unique characteristics of rwandan genocide
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Unique Characteristics of Rwandan Genocide: Use of child soldiers, women and such. Everyday people Recent Happened in a very short amount of time. Genocide in AfricaEarly European involvement in Africa: The Slave Trade The Atlantic Slave Trade was the most significant link Africa had to the larger Atlantic World in early modern times. African peoples received European goods for slaves. Firearms were the most common. Impact of Slave Trade in Africa Deprived Africa of a huge fraction of their population It distorted African sex ratios because ~ 2/3s of slaves were male Introduction of firearms increased the level of violence. The Scramble for Africa The Scramble for Africa: a process of invasion, occupation, colonization and annexation of African territory by European powers This took place between 1881 and World War I in 1914The Berlin ConferenceLots of countries got together and just started picking pieces that they wanted. The Principle of Effectivity The Principle of Effectivity: powers could hold colonies only if they actually possessed them. Treaties with local leaders Flying their flag Establishing administration in the territory to govern it. Use the colony economically. Indirect Rule A system of government for British non-colonial dependencies: eg Protectorates Day-to-day government and administration of areas was left in the hands of traditional rulersHerero and Namaqua Genocide Campaign by the Germans of collective punishment and racial extermination undertaking in German South-West Africa (present day Namibia) 1904-1907 Considered to the be the first genocide of 20th century Experiences used for the Holocaust. Background 1883 Germany established protectorate over small coastal strip of land, and promoted white settlement Local tribes rose up against German occupation and expansion In 1894 a peace-accord was signed but Germany expanded its territory and used Imperial colonial troops to pacify the region. Oppression, leading to a Revolt Root Causes: Germans Used natives as slave laborers Confiscated land for white settlers Raided cattle from Hereros and Namas Direct Causes: Germans Planned to build a railway, opening up even more land for white settlers Forced repayment of loans taken out by Hereros 1904 Revolt Herero killed about 15 Germans in a surprise attack; just after colonial power withdraw half its troops Germany sent 14,000 troops headed by LG Lorthar Von TrothaTrotha was all about that violence. He thought that the African people would only understand violence and that he needed to burn the land and start over. Battle of Waterberg 3000-5000 Herero combatants defeated in August 1904 Germans killed those who surrendered and its forced pursued those who fled, killing everyone he got his hands on. Genocide Remaining Hereros escaped by entering the Kalahari Desert, hoping to reach the British territory of Bechuanaland. Pursued by Germans, who poisoned waterholes. The Hereros Genocide as aperlude to the Holocaust (I) The few survivors- mainly women and children put in concentration camps to work as slave laborers Mortality rates in these camps was up to 75% Medical experiments were taken place on the prisoners After camps closed down, surviving Herero were distributed as laborers for settlers in German colony. From that time on all Herero over the age of seven were forced to wear a metal disc with their labor registration number.
The Hereros Genocide as aperlude to the Holocaust (II) The German general staff later reflected on this in its official publication (Der Kampf): Like a wounded beast the enemy was tracked down and the desert was to complete what the German Army had begun: the extermination of the Herero nation. Governor Leutwein: We need the Herero as cattle breeders and especially as laborers. Rwanda Genocide Between April and July, 1994 Target: Tutsis and moderate Hutus Death- toll: between 500,000 and 1,000,000 20% of population, 70% of Tutsi populationColonial racial discrimination Rwanda and neighboring Burundi and Tanganyika became colonies of the German Empire during Scramble for Africa (1894-1915) Tutsi minority favored over Hutu minority by colonial powers From WWI until 1958 Belgium ruled Rwanda; further pursuing Germanys policy of favoring Tutsis and downgrading Hutus. Independence Tutsi elite started calling for independence from Belgium Belgium switched alliances, supporting Hutus in overthrowing Tutsi monarchy in 1959 In 1962 Rwanda gained its independence and separated from Tutsi controlled Burundi What followed were three decades of Tutsi oppression by the Hutu majority. Rwanda Civil WarStarted in 1990 Hutu-led government wersus Rwanda Patriotic FronRPF existed mainly out of Tutsi regugeess