The Beginnings of Buddhist Art

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Buddhist Art

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<p>f</p> <p>California</p> <p>RegionalFacility</p> <p>THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES</p> <p>cv</p> <p>I</p> <p>THE BEGINNINGSOF</p> <p>BUDDHIST ART</p> <p>Primed forA.</p> <p>PAUL GEUTHNERand A.</p> <p>bySucc", Anoers, France.</p> <p>BURDIN.</p> <p> F.</p> <p>GAVLTIER</p> <p>THtBERT,</p> <p>en</p> <p>W</p> <p>tn</p> <p>':'iissxsr:'</p> <p>""</p> <p>&lt; o p </p> <p>DEDICATEDWITH PROFOUND RESPECT AND AFFECTIONATE REGARDTO</p> <p>&gt;</p> <p>M.</p> <p>AUGUSTE BARTHMember of theInstitute:</p> <p>MASTER OF PENETRATING AND CREATIVE CRITICISMIN ALL</p> <p>BRANCHES OF SANSKRIT LEARNING</p> <p>June 1^14.</p> <p>TREFACE</p> <p>To</p> <p>the</p> <p>ratherthe</p> <p>limited circle oj scholars</p> <p>interested in</p> <p>Indian Art and</p> <p>Archeologystudies</p> <p>work of M. Foucher requires no introduction. His numerous devoted to these subjects, and in particular his comprehensive treatise</p> <p>on</p> <p>the</p> <p>Grseco-Buddhist Art of Gandhdra, have fully established his position</p> <p>as a</p> <p>leader in this sphere.</p> <p>A</p> <p>collective</p> <p>edition of his essays</p> <p>and</p> <p>addresses,</p> <p>dispersed in various serial</p> <p>and</p> <p>periodical publications, will therefore be sure</p> <p>of a</p> <p>warm</p> <p>welcome.this</p> <p>The translators do not disavow a hope that</p> <p>English version</p> <p>may</p> <p>appeal</p> <p>not only to those readers, chiefly in the East, to</p> <p>whom</p> <p>the</p> <p>author</p> <p>s original</p> <p>presents a difficulty,</p> <p>but also</p> <p>to</p> <p>a rather wider public in England and which in Paris attendedthe</p> <p>America. Aware of</p> <p>the interest</p> <p>delivery of</p> <p>M.</p> <p>Toucher's lectures, they would regret ijthe</p> <p>charm had</p> <p>so far evaporated in</p> <p>translation as to forfeit</p> <p>a share inespecially</p> <p>the</p> <p>growing appreciation of Oriental</p> <p>art.</p> <p>Buddhism jor veyed is.</p> <p>it is</p> <p>Buddhist monuments that are here sur-</p> <p>of course,</p> <p>a</p> <p>subject of vast extent.</p> <p>We may add</p> <p>that</p> <p>it is</p> <p>a highlystage,</p> <p>organic subject,</p> <p>and</p> <p>that the study of it is still at</p> <p>a specially interesting</p> <p>the stage of discovery.</p> <p>We</p> <p>cannot touch</p> <p>it</p> <p>in</p> <p>any part without evokingmight compareletit to</p> <p>res-</p> <p>ponses from distantcarpet;</p> <p>and unexpected quarters.</p> <p>We</p> <p>a magicGrsco-</p> <p>we fix upon some well</p> <p>defined topic, relating,</p> <p>us say,</p> <p>to the</p> <p>Buddhist school of Gandhdra, and promptly, even without our volition, someanalogy or connection transports usto the</p> <p>Central Asia, China or Japan of</p> <p>many</p> <p>centuries later, even if</p> <p>we have</p> <p>not to continue ourflight to Java in the</p> <p>ninth century or</p> <p>Cambodia</p> <p>in the twelfth. The reader will find in these pagestransitions.to the</p> <p>abundant examples of suchingeniousitself,</p> <p>The first essays reach back by a highlyvery origins of Buddhist