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Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management •Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry breeds found in North Carolina •Compare animal digestive systems of beef, swine, and poultry

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Page 1: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management

•Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry breeds found in North Carolina•Compare animal digestive systems of beef, swine, and poultry

Page 2: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

The major classes of feed nutrients

• Water• Proteins• Carbohydrates• Minerals• Vitamins• Fats

Page 3: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Water

• Regulates body temperature, dissolves, and transports nutrients

Page 4: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Carbohydrates

• Main energy nutrient in animal rations• Makes up about 75% of most animal rations• Consist of sugar, starch, and cellulose• Corn and other cereal grains are the major source of

carbohydrates

Page 5: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Cereal Grains

• Provide the main source of carbohydrates in feeding swine

• Examples include corn, wheat, rye, barley, oats

Page 6: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Minerals

• Are responsible for the development of teeth, bones, and vital organs

• Minerals are supplied by mineral supplements

Page 7: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Ground limestone

• Is a source of calcium and is important in the development of eggshells for laying chickens

Page 8: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Protein

• Is needed for the development of wool, hair, hoofs, claws, beaks, feathers, and muscles in animals

Page 9: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Fats

• Are a source of energy and is 2.25 times the energy of carbohydrates

• Only small amounts of fats are required

Page 10: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Vitamins

• Are needed by animals in small amounts to perform specific functions

• A deficiency in vitamins can lead to disease or death• Vitamins help prevent livestock diseases

Page 11: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Nutrient

• Is a substance that is necessary for an organism to live and grow

Page 12: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Ration

• Is the total amount of feed an animal has in a 24-hour period

Page 13: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Balanced Ration

• Is a ration that contains all the nutrients that the animal needs in the correct proportions

Page 14: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Vitamin A

• A deficiency of vitamin A in feed rations for livestock animals can causes night blindness

Page 15: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Vitamin C

• Comes from green pastures and hay

Page 16: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Classes of feeds

• Concentrates• Roughages

Page 17: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Concentrates

• Are low in fiber and high in total digestible nutrients (TDN)

Page 18: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Roughages

• Are high in fiber and low in total digestible nutrients (TDN)

Page 19: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Sources of Concentrates

• Cereal Grains: a major source of most concentrates

• Oils• Molasses• Meat byproducts

Page 20: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Examples of Fats

• Vegetable oil, cottonseed, fishmeal, soybeans, peanuts

Page 21: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Sources Roughage

• Include hay, grass, silage and alfalfa

Page 22: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Dry roughage

• Are pasture grasses that are cut and baled as hay to feed cattle, horses, or goats

Page 23: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Green roughage

• includes the pasture grasses and small grains that cattle, horses, sheep or goats graze on

Page 24: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Silage

• Is a roughage that results from storage and fermentation of green crops

Page 25: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Feed Additives

• Promote faster gains in livestock animals and poultry

• Added to feed to improve feed efficiency

Page 26: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Twitch

• Is a tool used to restrain horses

Page 27: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Parasite

• An animal that lives and feeds on other animals

Page 28: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Mite

• Is an external parasite that can cause the manges on livestock animals

Page 29: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Internal parasites

• Are organisms that live inside of their host• Examples of internal parasites: fluke, stomach

worm and protozoa

Page 30: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Good Ventilation

• The main thing to consider in providing housing for animals

Page 31: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Vaccinations

• Are administered to animals to prevent diseases

Page 32: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Subcutaneous injections

• Are made under the skin to administered drugs to animals

Page 33: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Docking

• Is the removal of tails from baby pigs

Page 34: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Polygastric or Ruminant digestive system

• Has a large stomach divided into 4 compartments• This digestive system use food materials high in

fiber type roughage (hay, grass)

Page 35: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Ruminants Animals

• Sheep, Cattle, Goats, and deer

Page 36: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Stomach

• Is a muscular organ that stores ingested food and moves it into the small intestines

Page 37: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Cattle

• Have 4 compartments in their stomachs

Page 38: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Abomasum

• Is the true stomach in the ruminant digestive system

Page 39: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Monogastric Digestive system

• Has a simple stomach• Pigs, chickens, dogs, horses and humans have a

simple or monogastric stomach

Page 40: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Pigs or swine

• Have the same type of digestive system as do humans

• Their rations must be high in concentrates (corn)

Page 41: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Poultry Rations

• Must be high in food value since chickens have no true stomach and can only store small amounts of food in their digestive system

Page 42: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Gizzard

• Is part of the digestive system in chickens where the feed is crushed and mixed with digestive juices

Page 43: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Chickens

• Have no teeth and they swallow their food whole, store it in their crop, then pass the food on to the gizzard where it is ground up

Page 44: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Proventriculus

• Is the stomach of a chicken

Page 45: Unit 14: Explore animal nutrition and digestion in relation to livestock and poultry management Determine nutritional requirements for livestock and poultry

Animal Health