the apa system of documentation
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DESCRIPTIONThe APA System of Documentation. Darren 9410097A Benny 9410099A Pablo 9410905A. Parenthetical documentation: Author-date (APA). APA format in citation author’s name + date of publication last name only - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
The APA System of DocumentationDarren 9410097ABenny 9410099APablo 9410905A
Parenthetical documentation: Author-date (APA) APA format in citation authors name + date of publication last name onlyEx: Lily Allen 2004
Allen(2004) found that all the students considered peer response helpful in regard to audience perspective and idea development. A study found that all the students considered peer response helpful in regard to audience perspective and idea development (Allen, 2004).
Citation needs no page number.
Quotation needs page number With regard to students attitudes towards peer response, research also shows mixed findings (Huang, 1995, p. 4). abbreviation p. One page pp. More than one page
10a-1 Examples of APA in-text citations to booksOne work by a single authorEx: Potter (2003) found that writing teachers tend to be careless, exhausted or insensitive; their comments are unhelpful and confusing. In a recent study (Potter, 2003), writing teachers tend to be careless, exhausted or insensitive; their comments are unhelpful and confusing.
b. Subsequent references In a study (Humphrey, 2001), obesity has a strong possibility to cause high blood pressure. Humphrey also found that
c. One work by two authors According to Brown and Austin (2007), the greenhouse effect is getting worse throughout the world.
A study showed that greenhouse effect is getting worse throughout the world (Brown & Austin, 2007).
d. One work by three to five authorsFirst time- Baker ,David, Holland, Spears (1999) indicated that.
Second time- Baker et al. (1999) also found
e. Work by six or more authorsBenet, Hudson, Thomas, Allen, and Shang (2001)andBenet, Hudson, Hong, Allen, and Shang (2001)
Benet, Hudson, Thomas, et al. (2001)andBenet, Hudson, Hong, et al. (2001)
f. Corporate author A committee, an institution, a corporation, a government agency.First time-(The Child Welfare League Foundation [CWLF], 2005)
Second time- (CWLF, 2005)
(Yale University, 2003) do not use abbreviation(Fedex express, 2007)
g. Works by an anonymous author or no authoranonymous (Anonymous, 2004)
No author information write the first two or three words from the articleEx: One study shows that the number of women in their forties returning to college continues to grow(New educational horizons, 2002).
Court cases italic. Ex: (Baker v. Carr, 1962)
h. Authors with the same surnameTwo or more authors with the same surnameEx: Jessica Ann Simpson(1980) Ashlee Nicole Simpson(1985) J. A. Simpson (1980) and A. N. Simpson (1985) studied both aspects of.
i. Two or more works in the same parentheses The same author has two or more papers to support the same points.
Ex: Past studies (Bass, 2005, 2006) showed . or Past studies (Bass, 2005, 2006, in press) revealed.
If the author has different papers published in the same year cited as a, b, c, and so on
Ex: According to these studies (Shang, 2002a, 2002b, in press) the obstacles of .
Cited according to the authors alphabet-use semicolons to separate the namesEx: (Alice & Banks, 1980; Bree, 1980; Lewis & Barker, 1981) found that .
j. References to specific parts of a sourcePage number, figure number, and table number
Ex: (Smith & White, 1999, pp. 25-30) (Spear, 2001, Fig. 5) (Table 2.4, p. 8)
k. Personal communications Letters, e-mail, and telephone conversations can not be references. only in text Ex: (M. Shang, personal communication, November 21, 2008) or M. Shang (personal communication, November 21, 2008) approved that peer feedback can enhance students writing ability.
l. Citation as part of a parenthetical comment If a citation is a comment, commas are better to set the date.
Ex: (See Appendix A of Jenkins, 1983, for additional proof.)
10a-2 Avoiding clutter in the textEx: A study found that the weakness of listening English programs is not able to improve listening ability (Smith, 1994). (Brady, 1995; Kingston, 1997; Powter, 2000) also revealed the same result. In 1994 Smith found that the weakness of listening English programs is not able to improve listening ability. Brady (1995), Kingston (1997), Powter (2000) also revealed the same result.
