Skeletal tissue and axial skeletal exam

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<ul><li> 1. Skeletal Tissue and Axial Skeletal ExamMultiple ChoiceIdentify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.____1. A fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the: a. epiphysis. b. periosteum. c. diaphysis. d. articular cartilage.____2. Endosteum can be found: a. lining the medullary cavity. b. covering bones. c. at articular surfaces. d. lining the epiphysis.____3. The organic matrix of bone consists of: a. collagenous fibers. b. protein. c. polysaccharides. d. all of the above.____4. In bone formation, the cells that produce the organic matrix are the: a. osteoblasts. b. osteocytes. c. osteoclasts. d. chondrocytes.____5. The cells responsible for active erosion of bone minerals are called: a. osteocytes. c. osteoblasts. b. osteoclasts.d. osteomorphytes.____6. Which of the following is not one of the primary functions performed by bones? a. mineral storagec. hormonal production b. protection d. hematopoiesis____7. The cell organelles that synthesize organic matrix substances in bone formation are: a. mitochondria and Golgi apparatus. b. ribosomes and Golgi apparatus. c. endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes. d. endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus.____8. The osteon, or haversian, system: a. delivers nutrients to and removes waste products from bone cells. b. produces yellow marrow. c. resists stress. d. erodes bone.____9. In intramembranous ossification, the process of appositional growth refers to the: a. development of a core layer of spongy bone. b. development of compact bone in long bones. c. addition of an outside layer of osseous tissue on flat bones.</li></ul><p> 2. d. lengthening of long bone.____ 10. Hematopoiesis is carried out in the: a. osteoclasts.c. yellow bone marrow. b. osteocytes. d. red bone marrow.____ 11. The primary ossification center of a long bone is located: a. at the midpoint of the diaphysis.c. in the medullary cavity. b. in the epiphysis.d. at the epiphyseal cartilage.____ 12. The major purpose of the epiphyseal plate is: a. mending of fractures.c. providing strength in long bones. b. enlarging of epiphyses.d. lengthening long bones.____ 13. The first step to heal a fracture is: a. the formation of specialized callus. b. the formation of a fracture hematoma. c. proper alignment of the fracture. d. the formation of a collar of normal bone covering the broken ends.____ 14. Normally, bone loss will begin to exceed bone gain between the ages of: a. 20 and 25 years.c. 30 and 35 years. b. 25 and 30 years.d. 35 and 40 years.____ 15. In bone growth, the medullary cavity is enlarged because of the activity of: a. osteoclasts. c. osteoblasts. b. osteocytes.d. chondrocytes.____ 16. The most abundant type of cartilage is: a. hyaline. b. elastic. c. fibrocartilage. d. all three types are present in approximately equal amounts.____ 17. The form of the external ear is due to: a. fibrocartilage. c. osseous tissue. b. elastic cartilage.d. hyaline cartilage.____ 18. In young children, vitamin A deficiency will: a. cause an increase in the thickness of epiphyseal plates in the growing long bones. b. cause a decrease in the thickness of epiphyseal plates in the growing long bones. c. produce the same alterations of the epiphyseal plate as vitamin D deficiency does. d. have no effect on the epiphyseal plate, but will cause an increase in bone marrowproduction.____ 19. Which of these substances is not part of the inorganic matrix of bone? a. magnesium c. sodium b. collagend. fluoride____ 20. As the activity of osteoblasts increases,: a. the level of calcium in the blood increases. b. the amount of calcium in bone increases. c. the level of calcium in the blood decreases. d. B and C.____ 21. As the activity of osteoclasts increases,: 3. a. the level of calcium in the blood increases. b. the amount of calcium in the bone increases. c. the level of calcium in the blood decreases. d. B and C.____ 22. Sesamoid bones are classified as: a. long bones.c. irregular bones. b. short bones. d. flat bones.____ 23. Which of the following is not a characteristic of the diaphysis? a. provides a bulbous shape for attachment of muscle b. hollow c. composed of compact bone d. all of the above____ 24. Which of the following is not a characteristic of the epiphyses? a. They are made of spongy bone. b. They are cylindrical in shape. c. They contain red bone marrow. d. All of the above are characteristics of the epiphyses.____ 25. Which of the following is not dependent on the proper amount of calcium ions in the blood? a. blood clotting c. contraction of cardiac muscle b. transmission of nerve impulses d. all of the above____ 26. The parathyroid hormone causes all of the following except: a. increase of the absorption of calcium by the kidney. b. stimulation of the activity of osteoblasts. c. stimulation of the activity of osteoclasts. d. stimulation of vitamin D synthesis.