CHAPTER 34 APA APA Documentation with Case wps. of a Long Quotation (and Format of Quotation)—APA ... APA APA DOCUMENTATION WITH CASE STUDY American Psychological Association In.

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<ul><li><p>430</p><p>APA</p><p>34b APA DOCUMENTATION WITH CASE STUDY</p><p>CHAPTER 34</p><p>APA Documentation with Case Study</p><p>34a What is APA style?The American Psychological Association (APA) sponsors the APA style, aDOCUMENTATION system widely used in the social sciences. APA styleinvolves two equally important features that need to appear in researchpapers: in-text citations and references.</p><p>34b What are APA parenthetical in-text citations?The APA-STYLE DOCUMENTATION guidelines here follow the recommenda-tions of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association,Fifth Edition (2001), which is the most current print edition. The URL forAPAs general Web site is ; it answers some basic stylequestions and mostly refers you to the Publication Manual. However, APAhas set up a special free Web site devoted exclusively to electronic sources(APA term for online sources, CD-ROMs, etc.). APA provides this becauseelectronic sources are still evolving rapidly and therefore tend to change.Anyone with Internet access can use the site at . It offers links to selected specific examples of citationsof electronic sources, some of which arent covered in the APA PublicationManual; unusually direct, practical FAQs; and other useful material.</p><p>APA style requires parenthetical IN-TEXT CITATIONS that identify aSOURCE by the authors name (if no author, use a shortened version of thetitle) and the copyright year. For readability and a good writing style, you canoften incorporate the name, and sometimes the year, into your sentence.Otherwise, place this information in parentheses, located as close as possibleto the material you QUOTE, PARAPHRASE, or SUMMARIZE. Your goal is to tellreaders precisely where they can find the original material.</p><p>The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association,Fifth Edition (2001), recommends that if you refer to a work more than oncein a paragraph, you give the authors name and the date at the first mentionand then give only the name after that. An exception is when youre citingtwo or more works by the same author, or when two or more of your sourceshave the same name. In such cases, each separate citation must include thedate to identify which work youre citing.</p><p>APA style requires page numbers for direct quotations and recommendsthem for paraphrases and summaries. However, some instructors expect you</p><p>TROYMC33_44_0131889567.QXD 1/27/06 7:41 PM Page 430</p></li><li><p>431</p><p>APA</p><p>What are APA guidelines for in-text citations? 34c</p><p>to give page references for paraphrases and summaries, so find out yourinstructors preference to avoid any problems in properly crediting yoursources.</p><p>Put page numbers in parentheses, using the abbreviation p. before a sin-gle page number and pp. when the material youre citing falls on more thanone page. For a direct quotation from an electronic source that numbersparagraphs, give the paragraph number (or numbers). Handle paragraphnumbers as you do page numbers, but use para. or (the symbol for para-graph) rather than p. or pp. If no paragraph numbers appear in the source,look for other ways to identify the location, such as sections introduced bymain headings.</p><p>34c What are APA guidelines for in-text citations?The examples show how to cite various kinds of sources in the body of yourresearch paper. Remember, though, that you often can introduce sourcenames, including titles when necessary, and sometimes even years, in yourown sentences rather than in the parenthetical IN-TEXT CITATIONS.</p><p>DirectoryAPA In-Text Citations1. Paraphrased or Summarized SourceAPA</p><p>2. Source of a Short QuotationAPA3. Source of a Long Quotation (and Format of Quotation)APA4. One AuthorAPA5. Two AuthorsAPA6. Three, Four, or Five AuthorsAPA7. Six or More AuthorsAPA8. Author(s) with Two or More Works in the Same YearAPA9. Two or More Authors with the Same Last NameAPA</p><p>10. Work with a Group or Corporate AuthorAPA11. Work Listed by TitleAPA12. Reference to More Than One SourceAPA13. Personal Communication, Including E-Mail and Other Nonretrievable</p><p>SourcesAPA14. Reference to an Entire Online SourceAPA15. Other References to Retrievable Online SourcesAPA16. Source Lines for Graphics and Table DataAPA</p><p>1. Paraphrased or Summarized SourceAPA</p><p>People from the Mediterranean prefer an elbow-to-shoulder distance fromeach other (Morris, 1977). [Author name and date cited in parentheses.]</p><p>TROYMC33_44_0131889567.QXD 1/27/06 6:44 PM Page 431</p></li><li><p>432</p><p>APA</p><p>34c APA DOCUMENTATION WITH CASE STUDY</p><p>Desmond Morris (1977) notes that people from the Mediterraneanprefer an elbow-to-shoulder distance from each other. [Author namecited in text; date cited in parentheses.]</p><p>2. Source of a Short QuotationAPAA report of reductions in SAD-related depression in 87 percent of pa-tients (Binkley, 1990, p. 203) reverses the findings of earlier studies.[Author name, date, and page reference in parentheses immediately follow-ing the quotation.]