was habe ich schon gelernt? german grammar?!?!? ugh!!!!!!

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  • Was habe ich schon gelernt? GERMAN GRAMMAR?!?!? UGH!!!!!!
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  • What do you know about the parts of a sentence? Last year the rich gentleman bought his wife a beautiful house at the beach.
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  • What do we need to know about nouns? They have a gender (masculine, feminine or neuter) They sometimes change in the plural Their articles (and sometimes the noun itself) change depending on the case CASE?!?!?!? What do we mean by case?
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  • German Cases Nominativ the case of the subject The boy is 14 years old. (Der Junge ist 14 Jahre alt.) Akkusativ the case of the direct object He has a brother and a sister. (Er hat einen Bruder und eine Schwester.) Dativ the case of the indirect object He gave his mother flowers for her birthday. (Er hat seiner Mutter Blumen zu ihrem Geburtstag gegeben.) Genitiv the case of possession His mothers name is Erika. (Der Name seiner Mutter ist Erika.)
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  • In German, there are other times when a certain case is needed NominativAkkusativDativGenitiv -case of the subject -case of the direct object -following es gibt -following Accusative prepositions -case of the indirect object -following Dative verbs (like gefallen, helfen, danken, gehren, and antworten) -following Dative prepositions -case of possession -following Genitive prepositions
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  • Prepositions little words big trouble-makers Akkusativ durch fr gegen ohne um Dativ aus auer bei mit nach seit von zu Two-Way an auf hinter in neben ber unter vor zwischen These prepositions take Accusative when motion is indicated and Dative when location (stationary position) is indicated.
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  • How do the articles (definite and indefinite) change in the four cases? The definite article der and all of the der-words are declined like this: der-words dies- (this) jen- (that) jed- (each) manch- (some) solch- (such) welch- (which) alle- (all) MasculineFeminineNeuterPlural N derdiedasdie A dendiedasdie D demderdemden (+n) G des (+s/es) derdes (+s/es) der
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  • The indefinite article and all of the ein-words are declined like this: MasculineFeminineNeuterPlural N eineineein(k)eine A eineneineein(k)eine D einemeinereinem(k)einen (+n) G eines (+s/es) einereines (+s/es) (k)einer ein-words: kein no,not a mein - my dein your sein/ihr/sein his/her/its unser - our euer - your ihr - their Ihr - your
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  • Pronouns take the place of nouns. So that means they change in the different cases too! Personal Pronouns: NominativAkkusativDativ 1 st pers. sg. ich Imich memir - me 2 nd pers. sg. du - youdich - youdir - you 3 rd pers. sg. er/sie/es he/she/it ihn/sie/es him/her/it ihm/ihr/ihm him/her/it 1 st pers. pl. wir weuns usuns - us 2 nd pers. pl. ihr yalleuch yall 3 rd pers. pl. sie - theysie - themihnen - them Formal (sg. and pl.) Sie - you Ihnen - you
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  • What about the Interrogative Pronouns Other Interrogatives (question words) are: Wie? - how Wann? - when Warum? - why Was fr ein? what kind of Wo? - where Wohin? to where Woher? from where Wieviel? how much Wie viele? how many NominativAkkusativDativGenitiv PeopleWer? (Who?) Wen? (Whom?) Wem? (Whom?) Wessen? (Whose?) ThingsWas? (What?) Was? (What?) ----
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  • and the Reflexive Pronouns? AkkusativDativ 1 st pers. sg. michmir 2 nd pers. sg. dichdir 3 rd pers. sg. sich 1 st pers. pl uns 2 nd pers. pl. euch 3 rd pers. pl. sich Formal (sg./pl.) sich
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  • The Dreaded Adjective Ending In German, attributive adjectives (that means adjectives that stand before nouns) take endings that will change depending upon: gender, number, case, and whether they are preceded by a der-word, an ein-word or neither
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  • If the adjective is not preceded by a der-word or ein-word, it will take the following endings: Unpreceded Adjective Endings MasculineFeminineNeuterPlural N-er-e-es-e A-en-e-es-e D-em-er-em-en G -er-en-er
