing/-edparticiples sentence

E.g.:

adverbial I got angry with his I-don't-care attitude.

She waved the boy away with a you-stink kind of noun look on her face.adjective multiple premodification

PremodificationPremodifications-genitive -ing/-edparticiples sentence visited his far-away hometown. E.g.: I adverbial noun adjective multiple premodification

PremodificationPremodifications-genitive -ing/-edparticiples sentence

E.g.: adverbial He has fixed the cupboardnoun

door.

adjective multiple prmodification

PremodificationPremodifications-genitive -ing/-edparticiples sentence adverbial

E.g.: She is a lovely noun girl.adjective multiple premodification

PostmodificationPostmodificationrelative clauses prepositional phrase non-finite clause appositive clause Clause of time, place, manner, reason adverb adjective multiple postmodification

PostmodificationPostmodificationrelative clauses

E.g.: The girl who is playing in the ground is my daughter .non-finite clause appositive clause Clause of time, place, manner, reason adverb adjective multiple postmodification

prepositional phrase

PostmodificationPostmodificationrelative clauses prepositional phrase

E.g.: She love the monitor in your class.appositive clause Clause of time, place, manner, reason adverb adjective multiple postmodification

non-finite clause

PostmodificationPostmodificationrelative clauses prepositional phrase non-finite clause

E.g.: The girl playing in the ground is my daughter.Clause of time, place, manner, reason adverb adjective multiple postmodification

appositive clause

PostmodificationPostmodificationrelative clauses prepositional phrase non-finite clause appositive cla

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