Unit 1: From Pre-History to Early Civilizations Chapter 2: Ancient Civilizations.
Post on 12-Jan-2016
Unit 1: From Pre-History to Early CivilizationsChapter 2: Ancient Civilizations
Section I: Ancient Egypt(Pages 22-29) This section is about:How the Nile River influenced the development of ancient Egypt.Religion, government, and society in the 3 major periods of ancient Egypt.How hieroglyphics recorded aspects of Egyptian life
On pages 22 and 23:What 4 sections are in this chapter?Which do I already probably know something about and why?What part of the world is this chapter taking place in?
On the top of page 24: What active reading tip do they give you?What are the main ideas of this section?How else could you find out the main ideas if they didnt list them for you?
The Nile River ValleyThere wouldnt be an Egypt without the NileIt flows 4000 miles (which direction?) through a series of cataracts / waterfalls to the Nile delta Only about a 10-15 mile wide area.
People like living near water, soThe river valley is where just about everything happened in Egypt living, trading, farming (as far as they could irrigate land).The Nile (and the yearly floods) were essential to their survival.They used the things around them to live: mud-brick homes, papyrus for ropes, sandals, paper, and even boats,
In looking at its history, Ancient Egypt gets divided up into 3 kingdomsThe Old Kingdom(2600 BC -2150 BC)This is when Egypt was everything you read about.Pharaohs (God-kings) had absolute power.Some great building projects were completed (like the pyramids at Giza).After a while, several rulers fought for power and Egypt was weakened.
The New Kingdom(1700 BC 1125 BC)New leaders came to power and again unified Egypt under 1 ruler. During this time, Egypt sent out armies to conquer new lands.Egypt resumed massive building projects enormous temples and statues of gods and pharaohs.
About 1085, Egypt began to lose power others invaded and controlled them.
The Middle Kingdom(2100 BC 1800 BC)New Pharaohs took over.More farmland was irrigated and a canal was even dug to connect the Nile and the Red Sea.Egypt began trading more gold, ebony, ivory, and skins and there was an increase of crafts to support that trade.This kingdom ended when the Egyptians were invaded and controlled for a while.
Better Known New Kingdom Leaders
HatshepsutAmenhotep IV or AkhenatonTutankhamenThutmose IIIRamses II
Great army leader and conquerorGreat warrior, lived a long time and had many childrenWorshiped one God the sun God (this was a big thing).Best known of all Egyptian Pharaohs?First known female ruler of Egypt
Egyptian Religion, Government, and SocietyReligion and family were important parts of every Egyptians life.There were many levels of society (next slide).You could move to a higher class through hard work or marriage.Egypt was usually doing well enough that people had time for family activities, sports, sailing, games, and even school (the wealthy)
The pyramids:famous tombs of the Pharaohs
Also, the Valley of the Kings
And, some in The Valley of the Golden Mummies
The Pharaohs were buried with all the wealth of Egypt because:they felt theyd need it in their afterlife
Most of the tombs of the Pharaohs and the wealthy: were robbed
King Tutankhamen's tomb was so well hidden it was never robbed
The method of preserving dead bodies is called: mummification
About 1800: the French and Napoleon conquered Egypt and found
One of his soldiers found:The Rosetta Stone
the top is in Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs (picture writing),
the second in the Egyptian demotic script,
and the third in Ancient Greek
Finding this made it possible to:Understand about past Egyptian civilizations (after 20 years)
Section II: Mesopotamia and Sumer(Pages 32-36)Section III: Empires of Ancient Mesopotamia(Pages 37-41) These sections are about:How the geography of Mesopotamia affected the development of farming settlements and the Sumerians.How a surplus of food supplies led to the growth of cities.The accomplishments of the Babylonians, Persians, and Phoenicians.
This area is in the Middle East today (Iraq): between the Tigris and Euphrates RiversWhy do you think people settled in Mesopotamia?Maybe first why do you think people have settled in the Barrington High School area?
These two rivers flooded most years and brought rich, fertile soils to the areaalthough there were not many other useful resources for them (metal, precious stones, trees, etc).Since it was a good place to farm, some of the first civilizations started here.