____ 27. Which of the following is true of bone, but not of cartilage? a. It is classified as a connective tissue. c. Canals link blood vessels and cells. b. It has collagen fibers in its matrix.d. Cells lie in lacunae.____ 28. Which of the following is not made of hyaline cartilage? a. external ear c. cartilage connecting the ribs andsternum b. cartilage rings in the trachea d. cartilage in the tip of the nose____ 29. Which of the following is not made of elastic cartilage? a. external ear c. epiglottis b. tip of the nosed. eustachian tubes____ 30. Which is not a part of the axial skeleton? a. ribc. mandible b. vertebral column d. clavicle____ 31. The axial skeleton consists of: a. 60 bones.c. 74 bones. b. 68 bones.d. 80 bones.____ 32. The term sinus, as it relates to bone markings, may be defined as a: a. raised area or projection. c. tubelike opening or channel. b. cavity within a bone.d. groove or elongated depression. 4. ____ 33. Which bone is a part of the axial skeleton? a. ribc. radius b. clavicle d. coxal bones____ 34. Which suture is between the occipital and parietal bones? a. squamousc. sagittal b. lambdoidald. coronal____ 35. Mastoiditis is the inflammation of a sinus within the ______ bone(s). a. maxillae c. sphenoid b. frontald. temporal____ 36. Which skull bone articulates with the first vertebra? a. temporalc. sphenoid b. occipital d. ethmoid____ 37. The upper parts of the nasal septum and the side walls of the nasal cavity are formed by the ______ bone(s). a. nasalc. ethmoid b. sphenoid d. maxillae____ 38. Which of the following is a true statement? a. The ethmoid is a flat bone that lies anterior to the sphenoid. b. The ethmoid is an irregular bone that lies posterior to the sphenoid, but anterior tothe nasal bones. c. The ethmoid is an irregular bone that lies anterior to the sphenoid, but posterior tothe nasal bones. d. The ethmoid is a short bone that lies anterior to the nasal bones.____ 39. Which of the following bones does not articulate with the maxillae? a. palatine c. inferior concha b. mandible d. zygomatic____ 40. If the cribriform plate is damaged, there is a chance of: a. infectious materials passing from the ear to the brain. b. food passing from the mouth into the nose. c. difficulty chewing. d. infectious materials passing from the nose to the brain.____ 41. A fontanel can best be described as a(n): a. bone in the skull. c. articulation between two skull bones. b. unossified area in the infants skull. d. small opening.____ 42. The upper part of the sternum is called the: a. costal cartilage.c. body. b. xiphoid process. d. manubrium.____ 43. The skeletal framework of the neck consists of: a. lumbar vertebrae.c. sacral vertebrae. b. thoracic vertebrae.d. cervical vertebrae.____ 44. The number of thoracic vertebrae is: a. 5. c. 10. b. 7. d. 12.____ 45. All vertebrae, except the sacrum and coccyx, have a central opening called the: 5. a. spinous process.c. dens. b. vertebral foramen.d. transverse process.____ 46. The thoracic cage (the thorax) includes all of the following bones except: a. the scapula.c. the vertebral column. b. 12 pairs of ribs. d. the sternum.____ 47. The laymans name for the clavicle is the: a. collar bone.c. shinbone. b. kneecap.d. elbow.____ 48. The trochlea and capitulum can be described as: a. markings on the scapula.c. distal portions of the humerus. b. parts of the proximal end of the ulna. d. metacarpal bones.____ 49. A hunchback appearance of the thoracic region is probably due to: a. lordosis.c. kyphosis. b. scoliosis. d. slipped disks.____ 50. Lateral curvature of the spine is called: a. scoliosis.c. kyphosis. b. lordosis. d. convexity.____ 51. All of the following are clinical signs and symptoms of a fracture except: a. soft tissue edema. c. false motion. b. realignment of the bone. d. pain.____ 52. Which of the following bones is not a part of the face? a. frontalc. lacrimal b. zygomaticd. maxilla____ 53. Which of the following bones do not contain paranasal sinuses? a. frontalc. zygomatic b. maxillad. sphenoid____ 54. The occipital bone forms which number of joints with other bones? a. 1c. 3 b. 2d. 4____ 55. The largest of the paranasal sinuses is found in this bone. a. sphenoidc. ethmoid b. maxilla d. frontal____ 56. Another name for the zygomatic bone is the: a. malar. c. ethmoid. b. sphenoid.d. sesamoid.____ 57. Going from superior to inferior, the sequence of the vertebral column is: a. sacral, coccyx, thoracic, lumbar, and cervical. b. coccyx, sacral lumbar, thoracic, and cervical. c. cervical, lumbar, thoracic, sacral, and coccyx. d. cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccyx.____ 58. The structure that furnishes the axis for the rotation of the head from side to side is the: a. dens. c. vertebral foramen. b. spinous process.d. transverse process. 6. True/FalseIndicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false.____ 59. The epiphyses consist mostly of compact bone, usually with yellow marrow in the center.____ 60. Bone tissue is an osseous tissue.