art in India</p> <p>and probable hypothesis</p> <p>and</p> <p>give us the measure of</p> <p>its possibilities</p> <p>by what</p> <p>it</p> <p>has achieved at</p> <p>Sdnchi and Barhut. Already wethe Persia of the</p> <p>detect</p> <p>some traces of foreign influence, from</p> <p>Achxmenids. Soon an abrupt irruption of Hellenistic art</p> <p>VIII</p> <p>PREFACEthe the</p> <p>overwhelmstions,</p> <p>native schools,</p> <p>and</p> <p>creates a repertory of religious composito</p> <p>which</p> <p>Buddhist propaganda carriesislands.</p> <p>Central Asia, the</p> <p>Far East,most</p> <p>and</p> <p>the</p> <p>Malay</p> <p>Thus</p> <p>is</p> <p>established,</p> <p>a</p> <p>genetic connection between the</p> <p>religious art of</p> <p>Europe and Asia</p> <p>a double</p> <p>efflorescence</p> <p>from oneclosely</p> <p>root,</p> <p>strikingly exemplified in the case of thethe earliest sculptural type of Christ,</p> <p>Buddha</p> <p>type,</p> <p>which</p> <p>resembles</p> <p>and most curiously</p> <p>in that of the ^Tutethe</p> <p>lary Pair' , found throughout the zuhole Buddhist spherein ancient</p> <p>and at</p> <p>same time</p> <p>Gaul</p> <p>:</p> <p>or shall</p> <p>we claim</p> <p>the highest degree of interest for the case</p> <p>of the</p> <p>'Madonna' group {Essay IX). which</p> <p>ultimately derived, in allthe</p> <p>probability,</p> <p>from ancient Egypt has ended by conqueringto be fruitful, both</p> <p>whole world</p> <p>?</p> <p>Tins splendid generalisation cannot fail</p> <p>on the European:</p> <p>and onwhileit</p> <p>the Asiatic side, in inspiration for future researches</p> <p>in the</p> <p>mean-</p> <p>may</p> <p>be</p> <p>welcomed as reestablishing by</p> <p>the aid</p> <p>of art that feeling of</p> <p>solidaritythe</p> <p>and sympathy between India and Europe,</p> <p>luhich flourished</p> <p>during</p> <p>palmy days of Vedic</p> <p>studies, but latterly has been</p> <p>somewhat discouraged</p> <p>by specialism.</p> <p>Need we remark</p> <p>that,</p> <p>where religious art and archeology are</p> <p>the thenu,</p> <p>literature and literary history cannot be far</p> <p>away</p> <p>?</p> <p>M. Fouchrhas commentedwith which heis</p> <p>upon</p> <p>the predominantly narrative character of the bas-reliefs:</p> <p>dealing</p> <p>it</p> <p>may indeedlife mt'St,</p> <p>be said that, apart from purely decorative figures</p> <p>andthe</p> <p>symbols, the great bulk of them are illustrations of scenes</p> <p>from</p> <p>the life</p> <p>of</p> <p>Buddha. The</p> <p>indeed, be conceived in</p> <p>an ample</p> <p>sense, according to</p> <p>that grandiose Indian conception whereby, asus, the biography is not confined to</p> <p>M.</p> <p>Fouchcr opportunely remindsthe</p> <p>a single span, but coversexistence,</p> <p>whole</p> <p>series</p> <p>of</p> <p>countless births, under all</p> <p>forms of</p> <p>which were necessary for</p> <p>the</p> <p>accumulation of the positive and negative characteristics manifested finally inthe</p> <p>Great Being,</p> <p>the</p> <p>Perfijly Illuminated. The scenes thenfore needvery alphabet</p> <p>to be</p> <p>read,</p> <p>and at</p> <p>first the</p> <p>was wanting. The problem was offar</p> <p>greater obscurity than in the case of what</p> <p>M.