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  • Global History & Geography Review Unit 1Ancient Civilizations, Religions & Early EmpiresEarly peoples & river civilizationsClassical civilizationsRise & fall of Great EmpiresEmergence and spread of belief systems

  • Early Peoples & River CivilizationsEarly people were hunters and gatherers, which meant they lived nomadic livesWith the Neolithic Revolution (10,000 BC), people made permanent settlements, which grew into civilizationsMost early civilizations settled along river valleys

  • Early Peoples & River CivilizationsCharacteristics of civilizationsCitiesCentral governmentsTraditional economyOrganized religionSocial classesSpecialized jobsRoads, bridges, public worksArt & architectureSystem of writing

  • Big names of early civilizationsEgyptiansLocated along the fertile Nile RiverPolytheisticPharaoh considered a god/kingDistinct social classesLots of contributions, including:HieroglyphicsArchitectureCalendar

  • Big names of early civilizationsMesopotamiaLocated between the Tigris & Euphrates Rivers on the Fertile Crescent

  • Big names of early civilizationsMesopotamiaRivers provided excellent farm land & easy transportationCultural diffusionMany civilizations developed in this regionSumeriansPolytheistic built zigguratsCuneiform wedge shaped writing in clayAssyriansPersiansBabylonians -Hammurabis Code of LawHittites mined iron ore, made plows, weaponsLydians coined money

  • Mesopotamia

  • Other River Valley CivilizationsIndus ValleyChina river valleys of the Huang He (Yellow River), and the Yangzi.Considered themselves the Middle KingdomEstablished dynastiesWritten language 2000 BC pictographs & ideographs

  • Classical CivilizationsChinaMandate of Heaven & the dynastic cycleShang, Zhou, Shi, Qin, Han, etc.Many accomplishments & contributionsIrrigation systemsAstronomy & calendarSilk & porcelainGreat WallCivil Service systemPaper, wheelbarrow, rudder for ships, herbal remedies,

  • Greece (1750 BC 133 BC)Location in mountainous region prevented large empire and led to many city-statesLots of cultural diffusion due to sea tradeCity-states (polis) two most powerful ones were Athens & SpartaAthens birthplace of direct democracySparta - militaristic

  • Ancient Greece

  • Alexander the GreatHis father conquered Greece in the 300s BCAlexander build a huge empire that included the Nile Valley, Persia, and parts of IndiaSpread Greek cultureHellenistic Culture blended Greek & Persian, Indian life

  • Cultural contributions of Greek & Hellenistic civiliationsPhilosophy Socrates, Plato, AristotleLiterature Comedies & tragedies, poems (Homer), history (Herodotus)Art & Architecture Humans portrayed in perfect form, fantastic architectureScience & Math Archimedes, Hippocrates, Pythagoras, Euclid

  • Rome (509 BC 476 AD)Located on Italian peninsulaRepublic officials chosen by the peoplePatricians (rich) & plebeians (farmers, etc)Created a huge empireContributions:Twelve Tables of LawRomanesque architecture Extensive roads & trade Well-disciplined army, civil service systemPax Romana long period of peace & prosperityEventually overrun by foreign invasions

  • Major Belief Systems

    SystemWhen & Where/WhoMajor conceptsAnimismOne of the earliest anywhereAfrica, ChinaEvery living & non living thing in nature has a spirit.Reverence for ancestorsHinduism1500 BCIndiaReincarnationKarma & DharmaCastesBrahman

  • Major Belief Systems

    SystemWhen & Where/WhoMajor conceptsBuddhism500 BCIndiaFour Noble TruthsEightfold PathJudaism2000 BC Hebrews(Abraham)MonotheisticTorah10 Commandments

  • Major Belief Systems

    SystemWhen & Where/WhoMajor conceptsChristianity30 AD JesusJesus is God the Son, the Messiah MonotheisticBibleIslam622 AD Mohammed in ArabiaMonotheisticFive PillarsKoran

  • Major Belief Systems

    SystemWhen & Where/WhoMajor conceptsConfucianismConfucius (551 BC)ChinaThe Analects5 key relationshipsEveryone has dutiesEducation is key to successTaoismLaoziPeace & well being depend on harmony between yin and yang