____ 61. Bone tissue consists mostly of cells, dispersed in a limited amount of matrix.____ 62. The periosteum is a dense, white, fibrous membrane that covers bone except at joint surfaces.____ 63. Flat bones differ from short bones in that flat bones have an inner portion of cancellous bonecovered on the outside with compact bone.____ 64. Hydroxyapatite consists of highly specialized chemical crystals of calcium and phosphate.____ 65. The tensile strength of bone is nearly equal to that of cast iron, but much lighter.____ 66. The hardness of bone is related to its two major mineral components, calcium and iron.____ 67. Haversian systems are found only in compact bone.____ 68. The strength of bone is increased by the arrangement of trabeculae.____ 69. Haversian systems are found only in cancellous bone.____ 70. Osteoclasts are nondividing osteoblasts that have become surrounded by matrix and lie withinlacunae.____ 71. In an infants or childs body, virtually all of the bones contain yellow marrow.____ 72. Osteogenesis involves the combined action of osteoblasts and osteoclasts.____ 73. The homeostasis of blood calcium is maintained by its moving into and out of bone tissue.____ 74. Red marrow is found only in long bones.____ 75. Most bones of the body are formed from cartilage models.____ 76. During childhood and adolescence, ossification and bone resorption occur at equal rates.____ 77. Variations in the amount of ossification and resorption of bone tissue are age dependent.____ 78. Throughout life, ossification and resorption continue to occur concurrently.____ 79. Both cartilage and bone contain living cells and are vascular tissues.____ 80. A major difference between bone tissue and cartilage is the make-up of the matrix.____ 81. The type of cartilage growth most prevalent in childhood and early adolescence is interstitial orendogenous growth.____ 82. Appositional growth of cartilage occurs when chondrocytes in the deep layer of the perichondriumbegin to divide and secrete additional matrix.____ 83. The occurrence of osteoporosis seems to be related to age, gender, race, and sex hormones.____ 84. Osteoporosis occurs more frequently in elderly white women than in males or black women.____ 85. Interstitial growth of cartilage most often occurs during adulthood. 7. ____ 86. In young children, vitamin A deficiency can cause a decrease in the thickness of epiphyseal plates in the growing long bones.____ 87. Myeloid tissue is another name for bone marrow.____ 88. Bones are the organs of the skeletal system.____ 89. Another name for compact bone is cancellous bone.____ 90. Because each bone has a specific function, it is made of either all compact or all spongy bone.____ 91. Part of the bone matrix is made of inorganic substances.____ 92. A regular x-ray will detect osteoporosis, but only after more than 50% of the bone matrix is lost.____ 93. Estrogen and calcitonin are treatments for osteoporosis.____ 94. An important part of the bone matrix is an amorphous mixture of protein and polysaccharide called ground substance.____ 95. Chondroitin sulfate is an important compound in ground substance.____ 96. The components of the inorganic matrix add both strength and resilience to bone.____ 97. The terms haversian system and osteon are interchangeable.____ 98. Lamellae and lacunae are interchangeable terms.____ 99. Both compact and spongy, or cancellous, bone havecanaliculi.____ 100. The layer of cancellous bone between two layers of compact bone is called dipole.____ 101. Without the canaliculi, the bone cells in compact would die of starvation and lack of oxygen.____ 102. Osteoblasts secrete the inorganic salts that make up the structure of bone.____ 103. Osteoclasts are large multinucleate cells that erode bone minerals.____ 104. Mature, nondividing osteoclasts that are surrounded in bone matrix are now called osteocytes.____ 105. Parathyroid hormone is released when blood calcium levels are too high.____ 106. Parathyroid hormone and calcitonin are of equal importance in regulating the calcium level of the blood.____ 107. Calcitonin is released when the blood calcium levels are too high.____ 108. Both membrane and endochondral bone grow by interior expansion.____ 109. Initially, endochondral bone grows from the epiphyses toward the diaphysis.____ 110. Because bone is connective tissue, a fractured bone will never heal and be as strong as before the fracture.____ 111. The adult skeleton consists of 206 separate bones.____ 112. The term margin, as it relates to bone markings, means a tubelike opening or channel.____ 113. The lacrimal bones contain openings for the tear ducts. 8. ____ 114. The vomer forms part of the hard palate.____ 115. Fontanels are immovable joints between skull bones.____ 116. The hyoid is unique in that it is the only bone in the body that does not form a joint with any other bone.____ 117. The five sacral vertebrae remain separate until about 40 years of age; at that point they fuse to form one wedge-shaped bone.____ 118. Damage to the cribriform plate may also inj...</p>