Buddhist Art in Asia

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<ul><li><p>8/10/2019 Buddhist Art in Asia</p><p> 1/30</p><p>1</p><p>About the Author</p><p>Dr AS Bhalla ( MA Cantab; Ph.D Manchester) is a former Fellow ofSidney Sussex College, Cambridge, UK. His recent publications</p><p>include the Royal Tombs of India: 13th</p><p> to 18th</p><p> Century (Mapin, 2009);and Poverty and Exclusion of Minorities in China and India (PalgraveMacmillan, 2013).</p></li><li><p>8/10/2019 Buddhist Art in Asia</p><p> 2/30</p><p>2</p><p>To Praveen, Ranjan and Arman</p></li><li><p>8/10/2019 Buddhist Art in Asia</p><p> 3/30</p><p>3</p><p>A . S . B h a l l a </p><p>B U D D H I S T A R T I N A S I A </p></li><li><p>8/10/2019 Buddhist Art in Asia</p><p> 4/30</p><p>4</p><p>Copyright A. S. Bhalla (2014)</p><p>The right of A. S. Bhalla to be identified as author of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with section 77 and 78 of the</p><p>Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by anymeans, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,without the prior permission of the publishers.</p><p>Any person who commits any unauthorized act in relation to this</p><p> publication may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims fordamages.</p><p>A CIP catalogue record for this title is available from the BritishLibrary.</p><p>ISBN 978 1 78455 059 2</p><p>www.austinmacauley.com</p><p>First Published (2014)Austin Macauley Publishers Ltd.25 Canada SquareCanary Wharf</p><p>LondonE14 5LB</p><p>Printed and bound in Great Britain</p></li><li><p>8/10/2019 Buddhist Art in Asia</p><p> 5/30</p><p>5</p><p>Acknowledgments </p><p>The publisher and author acknowledge the following for their help andcopyright clearance:</p><p> Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) (New Delhi) for Figs. 33 and 34</p><p>(Chapter 6) taken from Ajanta Murals: An Album of Eighty-five Reproductions in Colour edited by A. Ghosh (New Delhi, 1987) and for Fig.39 supplied by the ASI.</p><p>Attinger SA of Neuchtel (Switzerland) for Fig. 59 (Chapter 9) taken fromThailande: Art et religion (Neuchtel, 1974), Audio-Visual Department(DAV) of the Library of the City of Chaux-de-Fonds, Fernand Perret Fund.</p><p>Terence Faircloth, Atelier Teee, Inc., California for Fig. 58 (Chapter 9)</p><p>downloaded from the website:sacreddestinations.com.</p><p>Dr John Listopad of California State University Sacramento for Fig. 49(Chapter 8) taken from Art from Thailand edited by Robert L. Brown (Mumbai, Marg Publications, December 1999).</p><p>British Museum, London, for Figs. 9, 10 and 11 (Chapter 2) and Figs. 30, 31and 32 (Chapter 5), Trustees of the British Museum.</p><p>Kolkata Museum for Fig. 29 (Chapter 5), taken by the author.</p><p>Lahore Museum (Pakistan) for Fig. 6 (Chapter 2) taken by Ranjan Bhalla.</p><p>Oriental Museum, Lisbon (Portugal) and the Berardo Collection for Fig.1,taken by the author.</p><p>Wikipedia for Fig. 12 (Chapter 2).</p></li><li><p>8/10/2019 Buddhist Art in Asia</p><p> 6/30</p><p>6</p><p>Contents</p><p>List of Figures and Tables 7 </p><p>Preface 9 </p><p>Chapter 1 11 </p><p> Buddhism in India and Abroad </p><p>Chapter 2 24 </p><p> Buddhist Art in Asia </p><p>Chapter 3 51 </p><p> Bodhgaya: The Seat of Enlightenment </p><p>Chapter 4 64 </p><p>Sarnath: Site of the First Sermon </p><p>Chapter 5 74 </p><p>The Stupas of Sanchi, Bharhut and Amaravati </p><p>Chapter 6 89 </p><p>The Cave Temples of Ajanta, Ellora and Karle </p><p>Chapter 7 103 </p><p>The Temples and Sculptures of Angkor </p><p>Chapter 8 121 </p><p>The Temples and Paintings of Ayutthaya </p><p>Chapter 9 134 </p><p>The Temples of Bangkok </p><p>Glossary 147 </p><p>Bibliography 150 </p><p>Illustration Credits 159 </p><p>Index 160 </p></li><li><p>8/10/2019 Buddhist Art in Asia</p><p> 7/30</p><p>7</p><p>L i s t o f F i g u r e s a n d Ta b l e s</p><p>1. Bodhisattvas Lokesvara and Manjushri, China2. Sarnath stupas, India3. San Fa Si pagodas, Dali, China4. A