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Unit 1, 16, 24 Task 4: Editing By Jack kilminster

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Task 4: Editing

Unit 1, 16, 24Task 4: Editing By Jack kilminster

Purpose of editing The purpose of editing is when, someone edits a video using different techniques and skills to explain a story through the passage of different scenes, in their own vision. There are many aspects to editing such as, its used to piece together raw footage, by using different aspects such as cutting, altering or annotating, ETC. These functions are used such as many others to put together scenes to create different videos, these story's implying a message can be linear/ non linear depending on the video that the producers are makingSome example of linear and non linear videos are of the followingMichael Jacksons thriller video is in chronological order through out the story so it is linear, compared to maroon 5s video Payphone which is non linear as it is not in chronological order as it has flashbacks to the story he is telling to show how he ended up like this ,or a movie example of non linear is the movie Memento (2000). Most movies or videos are in chronological order, and non linear movies/videos are not as big as linear movies as most story's are chronological



Editing is a technique used to piece together scenes in usually a logic order to tell a story/ message which they want to get a cross When creating a story there are key themes that need to be looked into and included to making a successful video or movie.So for example the video must have a story line, which is the plot/ background of the story. The story also must have an arrangement of events, that reveal and complete the storyline, which also provides the overall message of the story. This is the narrative side of the plot which all videos should include. The storyline also has different options in which it can end the video or movie, these options are a open-ended storyline, which is a cliff hanger leaving the audience in a bewilderment, as they will not know what happens until the next episode or movie. Another way of ended a movie is a closed story line were the plot or story line finishes and there is no more left to carry on with as the story is finished and the message broadcasted from the theme and story has been completed. An example of a open-end storyline is the series the walking dead , this is an example of as open-end storyline as at the of season 6 where we currently are. The story ends with a very dramatic cliff hanger which really leaves the viewer on the edge, then left with the thirst to know what happens next. An example of a closed story line is the movie the god father part three, this is a closed story line as it has nothing more to explain about its message or anything more to go forward with in the story.Principals of editing



Another principal of editing is combination of shots, combination of shots is a technique editors, they bring the viewer in and establish setting, feeling and relationship. They do this by combining a mixture of shot types and angles. These shots include, extreme long shot, a long shot, a medium shot, a close up and a extreme close-up, there ae other shots also such as birds eye view, high angle, eye level, low angle and oblique/ canted angle. All these shots and angles represent a different way on viewing the scene or the main actors in the scene. But they must be in a specific order otherwise it can disorientate the viewer for example it would have to be a extreme long shot, then long shot, then a medium shot etc. A good example of a scene which includes a good combination of shots to draw in the viewer is the scene In X-Men days of the future past were the scene is slowed down to show how quick sliver saves everyone in the scene with him.Another is creating pace while editing in a film is where a films speeds up or slows down certain parts of the film. Pace changes the way the audiences view films and make them understand it in different ways. An example of films that would use a fast pace would be action films such as fast and furious, a car chase or some sort of running scene would be included where fast pace would be relevant. To the create a fast pace scene, shots are cut quickly and move to other different shots to create the feeling of pace. A slower pace would be used in a drama/love story type of film such as rocky 3 in the scene were he takes on clubber Lang the scene slows down showing the intensity rising. This allows the audience to see and understand the scene and characters fully without getting distracted by quick cut shots. This is done by having longer shots in a scene.




The last principal is the 180 rule, the 180 degree rule states that when filming a scene or video, the camera or cameras should remain the same side of this imaginary line, this line is drawn perpendicular to the cameras view point in the establishing shot of the scene, an example of this is two people facing each other having a conversation, is the camera is facing them from one side the camera should not travel to the other side ( the two people switching sides in the scene) because this will disorientate the viewer, the only time this rule can be broken is when during the process of the switch of sides the shot shows the view point of the camera moving to the other side, so it does not disorientate the viewer. Or to show effect like in the movie the shinning, the rule is broken here to show Slowly how Jack slowly starts to loose his mind and then becomes possessed by the evil, demonic presence in the hotel. . The same applies in a football match the camera view when watching the game will always stay on the same side otherwise the viewer will get disorientated and not know what's going on. An example of how the 180 degree is supposed to be followed is in the movie kinsman with the scene of Harrys death with the stand off between him and Samuel. L . Jackson, as the camera does not break the 180 degree rule https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wN6TPtaBKwk


Principals of editing

Editing techniques There are many different editing techniques involved editing, and they have to be precisely looked into carefully to make sure that there are no mistakes when making a movie, video or episode. These techniques are. Continuity editing, which Is making sure that props, clothing, actions etc. are all the same when crossing over into the next scene but sometimes this doesnt always go to plan. In the movie the dark knight, the scene fails as the continuity of editing is not looked at, as when the scene changes what Harvey has on his pillow is no longer there.Another is match on action, this were action begins in one scene has to carry on in beginning of the next. So an example is the movie captain America civil war in the part were the major battles of the two sides of the avengers battle, over what they both believe is correct, this scene is a good example of match on action as the fighting occurring in one scene carries on and unfolds in the next. Another is parallel editing which is when during a movie the scene cuts between two or more storylines, which are occurring at the same time, but in different places. An example of parallel editing is in the movie silence of the lambs and American sniper as both movies have scenes were two storylines are happening at once. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pfmkRi_tr9c




