The Skeletal System: Intro and Axial - Biology Building Skeletal System: Intro and Axial Structure, ... •Movement due to attached skeletal ... Axial skeleton supports and protects

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<ul><li><p>The Skeletal System: Intro </p><p>and AxialStructure, Function, and </p><p>Diseases </p></li><li><p>Is this the correct anatomical position?</p></li><li><p>The Skeletal System</p><p>Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings</p><p> Parts of the skeletal systemBones (skeleton)</p><p> Joints</p><p>Cartilages</p><p> Ligaments (bone to bone)</p><p> Tendon bone to muscle)</p><p> Divided into two divisionsAxial skeleton- skull, spinal columnAppendicular skeleton limbs and girdle</p></li><li><p>Functions of Bones</p><p>Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings</p><p> Support of the body</p><p> Protection of soft organs</p><p> Movement due to attached skeletal muscles</p><p> Storage of minerals and fats</p><p> Blood cell formation</p></li><li><p>Bones of the Human Body</p><p>Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings</p><p> The skeleton has 206 bones Two basic types of bone tissue</p><p>Compact bone Homogeneous</p><p>Spongy bone Small needle-like </p><p>pieces of bone</p><p> Many open spacesFigure 5.2b</p></li><li><p>Bones are classified by their shape:</p><p>1.Long- bones are longer than they are wide (arms, legs)</p><p>2.Short- usually square in shape, cube like (wrist, ankle)</p><p>3.Flat- flat , curved (skull, Sternum)</p><p>4.Irregular- odd shapes (vertebrae, pelvis) </p></li><li><p>Classification of Bones on the Basis of Shape</p><p>Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings</p><p>Figure 5.1</p></li><li><p>Types of Bone Cells</p><p>Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings</p><p> Osteocytes Mature bone cells</p><p> Osteoblasts Bone-forming cells</p><p> Osteoclasts Bone-destroying cells Break down bone matrix for remodeling and </p><p>release of calcium</p><p> Bone remodeling is a process by both osteoblasts and osteoclasts</p></li><li><p>Axial skeleton supports and protects organs of head, neck and trunkAxial skeleton: skull - cranium and facial bones) hyoid bone - anchors tongue and </p><p>muscles. associated with swallowing</p><p> vertebral column - vertebrae and disks</p><p> bony thorax - ribs and sternum</p></li><li><p>The Axial Skeleton</p><p>Slide 5 20a</p><p>Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings</p><p> Forms the longitudinal part of the body</p><p> Divided into three partsSkullVertebral ColumnRib Cage</p></li><li><p>The Axial Skeleton</p><p>Slide 5 20b</p><p>Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings</p><p>Figure 5.6</p></li><li><p>The Skull</p><p>8 sutured bones in craniumFacial bones: </p><p>13 sutured bones 1 mandible</p><p>Craniumencases brainattachments for musclessinuses</p></li><li><p>Bones of the Skull</p><p>Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings</p><p>Figure 5.11</p></li><li><p>Allows forgrowth </p></li><li><p>Paranasal Sinuses</p><p>Slide 5 25a</p><p>Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings</p><p> Hollow portions of bones surrounding the nasal cavity</p><p>Figure 5.10</p></li><li><p>The Hyoid Bone</p><p>Slide 5.26Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings</p><p> The only bone that does not articulate with another bone</p><p> Serves as a moveable base for the tongue, and other muscle attachments</p><p>Figure 5.12</p></li><li><p>The Vertebral Column</p><p>Slide 5.28Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings</p><p> Vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs made of cartilage</p><p> The spine has a normal S curvature</p><p> Each vertebrae is given a name according to its location Figure 5.14</p></li><li><p>Thoracic cageribsthoracic </p><p>Vertebraesternumcostal cartilages</p><p>True ribs are directly attached to the sternum(first seven pairs)Three false ribs are joined to the 7th ribTwo pairs of floating ribs</p></li><li><p>Changes in the Human Skeleton</p><p>Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings</p><p> In embryos, the skeleton is primarily hyaline cartilage</p><p> During development, much of this cartilage is replaced by bone</p><p> Cartilage remains in isolated areas</p><p>Bridge of the nose</p><p>Parts of ribs</p><p> Joints </p></li><li><p>Bone Fractures</p><p>Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings</p><p> A break in a bone Types of bone fractures</p><p> Closed (simple) fracture break that does not penetrate the skin</p><p> Open (compound) fracture broken bone penetrates through the skin </p><p> Greenstick- frays, hard to repair, breaks like a green twig</p><p> Bone fractures are treated by reduction and immobilization Realignment of the bone</p></li><li><p>Appendicular skeleton includes bones of limbs and </p><p>bones that anchor them to the axial skeletonAppendicular skeleton:</p><p>pectoral girdle (clavicle, scapula)</p><p>upper limbs (arms)pelvic girdle (sacrum, coccyx)lower limbs (legs)</p><p>Articulation- where joints meet, connect, and are formed.</p></li><li><p>JointsA joint, or articulation, is the place where </p><p>two bones come together.</p><p> Fibrous- Immovable:connect bones, no movement. (skull and pelvis). </p><p> Cartilaginous- slightly movable, bones are attached by cartilage, a little movement (spine or ribs).</p><p> Synovial- freely movable, much more movement than cartilaginous joints. Cavities between bones are filled with synovial fluid. This fluid helps lubricate and protect the bones. </p><p>http://www.shockfamily.net/skeleton/RIBS.MOV</p></li><li><p>The Synovial Joint</p><p>Slide 5.51Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings</p><p>Figure 5.28</p></li><li><p>Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape</p><p>Slide 5 52a</p><p>Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings</p><p>Figure 5.29ac</p></li><li><p>Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape</p><p>Slide 5 52b</p><p>Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings</p><p>Figure 5.29df</p></li><li><p>Types of JointsHinge- A hinge joint allows extension </p><p>and retraction of an appendage. (Elbow, Knee)</p></li><li><p>Ball and Socket- A ball and socket joint allows for radial movement in almost any direction. They are found in the hips and shoulders. (Hip, Shoulder)</p></li><li><p>Gliding- In a gliding or plane joint bones slide past each other. Mid-carpal and mid-tarsal joints are gliding joints. (Hands, Feet)</p></li><li><p>Saddle- This type of joint occurs when the touching surfaces of two bones have both concave and convex regions with the shapes of the two bones complementing one other and allowing a wide range of movement. (Thumb)</p><p>Slide Number 1Is this the correct anatomical position?Slide Number 3Slide Number 4Slide Number 5 Slide Number 7Slide Number 8Slide Number 9Slide Number 10Slide Number 11Slide Number 12Slide Number 13Slide Number 14Slide Number 15Slide Number 16Slide Number 17Slide Number 18Slide Number 19Slide Number 20Slide Number 21Slide Number 22Slide Number 23Slide Number 24Slide Number 25Slide Number 26JointsSlide Number 28Slide Number 29Slide Number 30Types of JointsSlide Number 32Slide Number 33Slide Number 34</p></li></ul>

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