</p><p>Binkley (1990) reports reductions in SAD-related depression in 87 percent of patients (p. 203). [Author name followed by the date inparentheses incorporated into the words introducing the quotation; pagenumber in parentheses immediately following the quotation.]</p><p>3. Source of a Long Quotation (and Format of Quotation)APA</p><p>Incorporate a direct quotation of fewer than forty words in your own sen-tence and enclose it in quotation marks. Place the parenthetical in-text cita-tion after the closing quotation mark and, if the quotation falls at the end ofthe sentence, before the sentence-ending punctuation. When you use a quo-tation longer than forty words, set it off in block style indented one-half inchor five to seven spaces from the left margin. Never enclose a set-off quota-tion in quotation marks because the placement in block style carries the mes-sage that the material is quoted. Place the parenthetical reference citationone space after the end punctuation of the last sentence.</p><p>D i s p l a y e d Q u o t a t i o n ( F o r t y o r M o r e Wo r d s )Jet lag, with its characteristic fatigue and irregular sleep patterns, is acommon problem among those who travel great distances by jet airplaneto different time zones:</p><p>Jet lag syndrome is the inability of the internal body rhythm torapidly resynchronize after sudden shifts in the timing. For avariety of reasons, the system attempts to maintain stability andresist temporal change. Consequently, complete adjustment canoften be delayed for several dayssometimes for a weekafterarrival at ones destination. (Bonner, 1991, p. 72)</p><p>4. One AuthorAPA</p><p>One of his questions is, What binds together a Mormon banker inUtah with his brother or other coreligionists in Illinois orMassachusetts? (Coles, 1993, p. 2).</p><p>In a parenthetical reference in APA style, a comma and a space separate aname from a year and a year from a page reference. (Examples 1 through 3show citations of works by one author.)</p><p>TROYMC33_44_0131889567.QXD 1/27/06 6:44 PM Page 432</p></li><li><p>433</p><p>APA</p><p>What are APA guidelines for in-text citations? 34c</p><p>5. Two AuthorsAPA</p><p>If a work has two authors, give both names in each citation.One report describes 2,123 occurrences (Krait &amp; Cooper, 1994).</p><p>The results that Krait and Cooper (1994) report would not support theconclusions Davis and Sherman (1992) draw in their review of theliterature.</p><p>When you write a parenthetical in-text citation naming two (or more)authors, use an ampersand (&amp;) between the final two names, but write outthe word and for any reference in your own sentence.</p><p>6. Three, Four, or Five AuthorsAPA</p><p>For three, four, or five authors, use all the authors last names in the first ref-erence. In all subsequent references, use only the first authors last name fol-lowed by et al. (meaning and others). No period follows et, but one alwaysfollows al.</p><p>F i r s t R e f e r e n c eIn one anthology, 35% of the selections had not been anthologized before(Elliott, Kerber, Litz, &amp; Martin, 1992).</p><p>S u b s e q u e n t R e f e r e n c eElliott et al. (1992) include 17 authors whose work has never beenanthologized.</p><p>7. Six or More AuthorsAPA</p><p>For six or more authors, name the first author followed by et al. in all in-textreferences, including the first. (See section 34f, model 3, for the correct Ref-erences format.)</p><p>8. Author(s) with Two or More Works in the Same YearAPA</p><p>If you use more than one source written in the same year by the sameauthor(s), alphabetize the works by title for the References list, and assignletters in alphabetical order to the years: (1996a), (1996b), (1996c). Use theyear-letter combination in parenthetical references. Note that a citation oftwo or more such works lists the year extensions in alphabetical order.</p><p>Jones (1996c) drew new conclusions from the results of 17 sets of experi-ments (Jones, 1996a, 1996b).</p><p>9. Two or More Authors with the Same Last NameAPA</p><p>Include first initials for every in-text citation of authors who share a last name.Use the initials appearing in the References list. (In the second example, a par-enthetical citation, the name order is alphabetical, as explained in item 12.)</p><p>TROYMC33_44_0131889567.QXD 1/27/06 6:44 PM Page 433</p></li><li><p>434</p><p>APA</p><p>34c APA DOCUMENTATION WITH CASE STUDY </p><p>R. A. Smith (1997) and C. Smith (1989) both confirm these results.</p><p>These results have been confirmed independently (C. Smith, 1989; R. A. Smith, 1997).</p><p>10. Work with a Group or Corporate AuthorAPA</p><p>If you use a source in which the author is a corporation, agency, or group,an in-text reference gives that name as author. Use the full name in each cita-tion, unless an abbreviated version of the name is likely to be familiar to youraudience. In that case, use the full name and give its abbreviation at the firstcitation; then, use the abbreviation for subsequent citations.</p><p>This exploration will continue into the 21st century (National Aeronauticsand Space Administration [NASA], 1996). [In subsequent citations, use theabbreviated form alone.]</p><p>11. Work Listed by TitleAPA</p><p>If no author is named, use a shortened form of the title for in-text citations.Ignoring A, An, or The, make the first word the one by which you alphabet-ize the title in your References. The following example refers to an articlefully titled Are You a Day or Night Person?