stupa, Wat Arun, Bangkok, Thailand5. A Japanese pagoda, Nikko Toshogu Shrine6. An emaciated Buddha, Gandhara, Pakistan7. A standing Buddha, Sarnath, India8. A Khmer Buddha, Angkor Thom, Cambodia</p><p>9. Buddha footprints, Amaravati, India10. A medallion showing worship of Buddha relics, Amaravati, India11 A relief showing worshippers, a throne and Buddhas feet, Amaravati,</p><p>India12. A rock painting from Sirigiya, Sri Lanka13. Banteay Srei temple, Cambodia14. Stone carvings, Banteay Srei15. Mahabodhi temple, Bodhgaya16. Granite railing, Bodhgaya Museum</p><p>17. Current railing around the temple18. Daijokyo Buddha of Japan, Bodhgaya19. Great Buddha, Kamakura, Japan20. Tibetan temple and monastery, Bodhgaya21. A Buddha statue and tantric decorations, Bhutanese temple22. Clay carvings, Bhutanese temple23. Dhamekh Stupa, Sarnath24. Floral and geometric patterns on the Dhamekh stupa25. A decorated pediment, Sarnath</p><p>26. Round stone pillars, Sarnath27. Great Stupa, Sanchi28. Northern gateway to the Great Stupa, Sanchi 29. A Bharhut yaksi30. A limestone pillar showing the conversion of Nanda, Amaravati31. Great Departure of Prince Siddharatha, Amaravati32. Floral decoration on a limestone pillar, Amaravati33. Round floral decorations, Ajanta34. A close-up of an apsara, Ajanta35. Carvings on the facade of Cave 19, Ajanta36. Nagaraja and his consort, facade of Cave 19, Ajanta37. Chaitya interior with a standing Buddha, Ajanta38. Facade of Cave 10 (Carpenters cave), Ellora 39. A loving couple on the facade of the Karle monastery40. A naga hood, Angkor Thom</p></li><li><p>8/10/2019 Buddhist Art in Asia</p><p> 8/30</p><p>8</p><p>41. Nagas on a pediment, Banteay Srei42. General view of Angkor Wat43. Painted ceiling and columns, Angkor Wat44. A group of dancing apsaras, Angkor Wat45. Demon gods, Angkor Thom</p><p>46. Bodhisattvas as guardians, Angkor Thom47. Khmer army marching into battle, Bayon48. A devata from the central sanctuary, Bayon49. A jataka scene on a wall painting, Wat Ratchburana, Ayutthaya50. Wat Mahathat behind a meditating Buddha, Ayutthaya51. Khmer-style central tower, Wat Ratchburana, Ayutthaya52. Stupas of Wat Ratchburana, Ayutthaya53. Golden Buddha statue in royal attire, Wat Na Phra Men, Ayutthaya54. A close-up of the reclining Buddha, Wat Po, Bangkok</p><p>55. Buddhas feet with mother -of-pearl inlay, Wat Po, Bangkok56. Wat Arun from the river, Bangkok57. Temple guardians, Wat Arun, Bangkok58. General view of Wat Phra Keo, Bangkok59. A mur al painting depicting a scene from Buddhas life, Bangkok </p><p>Tables</p><p>Table 2.1Ancient Indian dynasties and patronage of Buddhist art</p><p>Table 4.1Differences between Sarnath and Mathura images of Buddha</p><p>Table 5.1Characteristics of the railings in Sanchi, Bharhut, Amaravati and Bodhgaya</p><p>Table 7.1Temples of Angkor</p></li><li><p>8/10/2019 Buddhist Art in Asia</p><p> 9/30</p><p>9</p><p>P r e f a c e</p><p>Buddhism, which originated in India in the sixth century BC, faded into nearoblivion by the thirteenth century. However, it spread to other countries in Asia,and along with it, Buddhist art. Tracing the Indian influence on Buddhist art inAsia is a central theme of the book.</p><p>Why did Buddhism disappear in India? This question has not yet found asatisfactory answer. Some scholars and historians believe that Buddhism was sotolerant of other faiths that it was gradually reabsorbed by the Hindu tradition. Itmay have lasted as long as it received royal patronage during Ashokas reignand that of his successors. This religion was also popular among the mercantilecommunity which provided financial support to the Buddhist temples andmonasteries. The decline of the mercantile community may have lowered thestatus of Buddhism. Lack of resources to sustain a new religion may havefurther contributed to its downfall. The arrival of Islam in India in the thirteenthcentury was perhaps the final blow to Buddhism.