unit viii: genocide objective: #4 topic: rwandan genocide
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Unit VIII: GenocideObjective: #4Topic: Rwandan Genocide
I. ColonialismA. Berlin Conference (1884-1885)1. Kingdom of Rwanda becomes part of German East Africa
B. Treaty of Versailles (1919)1. Germany lost colony2. Belgium gained Rwanda as a mandate
C. Life Under Belgium (1919-1962)1. Hierarchy of native groups was maintained Tutsi: 12% of population; belonged to aristocracy; privileged Hutu: 82% of population; farmers; treated like 2nd class citizens2. Ethnic violence occurred often
Excerpt from Ghosts of Rwanda
D. Independence (1962)1. Rwanda gained its independence Hutus gained control of the government and began oppressing Tutsis
Belgian colonialists believed Tutsis were a naturally superior nobility, descended from the Israelite tribe of Ham.
II. Path to GenocideA. Background1. (1962-1966): army of Tutsis in exile tried repeatedly to invade and take back power Hutu government increased repression of Tutsi
B. Military Coup (1973)1. General Juvnal Habyarimana takes over and becomes president
C. Rwandan Patriotic Front1. Founded by exiled Tutsis2. Tried unsuccessfully to invade Rwanda Tutsis were imprisoned and massacred
III. GenocideA. Background1. RPF and the Hutu government signed a peace agreement (1993) UN sent peacekeepers, led by Gen. Romeo Dallaire, were sent to assist2. April 6, 1994, President Habyarimana was assassinated RPF was blamed
B. Atrocities (April July 1994)1. Encouraged by the government Kill the cockroaches!2. The Interahamwe carried out acts of violence3. Homes and villages were destroyed4. Women and girls were raped5. About 800,000 Tutsis were killed in 100 days
C. Response1. International community took no action UN had no power to intervene2. Paul Rusesabagina Hutu, hotel manager who saved 1,200 refugees His efforts became the subject of the film, Hotel Rwanda
Kangura Newspaper, Rwanda: The Solution for Tutsi Cockroaches
IV. JusticeA. Background1. Genocide ended when RPF invaded the country (July 1994)2. Paul Kagame, former RPF leader, is now president
B. UNICTR Trials (1997-present)1. Held in Tanzania2. Over 20 people have been convicted, including: General Augustin Bizimungu (sentenced to 30 years) Pauline Nyiramasuhuko *- convicted of genocide - sentenced to life
C. Gacaca courts:1. Community courts where those who participated in the genocide are tried over 1 million cases heard
D. Genocide Ideology1. Outlaws anything that might reignite hatred (ex. Whats your tribe?)
JA: Time-line of Rwandan GenocideDirections: Create a time-line of 5 significant events covered today. List the date(s), event, and an appropriate colored symbol or picture.
*Belgians distinguished between Hutus and Tutsis by nose size, height & eye type. Another indicator to distinguish Hutu farmers from Tutsi pastoralists was the number of cattle owned.