One of these civilizations: Mesopotamia Good land for crops and animals.It didnt rain much, but they dug irrigation ditches.About 4000 BC, they developed a plow and people could then work a lot faster and easier.This is another example of a culture specializing in their skills and lifestyles.The Fertile Crescent was actually a home to many different cultures: including Assyria, Akkad, and Sumer
Had a lot of city-states (the biggest was Ur: 20,000 people).Each city state was a theocracy (a government ruled by a priest) who could command an army, collect taxes, assign people labor, etcThe center of each city had a ziggurat (tall tower for the priests)Many of these priests ended up becoming kings.Some of these kings ended up becoming warrior kinds of kings. Why would they have changed from priests to warrior leaders?
Sumerian writingStarted out as pictographs usually done on clay (they had a lot of clay)This eventually turned into cuneiform (on clay tablets).They used this wedge shaped writing for about 3000 years.Used for recording business, myths, poems, laws, One famous cuneiform story is The Epic of Gilgamesh
Mesopotamians were bright:Invented the plowpotterycuneiform THE WHEEL (in Sumer about 3100 BC)used sails for boatsmasters at record keeping (used scribes to copy information and keep records) invented a math system (based on 60 still for clocks and anything else?) contributed ideas that helped make domes, vaults, and brick molds
Sumerians also practiced polytheism(they worshiped many gods and goddesses)About 3000 totalEach city may have even had some of their own special ones.They usually had a pretty set social structure
Sumer was not the only place in Mesopotamia and eventually they lost some of their power and were conquered (some of their culture became part of other Empires cultures though).Another group: The Akkadian Empire: led by Sargon a superb military leader.Sargons dynasty ruled for about 200 years - during this time Sumer and Akkad blended into more of one culture.And, because their culture was doing well people were able to do more leisure time things: sculpture, carving, writing and poetry
Babylonia and AssyriaBabylonia became a village about 2000 BC and an empire by 17100 BCTheir outstanding leader (Hammurabi) helped them become known for their wealth, entertainment, and gardens.But hes best known for writing down all the laws into one document
This document is called: The Code of Hammurabi:Did 2 things:
Helped make sure everyone knew what the laws were.Helped unify all the people who made up the Babylonian culture.
Has 282 specific laws about marriage, land rights, business dealings, family relations, and crime and punishment.Some were complicated and even unfair (different punishments for different people)but usually the punishment fit the deed.
Examples from The Code of Hammurabihttp://www.ushistory.org/civ/4c.asp15: If any one take a male or female slave of the court, or a male or female slave of a freed man, outside the city gates [to escape], he shall be put to death. 16: If any one receive into his house a runaway male or female slave of the court, or of a freedman, and does not bring it out at the public proclamation of the [police], the master of the house shall be put to death. 53: If any one be too lazy to keep his dam in proper condition, and does not so keep it; if then the dam break and all the fields be flooded, then shall he in whose dam the break occurred be sold for money, and the money shall replace the [grain] which he has caused to be ruined. 54: If he be not able to replace the [grain], then he and his possessions shall be divided among the farmers whose corn he has flooded. 108: If a [woman wine-seller] does not accept [grain] according to gross weight in payment of drink, but takes money, and the price of the drink is less than that of the corn, she shall be convicted and thrown into the water. (1) 1010: If conspirators meet in the house of a [woman wine-seller], and these conspirators are not captured and delivered to the court, the [wine-seller] shall be put to death. 110: If a "sister of a god [nun] open a tavern, or enter a tavern to drink, then shall this woman be burned to death. 1210: If a man's wife be surprised [having intercourse] with another man, both shall be tied and thrown into the water, but the husband may pardon his wife and the king his slaves. 130: If a man violate the wife (betrothed or child-wife) of another man, who has never known a man, and still lives in her father's house, and sleep with her and be surprised [caught], this man shall be put to death, but the wife is blameless. 131: If a man bring a charge against [his] wife, but she is not surprised with another man, she must take an oath and then may return to her house. 132: If the "finger is pointed" at a man's wife about another man, but she is not caught sleeping with the other man, she shall jump into the river for [the sake of her] husband. (2) 138: If a man wishes to separate from his wife who has borne him no children, he shall give her the amount of her purchase money and the dowry which she brought from her father's house, and let her go. 141: If a man's wife, who lives in his house, wishes to leave it, plunges into debt [to go into business], tries to ruin her house, neglects her husband, and is judicially convicted: if her husband offer her release, she may go on her way, and he gives her nothing as a gift of release. If her husband does not wish to release her, and if he take another wife, she shall remain as servant in her husband's house. 142: If a woman quarrel with her husband, and say: "You are not congenial to me," the reasons for her prejudice must be presented. If she is guiltless, and there is no fault on her part, but he leaves and neglects her, then no guilt attaches to this woman, she shall take her dowry and go back to her father's house. (3) 143: If she is not innocent, but leaves her husband, and ruins her house, neglecting her husband, this woman shall be cast into the water. 1105: If a son strike his father, his hands shall be [cut] off. (4) 1106: If a [noble-]man put out the eye of another [noble-]man, his eye shall be put out. (5) 1107: If he break another [noble-]man's bone, his bone shall be broken. 1108: If he put out the eye of a [commoner], or break the bone of a [commoner], he shall pay one [silver] mina. 11010: If he put out the eye of a man's slave, or break the bone of a man's slave, he shall pay one-half of its value. 200: If a man knock out the teeth of his equal, his teeth shall be knocked out. 201: If he knock out the teeth of a [commoner], he shall pay one-third of a [silver] mina.
