Axial Skeleton Lab Guide - Lab COMPONENTS The skeletal system is comprised of 2 subdivisions: axial and appendicular. AXIAL SKELETON Skull: cranial and facial bones

Download Axial Skeleton Lab Guide -   Lab   COMPONENTS The skeletal system is comprised of 2 subdivisions: axial and appendicular. AXIAL SKELETON Skull: cranial and facial bones

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<ul><li><p> Axial Skeleton </p><p> BONE TERMINOLOGY FEATURES </p><p> Tuberosity Rounded area on bone often roughened for muscle attachment. </p><p> Tubercle Rounded projection on bone. This is called a tuberosity on the femur. </p><p> Crest Ridgeline of bone for muscle attachment. </p><p> Spine Pointed process projecting from bone as a site of muscle attachment. </p><p> Condyle Knob-like rounded projection, often smooth, as a part of a joint. </p><p> Epicondyle Projected area located above a condyle where muscles can attach. </p><p> Ramus Beam of bone. </p><p> Head Enlarged area on a narrow neck. </p><p> Facet Slightly depressed area on bone that articulates with another bone. </p><p> Fossa More pronounced dip on the bone. </p><p> Meatus Tunnel-like passageway. </p><p> Foramen Large opening though bone or bony features. </p><p> Fissure Narrow opening like a crack. </p></li><li><p> SKELETAL COMPONENTS The skeletal system is comprised of 2 subdivisions: axial and appendicular. AXIAL SKELETON </p><p>Skull: cranial and facial bones Vertebral Column: Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacrum, Coccyx Rib Cage: True, False, Floating Ribs and Sternum </p><p> APPENDICULAR SKELETON </p><p>Upper and Lower Limbs Attachment girdles: pelvic and pectoral girdles </p><p> Bones and features are written/spoken as: Transverse process of the 5th thoracic vertebra. Ischial tuberosity of the right ischium. Mastoid process of the left temporal bone. </p><p>f COMPONENTS OF AXIAL SKELETON FACIAL BONES </p><p> Mandible jaw bone - Ramus wide vertical beam of bone on the posterior aspect of the body - Mandibular condyle place where jaw articulates with temporal bone - Angle posterior corner of jaw - Mandibular notch U shaped area anterior to mandibular condyle - Body lateral and anterior portion of chin - Mental Foramen holes on the chin - Alveolar margin place where teeth go - Mandibular foramen hole inside the ramus </p><p> Maxillae upper jaw and hard palate </p><p>- Palatine process anterior part of hard palate - Alveolar margin where sockets for teeth are </p><p> Palatine posterior part of hard palate Nasal bridge of nose Vomer medial division of nasal cavity, divides nose R/LL </p><p> Lacrimal medial wall of orbit </p><p>- Lacrimal fossa tears to enter nasal </p><p> Zygomatic cheek bone o Temporal process projects toward temporal bone </p></li><li><p> CRANIUM </p><p> Sutures - Coronal suture - Sagittal suture - Squamous suture - Lambdoid suture - Occipitomastoid suture </p><p> Frontal Bone forehead and eyebrow ridge </p><p> Parietal Bones (2) posterior to frontal bone </p><p> Temporal Bones (2) deep to the ears (tempo) </p><p>- Zygomatic Process posterior aspect of cheekbones - Styloid Process pointy process inferior to external auditory meatus - External auditory canal tunnel for hearing - Mandibular fossa dipped in area for mandible to hinge (TMJ) - Carotid Canal opening for internal carotid artery </p><p> Occipital Bone back and base of head, inferior to the parietal bones </p><p>- Foramen magnum massive hole at the bottom of skull for spinal cord - Occipital condyles rounded projections that rest on the first cervical vertebra - External occipital protuberance bump on the back of the head </p><p> Ethmoid Bone inside skull, roof of the nasal cavity </p><p>- Crista galli looks like a sharks fin - Cribriform plate has holes like a </p><p>cribbage board - Superior and middle nasal conchae </p><p>delicate shelves within the nasal cavity </p><p> Sphenoid Bone inside skull, forming the anterior-middle section of the floor </p><p>- Optic foramina (2) where optic nerves enter skull from eye </p><p>- Sella turcica Turkish saddle to contain (seat) the pituitary gland </p></li><li><p> VERTEBRAL COLUMN </p><p> Cervical Vertebrae (7) vertebrae of the neck - Atlas yes bone and holds up skull - Axis - no - *Transverse foramen holes for vertebral </p><p>arteries </p><p> Thoracic Vertebrae (12) vertebrae that attach to ribs - *Costal facet surface where ribs articulate, </p><p>slight depression </p><p> Lumbar Vertebrae (5) vertebrae of lower back - *Body (huge) massive mass of bone to support </p><p>torso and upper body </p><p> Sacrum (5 fused) posterior aspect of pelvis </p><p> Coccyx (4 fused) tail bone </p><p>Vertebra Features (found on all vertebra) - Body large anterior surface for bearing </p><p>weight - Vertebral Foramen prominent hole for spinal </p><p>cord - Transverse Processes lateral beams of bone - Spinous Process posterior projection of bone - Intervertebral Foramen between adjacent </p><p>vertebrae where nerves leave spinal cord - Superior and inferior articulating processes </p><p>protrusions of bone above and below </p><p>Sacrum </p><p>Coccyx </p><p>Thoracic Vertebrae </p><p>Lumbar Vertebrae </p><p>Cervical Vertebrae </p></li><li><p> THORAX </p><p> Sternum breast bone, attachment for true ribs and clavicle - Manubrium looks like the knot of a tie - Body main portion - Xiphoid process small inferior tip from body, </p><p>watch out for this when doing CPR </p><p> True ribs (7) ribs that