</p> <p>Foucher terms</p> <p>the magnificent</p> <p>illustrated bible constituted by the sculptors of the cathedral of Chartres.texts of the</p> <p>Thethosethe</p> <p>Buddhist religion have only gradually been made knownlife</p> <p>:</p> <p>events in the</p> <p>which were specially marked out for illustration</p> <p>twelve acts of Buddha</p> <p>and</p> <p>so forth</p> <p> had</p> <p>not been separated out</p> <p>;</p> <p>the</p> <p>J^taka</p> <p>book, recording the tales of previous births,</p> <p>was</p> <p>not at first available.</p> <p>The</p> <p>names of</p> <p>those scholars to</p> <p>whom we</p> <p>are indebted for the</p> <p>first tentatives at</p> <p>decipherment, such as the inspired, if not impeccable, archxologist. General Sir</p> <p>Alexander Cunningham, Prof. Griinwedel of</p> <p>the Berlin</p> <p>Ethnographicalof the Imperial</p> <p>Museum, Dr. Serge</p> <p>d' Oldenburg,</p> <p>Perpetual Secretary</p> <p>PREFACE^Academy ofSt. Petersburg,</p> <p>IXfound recurring inFoucher' s</p> <p>and</p> <p>others will be</p> <p>M. Fou-</p> <p>chers pages. But undoubtedly the matter has in</p> <p>M.</p> <p>own work made</p> <p>a long</p> <p>step</p> <p>forwardso</p> <p>:</p> <p>the reader will</p> <p>remark not only</p> <p>the artistic insight</p> <p>which gives</p> <p>much</p> <p>ease</p> <p>and</p> <p>certainty to the identifications in this volume, but</p> <p>also the emergence of principles fitted to serve as a guide for future discovery</p> <p>and</p> <p>criticism in this field of study.art,</p> <p>In a word, we</p> <p>see</p> <p>taking shape, not onlyin</p> <p>an</p> <p>but also</p> <p>a science of discoveryto</p> <p>and</p> <p>interpretation</p> <p>regard</p> <p>to</p> <p>Buddhist, and by consequence</p> <p>Indian, illustration.is</p> <p>lA history of Buddhist Art</p> <p>a task for</p> <p>the future</p> <p>;</p> <p>may we some day</p> <p>have the pleasure of welcoming a systematic treatise upon the subject from</p> <p>M.</p> <p>Foucher's oiun pen. For the presentits</p> <p>we are</p> <p>only at the commencement.</p> <p>Nothing guarantees us that inwithit</p> <p>beginnings the Art shall be found on a level</p> <p>the doctrine, or that it shall</p> <p>follow a parallel course, or again thatrapidity.</p> <p>shall develope with</p> <p>a proportional</p> <p>Gn</p> <p>the contrary,</p> <p>we</p> <p>see</p> <p>alreadyit</p> <p>that</p> <p>atits</p> <p>Sdnchi</p> <p>and</p> <p>Barhut, afterto</p> <p>centuries</p> <p>of</p> <p>active</p> <p>speculation,</p> <p>makespiety.</p> <p>appeal primarily</p> <p>a community</p> <p>characteri::^ed by</p> <p>naive and simple</p> <p>In</p> <p>the case of Christianity</p> <p>how many</p> <p>centuries</p> <p>of dogmatic strife</p> <p>precede the age of the primitives ! Nevertheless the reader</p> <p>who turns from</p> <p>the</p> <p>essays on</p> <p>Barhut and Sdnchi</p> <p>to those</p> <p>dealing with the Great Miraclebe his impression, if he</p> <p>and</p> <p>with Boro- Budurhis</p> <p> much clearer wouldof</p> <p>embraced in</p> <p>view</p> <p>the</p> <p>medieval and modern art</p> <p>China, fapan, and Tibet</p> <p> cannotpartialless sophis-</p> <p>fail</p> <p>to note the</p> <p>metaphysical contemplation which has groiun upon the