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  1. 1. Terrorismo
  2. 2. El 11 de septiembre, enemigos de la libertad cometieron un acto de guerra contra nuestro pas ... O estn con nosotros o estn con los terroristas. ~ President George W. Bush, 20 Sep 2001 "... El pueblo estadounidense debe permanecer vigilante .... Aquellos conspirar contra nosotros buscamos no slo para socavar nuestra seguridad, sino tambin la sociedad abierta y los valores que apreciamos como estadounidenses. ~ President Barack Obama, 28 Dec 2009
  3. 3. Historia definiciones Las caractersticas, objetivos, y Tcticas Poltica Nacional de Estados Unidos y Poltica Militar Futuro del terrorismo Overview
  4. 4. El terrorismo para lograr agendas polticas no es nuevo disidentes judos se opusieron a la dominacin romana (48 C. E.) secta islmica llamada Hashshashin seguido la "causas justas" Cruzados emplea la violacin como tctica de terror Hassan-i Sabbah, Iranian missionary who founded the Hashshashin History
  5. 5. Desde 1990, el fundamentalismo religioso surgi como fuerza primaria para el terror La proliferacin de armas redujo la brecha entre el poder de fuego del estado y de los disidentes History Radical Shiite Muqtada al-Sadr
  6. 6. Walter Laqueur: "El terrorismo constituye el uso ilegtimo de la fuerza para alcanzar un objetivo poltico cuando las personas inocentes estn dirigidos." Departamento de Defensa: "El uso ilegal o amenaza de uso de fuerza o violencia contra las personas o la propiedad de coaccionar o intimidar a gobiernos o sociedades, a menudo para conseguir objetivos polticos, religiosos o ideolgicos." Definitions
  7. 7. Joint Pub. 3-07.2 El uso ilegal de la violencia o la amenaza de violencia para infundir miedo y coaccionar a los gobiernos o sociedades. El terrorismo es a menudo motivado por creencias ideolgicas religiosas, polticas o de otro tipo y comprometido en la bsqueda de objetivos que son generalmente de carcter poltico. - Joint Publication 3-07.2, Antiterrorism
  8. 8. Violencia objetivo poltico impacto psicolgico y el miedo La orientacin de los no combatientes Guerra de guerrillas ......? Key Criteria
  9. 9. Guerilla vs. Terrorism Targets Mostly military, police, or political opponents State symbols, political opponents, and the public at large Intended Impact Mainly physical attrition of the enemy Psychological coercion Tactics Commando-type operations Specialized tactics: kidnapping, car bombs, hijacking, etc. International Legality Yes, if follow rules of armed conduct No Guerilla Terrorism
  10. 10. Typologies of Terrorism Poltica: los gobiernos fuerza para cambiar la estructura o polticas, o para lograr un cambio social radical Religiosa: Objetivos / acciones divinamente guiados; a menudo vinculados a las identidades tnicas y nacionalistas Social: "inters especial" 2004: Train bombings in Spain Group responsible for attack has link to Al Qaeda
  11. 11. 1: Domestic Terrorism Terrorism perpetrated by the citizens of a country against their fellow citizens Two Categories of Terrorism
  12. 12. 2: International or transnational terrorism Terrorism in which planning and execution of the terrorist act transcends national boundaries Examples: Hezbollah; Al Qaeda Two Categories of Terrorism
  13. 13. Characteristics Status: Most from middle class backgrounds, with some from extreme wealth Education: Intelligent and literate, with varying levels of formal education Age: Operational members aged between 20- 35, while suicide bombers tend to be younger Gender: Most are male but not exclusively Theres nothing wrong with being a terrorist, as long as you win. (Paul Watson, Sea Shepherd Conservation Society)
  14. 14. Attract attention for cause Demonstrate groups power Show governments lack of power Exact revenge Obtain logistical support Cause a government to overreact Objectives of Terrorism
  15. 15. 2. Intelligence and surveillance: Information gathering on the targets with greatest possibility of success (e.g., schedules, security, layout, etc.) 3. Specific target selection: Decision point!6. Action: Generally, goal is to get in, get the job done, and get out before security forces can react 1.Broad target selection: Collection of data on large number of potential targets 7. Escape and exploitation: Escape plans well rehearsed and exploitation of successful attack vital to achieve desired effect 4. Pre-attack surveillance and planning: Quantity and quality of data gathering increases, and usually is gathered over days to weeks 5. Attack rehearsal: Often includes relocation to target site, testing of security responsiveness and escape routes, and checking equipment performance Terrorist Planning Cycle
  16. 16. Tactics Assassination Arson Bombing Hostage taking Kidnapping Hijacking Seizures Raids Sabotage Threat or Hoax Use of WMD Between now and 2015 terrorist tactics will become increasingly sophisticated and designed to achieve mass casualties. (National Intelligence Council)