</p><p>Chapter 1 presents a brief history of Buddhism in South Asia, SoutheastAsia and East Asia as a background to a discussion of monuments (temples,monasteries, stupas), sculpture (Buddha statues, medallions and relief panels) aswell as paintings in Ajanta, Bodhgaya, Ellora, Karle Sarnath and Sanchi inIndia, Angkor in Cambodia, and Ayutthaya and Bangkok in Thailand. It</p><p>examines reasons for the spread and later downfall of Buddhism in India and itsexpansion in countries such as Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, Sri Lanka andThailand.</p><p>Chapter 2 discusses the patronage of Buddhist art by kings, rich merchantsand ordinary people as well as Indian influence on Buddhist art in South Asiaand the rest of Asia particularly Southeast Asia (that is, Cambodia, Indonesiaand Thailand). There are wide variations in the features of Buddhist art(especially Buddha sculptures) across countries and regions. We examinewhether these differences are due to history, culture, legends or geography.</p><p>Early conservative form of Buddhism did not present Buddha in a human form.His presence was shown by such symbols as the Wheel of Law, lotus, a tree,footprints, a stupa and an empty throne. However, later the form of Buddhism</p><p> broke away from the above symbolism and allowed Buddhas humanembodiment for worship. Buddha sculptures grew rapidly throughout Asia andreplaced the earlier symbols.</p><p>Chapter 3 on Bodhgaya discusses its importance as a Buddhist holy placewhere Buddha attained enlightenment. It is a small town of internationalsignificance. It contains Buddhist temples and monasteries built by Bhutan,</p><p>Burma (Myanmar), China, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand and Tibet (China), whichrepresent different styles of architecture. Similarly, Buddhist sculptures varyfrom temple to temple.</p><p>Sarnath is another important Buddhist holy place where Buddha deliveredhis first sermon. At the end of the first sermon, five monks became the firstmembers of sangha (order) in search of dharma (truth). Chapter 4 discusses and</p></li><li><p>8/10/2019 Buddhist Art in Asia</p><p> 10/30</p><p>10</p><p>illustrates the Dhamekh stupa, the only surviving monument as well as the ruinsof monasteries and stone pillars.</p><p>In Chapter 5, the railing pillars of Sanchi (Madhya Pradesh) are comparedwith those in Bharhut (Madhya Pradesh), Amaravati (Andhra Pradesh) andBodhgaya (Bihar). Sanchi is known for the Great Stupa and its richly-decorated</p><p>gateways. Although the Bharhut and Amaravati stupas have not survived, theirrailings preserved in the National Museum in Kolkata and the British Museumin London respectively, offer a rich source of information on Buddhist art.</p><p>Chapter 6 discusses Ajanta, Ellora and Karle rock-cut temples inMaharashtra. The Ajanta mural paintings are some of the oldest Indian paintingsto have survived. The themes of these paintings and sculptures are discussed andillustrated.</p><p>Chapter 7 is devoted to the Khmer temples of Angkor Wat and AngkorThom. Angkor was the seat of Khmer kings from the ninth to thirteenth century.</p><p>King Yasorvarman I moved his capital to Angkor and built Hindu templesdevoted first to Shiva and later to Vishnu. Later, these temples became places ofBuddha worship. Buddhist art is discussed notably, bas reliefs of devatas,heavenly nymphs as well as Buddha sculptures which are displayed inabundance in the various temples.</p><p>Chapters 8 and 9 deal with Thailand where Buddhism influenced art fromthe first century AD onwards. The two chapters discuss temples, sculptures and</p><p> paintings in Ayutthaya and Bangkok respectively as well as the Ayutthaya andBangkok Schools of art.</p><p>The Indian influence on Buddhist art pervaded South Asia (in Burma,Ceylon and Nepal, for example) and Southeast Asia (in Cambodia, Indonesiaand Thailand). Different chapters of the book provide concrete examples of thisinfluence in architecture, sculpture and paintings.