decayto the</p> <p>of</p> <p>the older</p> <p>popular piety. Yet even here we have a warning as</p> <p>reversions whichticated society:</p> <p>may</p> <p>result</p> <p>from</p> <p>the</p> <p>transplanting of religion</p> <p>to</p> <p>since in the sculptures ofit is</p> <p>Boro Budur</p> <p>an atmosphere,that</p> <p>true, of hypertropical softness</p> <p> no small admixture ofwefind againinis</p> <p>a</p> <p>frank pleasure in</p> <p>mere story-telling which</p> <p>the</p> <p>special</p> <p>charm</p> <p>of</p> <p>Sdnchi and Barhut.London. June, 1914.F.</p> <p>W. Thomas.</p> <p>We are indebtedIndia</p> <p>for the use</p> <p>of photographs to the Secretary of State for</p> <p>Dr.</p> <p>J.</p> <p>Bdrgess, and Prof. A. A. Macdonell (England); to Prof. Ed.</p> <p>Chavannes, Mr. Henry H. Getty and M.A. Grijkwedel and Dr. A.Sir</p> <p>V Golodbew</p> <p>(France)to Mr. JJ.</p> <p>;</p> <p>to Prof.</p> <p>von Le</p> <p>Coq (Germany);</p> <p>H. (now Ph. Vogel</p> <p>John) Marshall, Sir Aurel Stein and Mr. (now Prof.);</p> <p>(India)</p> <p>to</p> <p>Major Van Erp (Java)des Inscriptions</p> <p>:</p> <p>and</p> <p>for the loan</p> <p>of blocks to the</p> <p>Academie</p> <p>et Belles-Lettres, et</p> <p>theE.</p> <p>Sociitd Asiatique and</p> <p>MM.</p> <p>Esperandieu, Gdimet, Hachette</p> <p>C'%</p> <p>Leroux</p> <p>(Paris),</p> <p>and to</p> <p>the Ecole fran^aise d'Extr^me-Orient (Hanoi).In thewill be</p> <p>body of the work and</p> <p>in</p> <p>the descriptions attached to the plates</p> <p>found indications</p> <p>in detail of</p> <p>what we owe</p> <p>to this kind cooperation.</p> <p>We</p> <p>tender here our grateful thanks for help in the absence of which the</p> <p>majority of these essays either would never have</p> <p>come</p> <p>into being or</p> <p>could</p> <p>not have been combined to form of a volume.</p> <p>Some</p> <p>faults of</p> <p>impression and minor errata will perhaps be judged excu-</p> <p>sable in an English</p> <p>book printed</p> <p>in France.</p> <p>P. S.</p> <p>It</p> <p>should moreover be stated</p> <p>which the reader himself may</p> <p> in view of some few details that this volume, with exception notice1914.</p> <p>of the index and tables, has been in print since June</p> <p>Through</p> <p>the</p> <p>enforced postponement of</p> <p>its</p> <p>appearance, the dedication to M. A. Barth</p> <p>has become (since April 15,</p> <p>1916) unfortunately only a tribute to his</p> <p>memory.</p> <p>CONTENTS</p> <p>PagsI.</p> <p>II.</p> <p>The Beginnings of Buddhist Art</p> <p>i</p> <p>The Representations ofReliefs of Barhut</p> <p>JAtakas</p> <p>on the Bas2961</p> <p> The Eastern Gate of THE Sanchi Stupa .... IV. The Greek Origin of the Image of Buddha Gaul and India V. The Tutelary Pair VI. The Great Miracle at Qravasti VII. The Six-Tusked Elephant VIII. Buddhist Art Java IX. The Buddhist MadonnaIII..</p> <p>.</p> <p>.</p> <p>in139</p> <p>in</p> <p>IN</p> <p>.</p> <p>.</p> <p>.</p> <p>147185</p> <p>in</p> <p>205</p> <p>271293</p> <p>Index</p> <p>ILLUSTRATIONS</p> <p>Hariti, the Buddhist</p> <p>Madonna</p> <p>:</p> <p>painting from Turf an... frontispiecePage</p> <p>Plates I-IV.</p> <p> Beginnings of Buddhist ArtI.</p> <p>28</p> <p>Buddhist symbols on ancient Indian coins.