  • Early Empires:The Gupta of India (320-550 AD)United much of the Indian subcontinentPeriod of peace and prosperityProtected by geographyPromoted HinduismCaste systemPatriarchal families, arranged marriagesDeclined due to weak rulers and foreign invaders

  • Early Empires:The Gupta of India (320-550 AD)Contributions:Zero & decimal systemArabic numeralsHerbal remedies, surgery, vaccines against small poxBeautiful templesFables, folk tales

  • Early Empires: 618-1279 ADTang & Song Dynasties in ChinaBoth had efficient governments where trade flourished and great advances in art, literature, and architecture developed

  • Early Empires: 618-1279 ADTang & Song Dynasties in ChinaGovernment corruption led to the decline of the Tang dynasty in 907 ADBoth used the civil service system for govt. officialsStrict social structure of gentry, peasantry, merchants

  • Early Empires: 618-1279 ADTang & Song Dynasties in ChinaForeign trade expanded to India, Persia, Middle EastInfluenced JapanContributions included calligraphy, pagoda temple design, porcelain

  • Early Empires: The Byzantine EmpireAfter the Roman empire was divided in the late 200s by Emperor Diocletian, the Emperor Constantine moved the capital to the site of the Greek city of Byzantium

  • Early Empires: 527 - 1453The Byzantine Empire

  • Early Empires: The Byzantine EmpireIt was a blend of Greek, Roman, and Christian influencesWeakened by Crusaders, sacked by Ottomans in 1453Contributions:PRESERVED GRECO-ROMAN CULTUREJustinians Code of LawInfluenced Russia written language, religion, autocratic government, art & architecture

  • Early Empires: The Byzantine EmpireArchitecture: Church of Hagia SophiaArt MosaicsReligion: Orthodox Christian Church Great Schism in 1054

  • Early Empires: Islamic CivilizationAfter Mohammeds death, Islam spread to areas in Europe, Africa, and AsiaExperienced a golden age during the 700s and 800s based on trade, and achievements in the arts & sciences

  • The spread of Islam

  • Early Empires: Islamic CivilizationIslam arose in the Arabian peninsulaReasons for Muslim success: Arabs were strong fighters, enemies were weak (Byzantine & Persian empires), they were united in the faith, and rulers treated the conquered peoples fairly.

  • Early Empires: Islamic CivilizationGolden Age contributions:Preserved Greco-Roman cultureCalligraphyMosques and palacesLiterature poetry, tales (The Thousand and One Nights)Mathematics algebraAstronomyMedicine

  • Early Empires:Islamic CivilizationCrusaders from Western Europe came into contact with Muslims in the Holy Lands, which encouraged cultural diffusion & lasting feelings of distrust between the two

  • 500-1400sThe collapse of Rome in 476 left Western Europe with no central government and basically in chaosFeudalism and manorialism developedThe Christian Church was the one institution that remained intact & it played a humongous role in peoples lives

  • Medieval EuropeCharlemagne (742-814), king of the Franks, built an empire that included France, Germany, and part of ItalyPope Leo III crowned Charlemagne King of the Romans a popular fellowCharlemagne encouraged education & helped spread Christianity

  • Feudalism

  • The Crusades Seljuk Turks (Muslims) invaded the Byzantine Empire and conquered Palestine in the 1050s1096 Pope Urban II called on Christians to recover the Holy Lands and expel the Muslims

  • The CrusadesPope Urban II also hoped to win favor with Eastern Orthodox Christians so they would rejoin the Roman ChurchCrusaders were looking for adventureThe poor were looking to escape the hardships of feudalism and constant fighting

  • The CrusadesOnly the first of four Crusades in 1099 was successful in regaining control of Jerusalem. Christians slaughtered Muslims and Jews there.

  • The CrusadesSubsequent Crusades became more aimed at personal enrichment, not religious zealSaladin united Muslims and regained Jerusalem in late 1100s The Fourth Crusade looted Byzantine

  • A little known crusade

  • Impact of the CrusadesIncreased trade between east and westReawakened Europeans to lost knowledge preserved by Muslims and Byzantine EmpireIncreased power of monarchs & weakened feudalismLasting distrust between Muslims and ChristiansSparked the Age of Exploration & Renaissance