The Persian Empirecontributed a lot to Mesopotamia.Cyrus the Great built many roads (improving travel and communication).Cyrus also governed through kindness and cooperation (his army wouldnt steal or destroy places they conquered).Also: common weights and measures and the use of coins in trade
The Phoenicians were around at the same time (but in a different place)They were the greatest sailors of the time (so also traders minerals, wood, a purple dye).They also set up many colonies around the Mediterranean.Their greatest achievement was a new alphabet which spread throughout the region.They also simplified cuneiform from 1000 symbols to 22.Each symbol stood for a different sound. The Greeks later added more symbols and eventually it turns into what our English alphabet is based on.
Section IV: The Beginnings of Judaism(Pages 42-45) This section is about:How the geography of Canaan influenced the ancient civilization of the Hebrews.How Judaism was founded, and how it alter became a major world religion.
Another group who lived in the area of the Fertile Crescent were the Hebrews.But, they were a little different than the other groups weve seen so far.We know a lot about them, because they recorded events important to them in their Hebrew Bible (Many groups only use an oral history)How do you know about you and your familys past? Ask your teacher about the 20 foot long book he has about the history of the Hebrew people.
One of their peoples (Abraham) brought the Hebrews from Mesopotamia to Canaan. That was where God and Abraham made a covenant (agreement/contract)If Abraham and his people would worship only one god (monotheism), then God would give Abraham many descendants (through the Twelve Tribes of Israel). Worshiping one God was different than the other groups from the Fertile Crescent.
These Twelve Tribes were nomads and they eventually ended up in Egypt (where they were made into slaves).After a while, one of their leaders (Moses) got them their freedom (the Exodus). When they left Egypt, they traveled around the Sinai Peninsula for many years.It was during that time that Moses got the Ten Commandments from God again a covenant that if they followed these rules, they would be Gods own people.They eventually ended up settling in Canaan (the land promised to Abraham). Canaan is now called Israel.
Kingdoms of the IsraelitesThe Hebrews (Twelve Tribes of Israelites) had to continually fight for this land. They figured it was better to unite and their first king was Saul (killed in battle).His son David took over, created a stronger Israel, and made Jerusalem its capital.Davids son Solomon made Israel a rich nation which had a huge temple, big army, good trade, improved roads and portsWhen Solomon died, there were problems: Israel even split into two kingdoms: most Israelites were taken over by Assyria and Judah was conquered by Babylonia.
Much of the oral history of the Hebrew people was written down during the time the people of Judah were conquered.When the Persians conquered Babylonia, they let the Jews return to their old kingdom where they re-built their temple (although still living under Persian control)
This idea of Monotheism still influencesand dominates many religions todayThe sacred book for Hebrews is the Torah (first 5 books of the bible)
Genesis (creation, Abraham, and his descendants)Exodus (leaving Egypt)Leviticus Numbers (Jewish laws and instruction)Deuteronomy
The oldest Torah stories we have come from the Dead Sea Scrolls (written about 800AD and just found in the 1100s.
Judaism Worlds 8th biggest religion (14-18 million)Spread out around the world many in Israel (40%), America (40%), Europe, Russia, etcMany still follow these old Hebrew rules and laws as part of Abrahams covenant and their faith that they are Gods chosen people