10b Format for Reference (APA)Start the references on a new page.Center the title References one double-space down from the running head.Cite only the sources you actually used in the paper, not sources you consulted.List titles by the same author chronologically, not alphabetically.
5. Indent the second and subsequent lines of each entry five spaces.Volman, M. (1997). Gender-related effects of information and computer literacy education. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 29(3), 315-328.6. Place a period followed by one space between all of the elements in each entry.7. Italicize the titles of books, periodicals, and volume numbers.
10b-1 General order for books in ReferencesThe name of the author.The year of publication.The title of the book in italic.The place of publication.The name of the publisher.Wright, W. A., Hwerwis, E. M., & Abernethy, B. (2001). Learning through writing: a compendium of assignments and techniques. Halifax, Canada: Dalhousie University.
10b-2 Sample reference to booksa. Book by s single author Weisberger, L. (2006). The devil wears prada. New York: Harper Collins.b. Book by two or more authors Winkler, A. C., & McCuen-Metherell, J. R. (2007). Writing the research paper (7th ed.). Boston: Thomson Wadsworth. *If more than 6 editors: et al Jones, E., & Terman, L. M., & Merrill, M. A., & Castuera, I. O., & Johnson, T. H., & Phillips, J. M., et al.
c. Edited bookFriedman,R. J., & Katz, M. M. (Eds.). (1974). The psychology of depression: Contemporary theory and research. New York: Wiley.*Citing an article from an edited bookWaxer, P. (1979). Therapist training in nonverbal behavior. In A. wolfgang (Ed.), Nonverbal behavior: Applications and cultural implications (pp. 221-240). New York: Academic Press.
d. Translated bookRank, O. (1932). Psychology and the soul (W. Turner, Trans.). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
e. Book in a foreign language Saint-Exupry, A. de. (1939). Terre des hommes [Earth of men]. Paris: Gallimard.f. Revised edition of a book Winkler, A. C., & McCuen-Metherell, J. R. (2007). Writing the research paper (7th ed.). Boston: Thomson Wadsworth.g. Book by a corporate author Committee of Public Finance. (1959). Public finance. New York: Pitman. *the corporate author = publisher Commission on Intergovernmental Relations. (1955). Report to the president. Washington, DC: Author.
h. Multivolume bookReusch, J. (1980). Communication and psychiatry. In H. I. Kaplan, A. M. freedman, & B. J. Saddck (Eds.), Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry: Vol. 1. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. *Being published for several years Reusch, J. (1980-1985).
i. Unpublished manuscriptLopez, M. R. (2006). Health problems of immigrants in San Bernardino County. Unpublished manuscript.
10b-3 General order for periodicals in ReferenceAuthors nameYear of publicationTitle (no or italic)Name of journal or magazine, in italicVolume number, in italicPage number (no p. or pp.)
10b-4 Sample reference to periodicalsa. Journal article, one authorZamel, V. (1985). Responding to student writing.TESOL Quarterly, 19, 79-102.b. Journal article, up to six authorsMartin, N., & Brandt, D. (1989). Response to writing as a context for learning to write. Journal of Basic Writing, 17, 3-17.c. Journal article, paginated anew in each issueKung, C. C. (1991). The effects of different note-taking strategies on learning achievement by tenth-grade earth science students. (Doctoral dissertation, Arizona State University, 1990. Dissertation Abstracts International, 52, (3-A), 792-793.
d. Journal with continuous pagination throughout the annual volumeAnthony, R. G., & Smith, N. S. (1997). Ecologiccal relationships between mule deer and white-tailed deer in southeastern Arizona. Ecological Monographs, 47, 255- 277.
e. Magazine article, magazine issued monthly *needing to put year and monthKernan, M. (2001, October). Heads up: From a computer- generated model, sculptors cast a bronze triceratops that looks like the real thing. Smithsonian, 34-36.
f. Magazine article, magazine issued on a specific dayKalfayou, M. (1997, November 5). As a womwan sees it: Honk for domestic violence. The American Observer, 3.
g. Newspaper articleNeihu, J. (2008, December 6). Johnny Neihus news watch: Japan and the chicom cape fear. Taipei Times, p.8.
h. EditorialGuion, R. M. (1983). Comments from the new editor [Editorial]. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68, 547. *no titleGuion, R. M. (1983). [E