The Rwandan Genocide: Ethnicity to Nationality

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The Rwandan Genocide: Ethnicity to Nationality. Group 5: Merina Cashe Kasey Fernandez Jamie Nishimoto. WHAT IS GENOCIDE?. Violent crimes committed against groups with the objective to destroy the existence of the group. Ways of destroying a group:. Killing the members - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Slide 1The Rwandan Genocide:Ethnicity to NationalityGroup 5:Merina CasheKasey FernandezJamie NishimotoWHAT IS GENOCIDE?Violent crimes committed against groups with the objective to destroy the existence of the group.Ways of destroying a group:Killing the membersCausing serious bodily or mental harmPreventing birthsForcibly transferring children of the group to another.After the event started, the UN Security Council did not want to admit that the killings in Rwanda were genocide because no one wanted to take action. When it was clear that genocide was going on, it was too late to prevent it from happening -UnknownAlso known as the land of a thousand hillsRwanda is a very mountainous country located in the heart of Central Africa.Its bordering countries include, Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi, and Zaire.Kinyarwanda, Bantu, French, Swahili, and English are often spoken in Rwanda.Rwanda became an independent country on July 1, 1962.Geography of RwandaIn the 1800s, European colonists took over Africa and the national identity was created.In the 1890s, German colonists signed a treaty with the Tutsi Rwandan king.This treaty turned Rwanda into a colony.Germans assumed that Tutsis were superior over the HutusIn 1916, Belgians came into power and continued to favor the Tutsis.Beginning of Ethnic GroupsPhysical appearance of a personHutus (or Bahutu): Took over most of the population in Rwanda. Average male around 55, 130 lbs, darker skin color, shorter, and more muscularTutsis (Watutsi or Batutsi): Second largest ethnic group. Taller (59+), thinner (125 lbs), lighter skinnedHutus vs. TutsisTHE GENOCIDEStarted on April 6, 1994, when President Juvenal Habyarimana was shot down in his plane.Planned long before it startedPeople would hear screaming and gun shots outside of their homes.Thousands of Tutsis & moderate Hutus were killed, raped or slaughtered.Main promoter: radio broadcastsKillings by neighbors, former friends, coworkers, or even relative through marriage.Unborn children should be ripped from the wombs of dead Tutsi women who are pregnant -UnknownHuge role in genocideHutus blamed Tutsis for killing Hutu president.Checking I.D. cards or looking at different features of their body.All Tutsis were alike & they were the enemiesTime of opportunity to take land, money, and goods from Tutsis.Tutsis nickname: cockroachesEthnicitys Role In GenocideTHE CEASELasted for hundred days & ended on July 1994About a million Tutsis and moderate Hutus were murdered.Rebel forces of RPF forced killers out of RwandaOverthrew genocidal government.Many Hutus left Rwanda being scared of prosecution.Many Rwandans fled to refugee campsToday, the president of Rwanda is Paul Kagame, who was the leader of the RPF army that helped stop the genocide.Introduced into Rwanda in 1933 by the Belgian colonial government Given to identify individuals from each ethnic group in their countryUsed to shape, define, and perpetuate ethnic identity and backgroundSeparation of three groups: Hutus, Tutsis, TwasID cards made killings in Rwanda much fasterWere like death certificatesPerson was often asked to see ID card to identify as Hutu or TutsiBackground of the Rwanda Identification CardsThe use of ethnicity by the Hutus made the genocide a reality Numerous changes since 1994 genocide:New and improved ID cards1997; new government has eliminated group classifications from their ID cards.Added administrative entities (city and province).Light blue color and written in French and Kinyarwanda languages.All information on ID cards include more comprehensive information about the bearer.What has this done?Helped to create a more uniformed country and has given rights to each individual of RwandaThe Cleansing of Ethic GroupsSocial and ethnic problems AU PAU!Present government has committed their country to be a non-ethnic society where all individuals are equal.Want to include everyone in the running of the countryRespecting the rights of all citizensKillers??? NO MORE!Arresting people involved in genocide became one of the main issues for RPF leaders.Help to ease the tension between Hutus and TutsisAchieving Justice In RwandaGacaca CourtsTraditional systems of community-based adjudication used to prosecute perpetratorsWeekly meetingsUsed to encourage harmony and deal with past crimes of neighborsApril 1995; approximately 7,000 people were arrested for war-related crimes in Rwanda.Presently; about 150,000 Hutus are in jails accused of taking part in genocide.People are still traumatized by the horrors of the war.Live in fear because most killers were their family members, neighbors, or friends.Putting Rwanda Back TogetherNegativity turns positive!Trying to move beyond tribalismRPA (Rwandan Patriotic Army) soldiers (who are Tutsi) caught for retaliation killings and sent to jail, some executed.Grow, Grow, GrowIn 2008, growth in Rwanda reached 11% One of the quickest nations to grow since their economic slump occurred.Applied to be apart of the Commonwealth of Nations in 2007 and 2009 to be free form the French foreign policy.Rebuilding & ReconcilingHundreds and thousands of Hutu refugees have returned to Rwanda from Zaire and Tanzania.Helping to building population and economy in RwandaPresent population: Around 10 million Considered the most densely populated country in Africa.ECONOMY RISINBars and restaurants have re-opened Markets supplied with goods and produceCommerce (trade/exchange) becoming successfulNewspaper publishingRwanda radio on airMoving on to become a country with more equality and respect.No one is suggesting that every peasant who took a machete should be punished. But those who organized the peasants, who told them to hunt Tutsis and Hutus of the political oppositionthe local government officials the soldiers, the politiciansthey must be judged, tried, and punished. African Rights