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  • If the adjective is preceded by a der-word it will take the following endings: Adjective Endings Preceded by der-words MasculineFeminineNeuterPlural N-e -en A -e -en D G
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  • If the adjective is preceded by an ein-word it will take the following endings: Adjective Endings Preceded by ein-words MasculineFeminineNeuterPlural N-er-e-es-en A -e-es-en D G
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  • VERBS!!!!! the unconjugated form of the verb is called the verb infinitive. in a sentence, verbs must be conjugated to agree with their subjects. The two most important verbs in German are: haben to have ich habe du hast er/sie/es hat wir haben ihr habt sie haben Sie haben sein to be ich bin du bist er/sie/es ist wir sind ihr seid sie sind Sie sind
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  • Another useful group of verbs are the Modal Verbs Modal verbs are very easy to use, though their conjugations are irregular in the singular. They are conjugated to agree with the subject and are used in conjunction with a verb infinitive like this: Ich will heute abend ins Kino gehen. The Modal Verbs you already know are drfen to be allowed to knnen to be able to mssen to have to sollen to be supposed to wollen to want to mgen to like mchten would like (the subjunctive form of m gen)
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  • drfenknnenmssensollenwollenmgenmchten darfkannmusssollwillmagmchte darfstkannstmusstsollstwillstmagstmchtest darfkannmusssollwillmagmchte drfenknnenmssensollenwollenmgenmchten drftknntmsstsolltwolltmgtmchtet drfenknnenmssensollenwollenmgenmchten drfenknnenmssensollenwollenmgenmchten
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  • Special groups of verbs include: 1.Stem-vowel changing verbs (z.B. essen, lesen) 2. Separable prefix verbs (z.B. aufmachen, mitkommen) 3.Inseparable prefix verbs the inseparable prefixes are: be- emp- ent- er- ge- ver- zer-
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  • When we talk about verbs, we speak of: Tense: Present, Simple (or narrative) Past, Conversational Past, Past Perfect, Future, and Future Perfect Voice: Active or Passive Mood: Indicative or Subjunctive
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  • The tenses you have learned so far are: Present: verb stem or-e -en changed verb stem+-(e)st -(e)t -(e)t -en -en Conversational Past: conjugated form + past participle of haben or sein (these must be memorized) Future: conjugated form of the verb werden+another verb infinitive
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  • Simple (or Narrative) Past Regular Verbs:-(e)te -(e)ten Verb stem+-(e)test-(e)tet -(e)te -(e)ten Irregular Verbs: Changed stem +- -en -(e)st -(e)t - -en Mixed Verbs: Changed stem+-te -ten -test -tet -te -ten
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  • That crazy German Word Order Whenever the literary German dives into a sentence, that is the last you are going to see of him till he emerges on the other side of his Atlantic with his verb in his mouth. - Mark Twain, American writer and journalist, A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court In statements, the verb must always be in the 2 nd position! As long as the verb remains the second sentence element, other elements in the sentence can be moved around. Wir spielen heute Fuball. Heute spielen wir Fuball Fuball spielen wir heute.
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  • Types of German Word Order Normal:Subject - Verb Der Junge hat eine Schwester. Inverted:Verb Subject Hat der Junge eine Schwester? Transposed: Verb at the end of the clause Ich wei nicht, ob der Junge eine Schwester hat. TMP: When there are several descriptive expressions in a sentence, they will be arranged in the order: Time, Manner, Place
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  • Conjunctions determine word order in a clause! Coordinating Conjunctions - do NOT affect word order. They include:aber, denn, oder, und, sondern z.B. Ich kann am Wochenende nicht ins Kino gehen, denn ich habe kein Geld. Subordinating Conjunctions bump the conjugated verb to the end of the clause. They include: als, als ob, bis, damit, da, bevor, indem, ob, obwohl, seitdem, whrend, weil, wenn z.B. Ich kann am Wochenende nicht ins Kino gehen, weil ich kein Geld habe.
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  • What do we still need to learn? Subjunctive Mood Passive Voice Relative Clauses