have direct attachment from thoracic vertebrae to sternum </p><p> False ribs (3) ribs that have an indirect attachment to sternum via costal cartilage </p><p> Floating ribs (2) no attachment to sternum, only attached at thoracic vertebrae </p><p>superior</p><p>inferior</p><p>Sternal border</p><p>Vertebral attachment </p><p>1 </p><p>2 </p><p>4 </p><p>3 </p><p>5 </p><p>6 7 1 </p><p>2 3 </p><p>false</p></li><li><p>Appendicular Girdles APPENDICULAR GIRDLES PECTORAL GIRDLE </p><p> Clavicle (2) collar bone - Sternal end end that articulates with the sternum - Acromial end end that articulates with the scapula </p><p> Scapula (2) shoulder blade - Glenoid cavity (fossa) surface or cup for shoulder joint - Acromion (Acromial process) posterior lateral process, largest bony feature - Coracoid process anterior lateral process, smaller than acromial process - Spine prominent horizontal bony feature on posterior aspect - Inferior angle inferior point or triangle - Subscapular fossa anterior surface (underneath scapula) - Medial border edge of scapula that faces toward the vertebral column - Lateral border edge of scapula that is under the glenoid cavity </p><p>AnteriorPosterior</p><p>Sternal end </p><p>Acromial end</p></li><li><p> PELVIC GIRDLE </p><p> Sacrum Coccyx Ossa Coxae (2) made of 3 separate bones (although it looks like a single bone) </p><p> Ossa Coxae Main feature of the ossa coxae (all 3 bones together) is the Acetabulum or hip socket. </p><p> Ischium most inferior portion, you are sitting on it! - Ischial tuberosity roughened part that you sit </p><p>on, site of muscle attachment - Lesser sciatic notch - Ischial spine bump below greater sciatic notch - Ischial ramus beam of bone, anterior </p><p> Ilium the hip or flared out bowl of pelvis </p><p>- Iliac fossa basin or scooped out medial aspect - Iliac crest superior ridgeline where hands rest </p><p>on your hips - Greater sciatic notch - Anterior superior iliac spine - Anterior inferior iliac spine - Posterior superior iliac spine - Posterior inferior iliac spine </p><p> Pubis anterior portion of ossa coxae </p><p>- Superior ramus beam of bone extending posterior - Inferior ramus beam of bone extending down </p><p>AnteriorPosterior </p><p>Pubis</p><p>Ilium </p><p>Ischium </p></li><li><p>Appendicular Skeleton - Appendages UPPER EXTREMITY ARM </p><p> Humerus upper arm, technically the arm - Head smooth rounded proximal surface - Anatomical neck ridge behind smooth head - Greater tubercle large rough bump lateral to head - Lesser tubercle smaller rough bump lateral to head - Intertubecular (bicipital) groove between tubercles - Deltoid tuberosity roughened rise along the shaft - Medial epicondyle medial, process, above joint - Lateral epicondyle lateral bump above joint - Trochlea looks like a spool of thread - Capitulum round, lateral to the trochlea - Olecranon fossa posterior distal dip </p><p> FOREARM </p><p> Ulna forearm bone on the medial (pinky) side - Olecranon process hook on proximal end, elbow - Coronoid process anterior proximal end, lower part of wrench - Trochlear notch anterior-facing scooped out surface - Radial notch lateral-facing scooped out surface - Styloid Process pointy feature at the most distal portion </p><p> Radius forearm bone on the lateral (thumb) side </p><p>- Head looks like a golf tee - Radial tuberosity proximal medial end - Ulnar notch distal end, tiny scooped out surface - Styloid process pointy feature at the most distal portion </p><p> Carpals (8) wrist </p><p>- Scaphoid articulates with radius - Lunate articulates with ulna - Triquetral distal to lunate (between lunate &amp; hamate) - Pisiform pointy, most medial, on top of triquetral - Trapezium most lateral, at base of thumb - Trapezoid medial to trapezium - Capitate between trapezoid and hamate - Hamate medial bone next to metacarpals </p><p> Metacarpals (5) hand </p><p> Phalanges (14) fingers </p></li><li><p> LOWER EXTREMITY </p><p> Femur thigh bone - Head spherical area on proximal end - Neck skinny part on proximal end - Greater trochanter large bump lateral to head - Lesser trochanter bump inferior, posterior to head - Gluteal tuberosity roughened area posterior diaphysis - Medial epicondyle bony bump felt on medial knee - Lateral epicondyle bony bump felt on lateral knee - Medial condyle smooth surface on medial, distal end - Lateral condyle smooth surface on lateral, distal end - Intercondylar fossa (notch) dip between </p><p>condyles on posterior distal aspect Patella sesamoid bone, fulcrum for quadricep muscle, knee cap </p><p> Tibia primary weight bearing bone of the lower leg, shin - Intercondylar eminence point sticking straight up </p><p>at proximal end - Tibial tuberosity roughened area on upper </p><p>anterior part of shin - Medial malleolus medial ankle bump </p><p> Fibula smaller bone lateral to the tibia </p><p>- Lateral malleolus lateral ankle bump - Head rounded proximal end </p><p> Tarsal bones (7) ankle bones </p><p>- Talus articulates with tibia - Calcaneus heel - Cuboid anterior to calcaneus, lateral foot - Navicular anterior to calcaneus, medial foot - Medial cuneiform base of medial metatarsal - Intermediate cuneiform base of second metatarsal - Lateral cuneiform base of third metatarsal </p><p> Metatarsals (5) foot Phalanges (14) toes </p><p>Axial Skeleton Lab GuideAppendicular Skeleton Lab Guide GirdlesAppendicular Skeleton Lab Guide Appendages</p></li></ul>

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