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- 1. Typical Genocide: The Anfal Campaign (Iraqi Kurdistan) 1988: http://www.gendercide.org/case_anfal.html
- The anti-Kurdish "Anfal" campaign, mounted between February and September 1988 by the Iraqi regime of Saddam Hussein, was both genocidal and gendercidal in nature.
- "Battle-age" men were the primary targets of Anfal, according to Human Rights Watch/Middle East (hereafter, HRW/ME). The organization writes in its bookIraq's Crime of Genocide : "Throughout Iraqi Kurdistan, although women and children vanished in certain clearly defined areas, adult males who were captured disappeared en masse. ... It is apparent that a principal purpose of Anfal was to exterminate all adult males of military service age captured in rural Iraqi Kurdistan" (pp. 96, 170). Only a handful survived the execution squads.
- Your men have gone to hell . - Iraqi soldier to a survivor of the attack on Qaranaw village, Fourth Anfal, May 1988
5. 6. Excavating the skeleton of a Kurdish man killed at Koreme, final Anfal . 7. Temur: survived from the attack interviewed 8. Temur: survived from the attack interviewed
- One such execution left a survivor, a young boy named Taimour Abdullah Ahmad, "the only eyewitness to the mass killing of women and children" ( Iraq's Crime of Genocide , p. 171). His account received extensive attention in the western press, and describes scenes virtually identical to theEinsatzgruppen -style massacres of "battle-aged" males which preceded the killing of women, children, and the elderly from southern Germian.
- According to HRW/ME, "at least fifty thousand rural Kurds ... died in Anfal alone, and very possibly the real figure was twice that number
- "On the basis of extensive interviews in Kurdistan and perusal of extant Iraqi documents, Shoresh Resoul, a meticulous Kurdish researcher ... conservatively estimated that 'between 60,000 and 110,000' died during [al-]Majid's Kurdish mandate," i.e., beginning shortly before Anfal and ending shortly afterwards. (Randal,After Such Knowledge ... , p. 214.)
- Other Kurdish estimates are even higher. "When Kurdish leaders met with Iraqi government officials in the wake of the spring 1991 uprising, they raised the question of the Anfal dead and mentioned a figure of 182,000 -- a rough extrapolation based on the number of destroyed villages
- .Ali Hassan al-Majid reportedly jumped to his feet in a rage when the discussion took this turn. 'What is this exaggerated figure of 182,000?' he is said to have asked. 'It couldn't have been more than 100,000' -- as if this somehow mitigated the catastrophe that he and his subordinates had visited on the Iraqi Kurds." ( Iraq's Crime of Genocide , pp. 14, 230.)
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