</p><p>Scientists group people as larks or owls on the basis of whether indi-viduals are more efficient in the morning or at night (Are You, 1989).</p><p>12. Reference to More Than One SourceAPA</p><p>If more than one source has contributed to an idea or opinion in your paper,cite the sources alphabetically by author in one set of parentheses; separateeach block of information with a semicolon, as in the following example.</p><p>Conceptions of personal space vary among cultures (Morris, 1977;Worchel &amp; Cooper, 1983).</p><p>13. Personal Communication, Including E-Mail and Other Nonretrievable SourcesAPA</p><p>Telephone calls, personal letters, interviews, and e-mail messages are per-sonal communications that your readers cannot access or retrieve. Acknowl-edge personal communications in parenthetical references, but neverinclude them in your References list at the end of your research paper.</p><p>Recalling his first summer at camp, one person said, The proximity of 12other kids made mean only child with older, quiet parentsfrantic foreight weeks (A. Weiss, personal communication, January 12, 2006).</p><p>14. Reference to an Entire Online SourceAPA</p><p>If an online source does not provide page numbers, use the paragraph num-ber preceded by the abbreviation para. If you cannot decipher the page</p><p>TROYMC33_44_0131889567.QXD 1/27/06 6:44 PM Page 434</p></li><li><p>435</p><p>APA</p><p>What are APA guidelines for writing an abstract? 34d</p><p>number or the paragraph, cite the heading and the number of the paragraphfollowing it.</p><p>(Anderson, 2003, para. 14)(Migueis, 2002, Introduction, para. 1)</p><p>15. Other References to Retrievable Online SourcesAPA</p><p>When you quote, paraphrase, or summarize an online source that is availableto others, cite the author (if any) or title and the date as you would for a printsource, and include the work in your References list.</p><p>16. Source Lines for Graphics and Table DataAPA</p><p>If you use a graphic from another source or create a table using data fromanother source, provide a note at the bottom of the table or graphic, creditingthe original author and the copyright holder. Here are examples of two sourcelines, one for a graphic from an article, the other for a graphic from a book.</p><p>G r a p h i c f r o m a n A r t i c l e A P ANote. The data in columns 1 and 2 are from Bridge Over TroubledWaters? Connecting Research and Pedagogy in Composition and Busi-ness/Technical Communication, by J. Allen, 1992, Technical Communica-tion Quarterly, 1 (4), p. 9. Copyright 1992 by the Association of Teachers ofTechnical Writing. Adapted with permission of the author.</p><p>G r a p h i c f r o m a B o o k A P ANote. From How to Lower Your Fat Thermostat: The No-Diet Reprogram-ming Plan for Lifelong Weight Control (p. 74), by D. Remington, A. G. Fisher, and E. Parent, 1983, Provo, UT: Vitality House International.Copyright 1983 by Vitality House International. Reprinted with permissionof the publisher.</p><p>34d What are APA guidelines for writing an abstract?</p><p>As the APA Publication Manual explains, an abstract is a brief, comprehen-sive summary (p. 12) of a longer piece of writing. APA estimates that anabstract should be limited in length to about 120 words or less. Your instruc-tor may require that you include an abstract at the start of a paper; if yourenot sure, ask. Make the abstract accurate, objective, and exact. Actually,when studying the social sciences, you may have become familiar with effective abstracts, for many disciplines have online abstracts of longersources. See 34g for guidelines on formatting an Abstract page. Here is an abstract prepared for the research paper on biological clocks that appearsin 34h.</p><p>TROYMC33_44_0131889567.QXD 1/27/06 6:44 PM Page 435</p></li><li><p>436</p><p>APA</p><p>34f APA DOCUMENTATION WITH CASE STUDY</p><p>Guidelines for an APA-style References list</p><p> TITLE</p><p>References</p><p> PLACEMENT OF LIST</p><p>Start a new page numbered sequentially with the rest of the paper,before the Notes pages, if any.</p><p> CONTENTS AND FORMAT</p><p>Include all quoted, paraphrased, or summarized sources in your paperthat are not personal communications, unless your instructor tells youto include all the references you have consulted, not just those you</p><p>BOX 34-1 S U M M A RY</p><p>Circadian rhythms, which greatly affect human lives, often sufferdisruptions in technological societies, resulting in such disorders as jetlag syndrome and seasonal affective disorder (SAD). With growingscientific awareness of both natural circadian cycles and the effects ofdisturbances of these cycles, individuals are learning to control somenegative effects.</p><p>34e What are APA guidelines for content notes?Content notes in APA-style papers add relevant information that cannot beworked effectively into a text discussion. Use consecutive arabic numeralsfor note numbers, both within your paper and on any separate page follow-ing the last text page of your paper. See 34g for instructions on formattingthe Footnotes page.</p><p>34f What ar...</p></li></ul>


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