</p> <p>II.</p> <p>The The</p> <p>three last Great Miracles</p> <p>:</p> <p>1 atIII.</p> <p>Sdnchi</p> <p>;</p> <p>2" at Amaravati.:</p> <p>first</p> <p>Great Miracle;</p> <p>I" in</p> <p>Gandhara</p> <p>z" at</p> <p>Amaravati.:</p> <p>IV.</p> <p>The</p> <p>four Great Miracles</p> <p>1 in</p> <p>Gandhara;</p> <p>2" at</p> <p>AmaravHi</p> <p>;</p> <p>3 at Benares.</p> <p>Plates V-VI.V.</p> <p>Jatakas at BarhutIn medallions.</p> <p>60</p> <p>VI.</p> <p>On</p> <p>the rail-coping.</p> <p>Plates VII-X.VII,I.</p> <p> The Eastern</p> <p>Gate of the Sanchi Stupa.</p> <p>i</p> <p>10</p> <p>General view taken from the East.</p> <p>2.</p> <p>Back-view of Lintels of Eastern Gate.Eastern Gate (/ro/ wVu').</p> <p>VIII,</p> <p>I.</p> <p>2.</p> <p>Divine guardianInterior face of</p> <p>at entrance.left</p> <p>jamb.</p> <p>IX,</p> <p>I.</p> <p>The Conversion of the Kagyapas.Interior face ofleft</p> <p>jamb.</p> <p>2.</p> <p>The Return</p> <p>to Kapilavastu.</p> <p>Interior face of right jamb.</p> <p>X,</p> <p>I.</p> <p>The Vocation,</p> <p>or Great Departure.lintel.</p> <p>Front view of middle2..\</p> <p>Procession to the Bodhi-Tree.Front viewof</p> <p>lower</p> <p>lintel.</p> <p>XIVPlates XI-XVI.XI,I.</p> <p>ILLUSTRATIONS</p> <p> Greek Origin of the Buddha TypeBuddhasin the</p> <p>.</p> <p>.</p> <p>138</p> <p>Lahore Museum.Mess, Mardin.</p> <p>2.</p> <p>Buddha</p> <p>in the Guides'</p> <p>XII,</p> <p>I.</p> <p>2.</p> <p>The Village of Shahbaz-Garhl. The Ruins of Takht-i-Bahai.TheVillage of Sahri-Bahlol.</p> <p>XIII,</p> <p>I.</p> <p>2.</p> <p>Excavations near Sahri-Bahlol.Shah-ji-ki-Dheri (Kanishka Stupa).</p> <p>XIV,</p> <p>I.</p> <p>2.</p> <p>Indo-Greek and Indo-Scythic Coins.</p> <p>XV,XVI,</p> <p>I.</p> <p>2.I.</p> <p>The Relic-casket of Kanishka. The Bodhisattva Type.Types of Bodhisattva, Buddha and monk.Grco-Christian Christ and Grsco-Buddhist Buddha.</p> <p>2.</p> <p>Plates XVII-X VIII.XVII.XVIII.</p> <p> The Tutelary Pair</p> <p>146</p> <p>In Gaul.</p> <p>In Gandhara.</p> <p>Plates XIX-XXVIII.</p> <p>The Great Miracle of ^ravasti</p> <p>.</p> <p>.</p> <p>.</p> <p>ILLUSTRATIONSPlates</p> <p>XVPage. .</p> <p>XXXI-XLIV.XXXI,I.</p> <p> Buddhist archeology in Java:</p> <p>270</p> <p>Boro- Budur</p> <p>General view {from</p> <p>the north-west')</p> <p>2.</p> <p>XXXII.XXXIII,I.</p> <p>2.</p> <p>First Gallery (part of west fa(ade).</p> <p>Section and plan.Silhouette.Staircase (north side).</p> <p>XXXIV,</p> <p>I.</p> <p>Story of Sudhana,against the</p> <p>no.</p> <p>3</p> <p>:</p> <p>Incantation</p> <p>Naga</p> <p>(central portion).1 1:</p> <p>XXXV,I.</p> <p>Story of Sudhana, no.</p> <p>Manohara's flight.</p> <p>Above</p> <p>:</p> <p>The</p> <p>Bodhisattva's farewell to the</p> <p>gods.</p> <p>Story of Sudhana,no. i2:ThePrince'sreturn.</p> <p>Above</p> <p>:</p> <p>The</p> <p>Bodhisattva's</p> <p>descent</p> <p>upon</p> <p>earth.</p> <p>XXXVI,I</p> <p>Story of Sudhana, no. 16(right-hand portion).</p> <p>:</p> <p>At the fountain</p> <p>Story of Mandhatar, no. 12garments.</p> <p>:</p> <p>The</p> <p>rain of</p> <p>2.</p> <p>The Bodhisattva chooses his bride. Story of king ^ibi, the Dove and the Hawk. Above The first of the Bodhisattva's fourAbove:</p> <p>:</p> <p>promenades.