Skeletal System - Cerritos of Conditioning...Divisions of the Skeletal System Axial skeleton-80 ...…

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<ul><li><p>1</p><p>Skeletal System</p><p>Approximate 206 bones67% Mineral33% Organic Matter</p><p>MineralsCalciumPhosphorusSodiumPotassiumCitrateMagnesiumChorine</p><p>Skeletal System Functions</p><p>Support. Bone is hard and rigid; cartilage is flexible yet strong. Cartilage in nose, external ear, thoracic cage and trachea. Ligaments- bone to boneProtection. Skull around brain; ribs, sternum, vertebrae protect organs of thoracic cavityMovement. Produced by muscles on bones, via tendons. Ligaments allow some movement between bones but prevent excessive movementStorage. Ca and P. Stored then released as needed. Fat stored in marrow cavitiesBlood cell production. Bone marrow that gives rise to blood cells and platelets</p><p>Divisions of the Skeletal System</p><p>Axial skeleton-80*Bones of Longitudinal </p><p>axisRibsBreastboneHyoidSkullSpine </p></li><li><p>2</p><p>Appendicular Skeleton</p><p>Bones of the appendagesUpper &amp; Lower extremities (limbs)Bones of the girdles</p><p>-Connect to axial skeletonAbout 126 bones</p><p>Bone Shapes</p><p>Long</p><p>Ex. Upper and lower limbs</p><p>Short</p><p>Ex. Carpals and tarsalsFlat</p><p>Ex. Ribs, sternum, skull, scapulae</p><p>Irregular</p><p>Ex. Vertebrae, facial</p><p>Chapter 8Joints of the Skeletal System</p><p> Articulations Functional junctions between bones Bind parts of skeletal system together Make bone growth possible Permit parts of the skeleton to change shape during childbirth Enable body to move in response to skeletal muscle contraction</p></li><li><p>3</p><p>Classification of Joints</p><p> Fibrous Joints dense connective tissues connect bones between bones in close contact</p><p> Cartilaginous Joints hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage connect bones</p><p> Synovial Joints most complex allow free movement</p><p> synarthrotic immovable</p><p> amphiarthrotic slightly movable</p><p> diarthrotic freely movable</p><p>Fibrous Joints</p><p>3 Types Syndesmosis Suture Gomphosis</p><p>Syndesmosisa sheet or bundle of fibrous tissue connects bones amphiarthrotic lies between tibia and fibula</p><p>Fibrous Joints</p><p>Suture between flat bones synarthrotic thin layer of connective tissue connects bones</p><p>Gomphosis cone-shaped bony process in a socket tooth in jawbone synarthrotic</p></li><li><p>4</p><p>Cartilaginous Joints</p><p>2 Types Synchondrosis Symphysis</p><p>Synchondrosis bands of hyaline cartilage unite bones epiphyseal plate (temporary) between manubrium and first rib synarthrotic</p><p>Cartilaginous Joints</p><p>Symphysis pad of fibrocartilage between bones pubis symphysis joint between bodies of adjacent vertebrae amphiarthrotic</p><p>Synovial Joints</p><p> diarthrotic joint cavity synovial fluid joint capsule synovial membrane bursae</p></li><li><p>5</p><p>Area where to bones meetParts: </p><p>Cartilagesynovial fluidLigamentssynovial membraneBursatendons</p><p>ArticularArticular JointJoint</p><p>LigamentLigamentConnects bones togetherFibrous connective tissueAllows bones to move but not separate</p><p>CartilageCartilage</p><p>Found on surface of end (epiphysis) of boneCushioning materialShock absorber</p></li><li><p>6</p><p>SynovialSynovial JointsJoints</p><p>Synovial MembraneMembraneProduces synovial fluid</p><p>SynovialSynovial FluidFluidLubricates to reduce friction on bone surface</p><p>BursaBursaFluid filled sacCushion</p><p>Found in shoulder &amp; knee</p><p>TendonTendon</p><p>Connects muscle to bone</p></li><li><p>7</p></li><li><p>8</p><p>Types of Synovial Joints</p><p>Ball-and-Socket Joint hip shoulder</p><p>Condyloid Joint between metacarpals and phalanges</p><p>Hinge JointHinge Joint</p><p>ElbowKneeRestrictedmovement</p><p>Bend only in one direction</p></li><li><p>9</p><p>Types of Synovial Joints</p><p>Gliding Joint between carpals between tarsals</p><p>Hinge Joint elbow between phalanges</p><p>Types of Synovial Joints</p><p>Pivot Joint between proximal ends of radius and ulna</p><p>Saddle Joint between carpal and metacarpal of thumb</p></li><li><p>10</p><p>Types of Joint Movements</p><p> abduction/adduction dorsiflexion/plantarflexion flexion/extension/hyperextension</p><p>Types of Joint Movements</p><p> rotation/circumduction supination/pronation</p><p>Types of Joint Movements</p><p> eversion/inversion protraction/retraction elevation/depression</p></li><li><p>11</p><p>Shoulder Joint</p><p> ball-and-socket head of humerus glenoid cavity of scapula loose joint capsule bursae ligaments prevent displacement very wide range of movement</p><p>Shoulder Joint</p><p>Elbow Joint</p><p> hinge joint trochlea of humerus trochlear notch of ulna</p><p> gliding joint capitulum of humerus head of radius</p><p> flexion and extension many reinforcing ligaments stable joint</p></li><li><p>12</p><p>Elbow Joint</p><p>Hip Joint</p><p> ball-and-socket joint head of femur acetabulum of coxa heavy joint capsule many reinforcing ligaments less freedom of movement than shoulder joint</p><p>Hip Joint</p></li><li><p>13</p><p>Knee Joint</p><p> largest joint most complex medial and lateral condyles of distal end of femur medial and lateral condyles of proximal end of tibia femur articulates anteriorly with patella modified hinge joint flexion/extension/little rotation strengthened by many ligaments and tendons menisci separate femur and tibia bursae</p><p>Knee Joint</p><p>Life-Span Changes</p><p> Joint stiffness is an early sign of agingFibrous joints first to change; can strengthen over a lifetime Changes in symphysis joints of vertebral column diminish flexibility and decrease height Synovial joints lose elasticity Disuse hampers the blood supply Activity and exercise can keep joints functional longer</p></li><li><p>14</p><p>Clinical Application</p><p>Joint DisordersSprains damage to cartilage, ligaments, or tendons associated with joints forceful twisting of joint</p><p>Bursitis inflammation of a bursa overuse of a joint</p><p>Arthritis inflamed, swollen, painful joints</p><p> Rheumatoid Arthritis Osteoarthritis Gout</p></li><li><p>This document was created with Win2PDF available at http://www.win2pdf.com.The unregistered version of Win2PDF is for evaluation or non-commercial use only.This page will not be added after purchasing Win2PDF.</p>http://www.win2pdf.com</li></ul>

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