  17. 17. AssassinationMurder of prominent persons, symbolic enemies, or traitors who defect from the group ArsonRequires little technical knowledge, poses low risk to terrorist, and can cause significant destruction Tactics Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat (top right) and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin (below)
  18. 18. BombingExplosive devices commonly employed in warfare are now an integral part of the terrorists arsenal Oct 1983: Marine barracks in Beirut; 245 were killed and 146 wounded Oct 2000: Navy destroyer USS Cole attacked, resulting in the death of 17 sailors and 39 injured Tactics
  19. 19. Improvised explosive device (IED) is the terrorists weapon of choice: Inexpensive to produce Detonation techniques Low risk to the perpetrator Placement/concealment High attention-getting capacity Tactics
  20. 20. Sep 2004: Chechen terrorists took hundreds of school children and adults hostage in Beslan, Russia Oct 2002: Ingrid Betancourt kidnapped by the FARC; still missing Hostage taking: Overt seizure of individuals with the intent of gaining publicity or concessions in return for release of the hostage Kidnapping: Covert seizure of one or more specific person(s) in order to extract specific demands Tactics Rescued
  21. 21. 1976: Highjacked Flight 139 out of Tel Aviv was diverted to Entebbe, Uganda. Israeli forces, led by Col Yoni Netanyahu, rescued the hostages in Operation Thunderbolt. Netanyahu was the only military casualty. Hijacking or Skyjacking: Normally executed to produce a spectacular hostage situation; any passenger transport can be used Seizure: Usually involves a building or object that has value in the eyes of the audience Tactics
  22. 22. Raids/Attacks on Facilities: Done to gain access to media, acquire resources, and/or demonstrate governments inability to secure critical facilities Sabotage: Destruction of equipment or infrastructure to demonstrate vulnerability of society and to disrupt services Tactics April 2005: Insurgents led a coordinated attack on Abu Ghraib prison; intended to free detainees and kill US forces FAILED!
  23. 23. Threat or Hoaxes: Threat that causes diversion of resources; can dull effectiveness of preventive or countermeasures Use of WMD: Chemical weapons used in the past many groups have expressed desire to acquire WMD Tactics 1995: Terror group Aum Shinrikyo released Sarin gas in the Tokyo subway, injuring thousands and killing 12 people Acquiring weapons (WMD) for the defense of Muslims is a religious duty. (Osama Bin Laden)
  24. 24. 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 Terrorist Attacks 1970-2007
  25. 25. First articulated by the Reagan administration and reaffirmed by every president since Four enduring policy principles Make no concessions to terrorists Bring terrorists to justice for their crimes Isolate and apply pressure on states that sponsor terrorism to force them to change their behavior Bolster the counterterrorist capabilities of those countries that work with the United States and require assistance US Terror Policy
  26. 26. Advance effective democracies as the long-term antidote to the ideology of terrorism; Prevent attacks by terrorist networks; Deny weapons of mass destruction to rogue states and terrorist allies who seek to use them; Deny terrorists the support and sanctuary of rogue states; Deny terrorists control of any nation they would use as a base and launching pad for terror; and Lay the foundations and build the institutions and structures we need to carry the fight forward against terror and help ensure our ultimate success. National Strategy for Combating Terrorism
  27. 27. Dept. of Homeland Security established: Third largest cabinet department after DOD and VA Incorporates existing agencies, including US Coast Guard, Secret Service, and Citizenship and Immigration Service (CIS) Coordinates capabilities of 22+ agencies to: Secure borders, transportation, critical infrastructure Synthesize/analyze homeland security intelligence Spearheads domestic counter-terrorism efforts US Policy Post 9/11
  28. 28. Guiding principles: US forces will continue to engage Force protection will be a major consideration DOD addresses terrorism from two distinct perspectives: Counterterrorism (offensive) Anti-terrorism (defensive) Intelligence critical component for success US Military Policy
  29. 29. Counterterrorism Offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, and respond to terrorism include Operation El Dorado Canyon and the GWOT Antiterrorism Defensive measures to reduce vulnerability include facility hardening, setting buildings back from roads/parking lots, and limiting access to military posts US Military Policy
  30. 30. Force ProtectionAn integrated application of offensive/defensive actions that d