</p> <p>XXXVII,</p> <p>I.</p> <p>Story of Rudrayana, no. 6</p> <p>:</p> <p>Presentation ot</p> <p>the cuirass (left-hand portion)2.</p> <p>Story of Rudrayana, no. 9yana'svisit.</p> <p>:</p> <p>Mahakatya-</p> <p>Above</p> <p>:</p> <p>The</p> <p>Bodhisattva with</p> <p>his</p> <p>first</p> <p>BrahmanXXXVIII,I.</p> <p>teacher.</p> <p>Story of Rudrayana,Qaila's</p> <p>no.</p> <p>10</p> <p>:</p> <p>The nun</p> <p>sermon</p> <p>(left-hand portion).1 1:</p> <p>2.</p> <p>Story of Rudrdyana, no.</p> <p>Queen CanJra-</p> <p>prabha's ordination (central portion).</p> <p>XXXIX.XL,I.</p> <p>Story of Rudrayana, fragments of nos. 12,13 and 14.</p> <p>Story of Rudrayana, no.parricide.</p> <p>16</p> <p>:</p> <p>After the</p> <p>Above</p> <p>:</p> <p>The ascetic Bodhisattva</p> <p>declines the</p> <p>aid of the gods.</p> <p>Story of Rudrayana, no. 19jewels (left-hand portion).</p> <p>:</p> <p>The</p> <p>rain of</p> <p>XVIXLI,I.</p> <p>ILLUSTRATIONSPage</p> <p>Boro-Budur</p> <p>:</p> <p>Story of the pair of Kinnaras (antral portion of the second scene).</p> <p>2.</p> <p>Story of Maitrakanyaka, no.offering (central portion).</p> <p>i</p> <p>:</p> <p>The</p> <p>purse-</p> <p>XLII,</p> <p>I.</p> <p>TheUnder</p> <p>Story ofMaitrakanyaka, no. 2:</p> <p>The mother'sIn</p> <p>supplication (left-hand portion).</p> <p>2.</p> <p>Story of Maitrakanyaka, no. 7</p> <p>:</p> <p>the</p> <p>Inferno city (right-hand portion).</p> <p>XLIII,</p> <p>I.</p> <p>unfinished statue of Buddha.the central cupola,</p> <p>Boro-Budur.</p> <p>2</p> <p>Trailokyavijaya.</p> <p>Bronze in</p> <p>the</p> <p>Batavia Museum.</p> <p>XLIV.</p> <p>The Goddess Cunda between two Bodhisattvas. On the south western wall of the Chandi Mendut.</p> <p>Plates XLV-L.</p> <p> The Buddhist MadonnaAfter a wall-painting fromI.</p> <p>92</p> <p>XLV.XLVI.XLVII.XLVIII.I.</p> <p>Domoko (Chinese Turkestan)As set up in2.</p> <p>Side view before removal \2.:</p> <p>British</p> <p>Museum</p> <p>Suckling Madonna</p> <p>i.</p> <p>Romanesque;</p> <p>Coptic.</p> <p>Indo-Greek images ofHariti</p> <p>Hariti.in</p> <p>and her partner</p> <p>Gandhara.</p> <p>2</p> <p>Hariti in Java.</p> <p>XLIX.L.</p> <p>Japanese images of Ki-si-mo-jin.</p> <p>Chinese images of Kuan-Yin.</p> <p>.V.</p> <p>B.</p> <p>A</p> <p>detailed description of each plate will be</p> <p>found</p> <p>either in the body of the</p> <p>livry or on the</p> <p>page de garde</p> <p>opposite the plate.</p> <p>The Beginnings of Buddhist</p> <p>Art.C)</p> <p>Buddhism</p> <p>is</p> <p>a historical fact;</p> <p>only:</p> <p>it</p> <p>has not yet beenlater that</p> <p>completely incorporated into historywill be achieved.</p> <p>sooner or</p> <p>Meanwhile</p> <p>its initial</p> <p>period remains,</p> <p>we</p> <p>must confess, passably obscure.little</p> <p>Toits</p> <p>add to our difficulty, the</p> <p>that</p> <p>we</p> <p>think</p> <p>we knowtimes ofits</p> <p>of the social and politicalbirth has been learned:</p> <p>state of India in the</p> <p>almost entirely through</p> <p>medium</p> <p>thus the frametask,</p> <p>is</p> <p>no</p> <p>better defined than the picture.it</p> <p>But the</p> <p>arduousB. C.</p> <p>thoughis</p> <p>may</p> <p>be, is not impossible.it</p> <p>The fifth century</p> <p>not so remote a