</p><p>Most illustrations in the book are based on my fieldwork in the variousBuddhist holy places covered in the book.</p><p>I owe a debt of gratitude to several friends and relatives, notably, Ingvarhman, for the scanning of rare photographs; my two sons, Arman Bhalla andRanjan Bhalla, for supplying photographs of Angkor Wat and Angkor Thom inCambodia and Ayutthaya in Thailand; Sandra Zysset for providing photographsof Buddhas from Japan: and Anjali Ghate for willingly offering assistance inlibrary searches.</p><p>I would like to thank the Archaeological Survey of India, New Delhi, and anumber of museums for permission to use illustrations, notably, the BritishMuseum in London, the Oriental Museum in Lisbon, National Museum Kolkatain India and the Lahore Museum in Pakistan.</p><p>Finally, I am grateful to the staff of the following libraries in Geneva andCambridge for their valuable assistance in the course of my research work:Library of the Museum of Ethnography,Geneva;Library of Art and Archaeologyof the City of Geneva; India Office Section of the British Library, London andthe Cambridge University Library.</p><p>Commugny, Switzerland A.S. Bhalla </p></li><li><p>8/10/2019 Buddhist Art in Asia</p><p> 11/30</p><p>11</p><p>C h a p t e r 1</p><p> Buddhism in India and Abroad</p><p>Buddhist religion was a driving force behind the evolution of what is commonlyviewed as Buddhist art architecture, sculpture and painting. While one mayquibble about whether religion can stimulate art or art can be defined inreligious terms, there is no denying the fact that much of Buddhist art, mainlysculpture, centres around Buddha, his life before birth, after nirvana and thereligion he founded.</p><p>Buddhism originated in India in the fifth or sixth century BC. Hinduism was</p><p>the prevailing religion at that time which believed in sacrificial rituals,transmigration of soul and karmas.</p><p>Gautama Siddhartha, later Lord Buddha, was the founder of Buddhism. Hewas born in around 563 BC in a southern clan of Sakyas in Nepal, borderingIndia. He came from a wealthy family and grew up in the midst of comforts oflife. Since his childhood, Gautama was known to be contemplative. A Brahmin</p><p> predicted that he would become a saint by renouncing the world. Therefore, hisfather was particularly keen to keep his son away from any discomforts. He wasmarried at the age of sixteen and was blessed with a son, Rahula.</p><p>Gautama was disillusioned with family and social life, and soon decided toabandon it. At the age of twenty-nine, he left his home, wife and son. He rodeaway on his horse, Kanthaka, accompanied by his charioteer, Channa. Thisevent is known as the Great Departure. He was deeply influenced by the sight ofmisery of a decrepit man, a sick man and a dead man.</p><p>Buddha learned Yoga, a meditative discipline, and practised it whilesearching for the Truth. He attained enlightenment (or bodhi) under a pipal treein Gaya (later called Bodhgaya, see Chapter 3) in Bihar in about 525 BC.</p><p>Birth, Principles and Types of Buddhism</p><p>Buddhism originated in the northeast of India, bordering UP and Bihar, what isnow Nepal, as a reaction to Hindu idol worship, rituals and caste hierarchy.</p><p>During Buddhas life time (approximately 563 480 BC), India was repletewith small religious movements centred around a few well-known andcharismatic yogis. People were increasingly dissatisfied with the Hindu practicesof rituals and sacrifices. This is when tri-ratna (three jewels) emerged involving</p><p>Buddha, Dharma (the doctrine) and Sangha (the community). Buddha himselfspent the first seven years as a yogi. But at the end of this period, he realised thatthis was not the right path to salvation. This is when he adopted the middle path</p><p> between self-indulgence and self-mortification.</p></li><li><p>8/10/2019 Buddhist Art in Asia</p><p> 12/30</p><p>12</p><p>The M iddle Path and F our N oble Tr uths</p><p>Buddha decided to teach Dharma to others fo...</p></li></ul>