Other examples of editing techniques include things like cutaways, which are shots cutting away from the main subject, to show other things happening in the scene around it. For example in the movie seed of chucky this technique is used in most scenes, in this scene its used to show the surrounding reaction of what chucky has done.Jump cuts are also used in editing but not a common thing that is used in videos as there is a certain way of using them , an example of a jump cut is in the movie the ring when she leaves the TV, the jump cut is included to speed up her movement towards him.Other cuts include match cut and graphic match cut, these are were an action that is shown in one scene will then be repeated in a similar fashion in the next scene. So an example of this is in the matrix, in the part of the movie were neo and trinity are trying to save Morpheus, this part includes lots of match cuts as there is a lot of action in the scenes, as the action begins in one scene it then carries on and ends in the next. Graphic match cut is very similar but instead of actions by people, it is of objects, so an object transforms over the process of one scene to the next scene.





Editing techniques

Editing techniques Shot reverse shot, is another technique and is were the camera shots switch from character A looking at character B, to character B looking at character A. An example of this is spider man were you have the green goblin having a conversation with himself through a mirror. Another is wipes, a wipe is were the subsequent scene wipes over the previous scene.There is also fade In/fade out and dissolve. Fade in fade In out is a gradual transition from one shot to the next, an example one darkens the other brightens, a movie example of this is in lord of the rings the beginning scene. Dissolve is when one scene mixes with another, one fades out and the other fades in, showing how there is a smooth transition from one scene to another.






These two links are examples of a dissolve technique and a fade in/fade out technique

Editing techniques The last three editing techniques are superimposition, which is when one image is mixed with on top of another image. An example of this is when Simba is running through the desert in the lion king.You also have slow motion/fast motion which is when the action is sped up or slowed down. an example of slow motion scenes include Edward scissor hands, the matrix and bad boys etc. Examples of fast motion scenes in videos include the Incredibles, Lucy and alien etc.The last is ellipsis which is when you emphasise something more to come. So when you cut out a period of time so the audience can fill it in with their imagination about what happen during that period of time. An example of an ellipsis in a movie is in edge of tomorrow, were tom cruise gets shocked in one location and hen somehow wakes up in another location.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sr8JFq1BVE4



Examples of fast and slow motion videos.

History and development of editing https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U76MBDKQe8s

history of editing


History and development of editing Early films were short films that were one long, static, and locked-down shot. Motion in the shot was all that was necessary to amuse an audience, so the first films simply showed activity such as traffic moving on a city street. There was no story and no editing. Each film ran as long as there was film in the camera. although The film industry was thought to have a dead future when moving pictures were first released, as people realised there was no point of paying to watch something they could see in real life.Editing has advanced a lot since the start of the Film and television era due to certain editing techniques and people. The first two people who 'invented' the film industry were the Lumire brothers although they only created the camera not the actual editing. The brothers were well known for creating a camera that could capture and play moving images and project them on to a wall for people to view. This was titled the Cinematographer and was patented in 1895. This was a big revelation in the industry as the only other camera before this that could capture moving images was Edison's kinetoscope. The problem with this was that only one person could view it at a time and the actually camera was huge. This made it impractical to use. . Although the Lumiere Brothers had a great invention and in the early periods of moving pictures, the Lumiere presentations in Paris delighted people, drawing huge crowds., but Edwin S. Porter came along and showed that film didnt have to be one long still in 1901. Edwin S. Porter also used footage to tell a different story unrelated to what the footage originally was meant to portray. Some of the first movies to portray the first editing techniques discovered was the movies life of an American fire man filmed in 1903 and the great train robbery, these portrayed the first cutting of film as two stories going on at the same time with no relevance at the time to each other, were combined in film until they combine in the actual story both films portrayed this important effect in film today, this was discover by DW. Griffiths one of Hollywood's most iconic and previously famous directors.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U76MBDKQe8shistory of editing D.W Griffiths had the highest standing among American directors in the industry, because of the dramatic excitement he conveyed to the audience through his films.In 1908 D.W Griffiths film For Love of Gold featured the first ever continuity cut when a scene cut. Griffiths then realised that emotions could also be portrayed through different camera angles and pace of editing and it wasnt all down to the actors. Griffiths was given credit for the narrative of a film, the production of the first American feature film and the discovery of the close up. This is his first directed one reel film. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cYQCTEYjYDAThe Birth of a Nation is based on the Novel The Clansman -1915 The film included camera techniques such as panoramic long shots, iris effect, still shots, cross cutting and panning shots . The use of these techniques allowed the audience to feel more involved with what is going on. This lead on to other discoveries in editing such as montages, this was called the kuleshov effect because it was discover by a soviet director lev kuleshov in 1920, he believed this would enable the audience to respond more to the video Also you had the first combination of shots in a video which really threw the audience as in previous videos it was all one distance, this technique was introduced in 1921 in the movie orphans of a storm.But Until 1927, motion pictures were produced without sound. This era is referred to as the silent era of film. To enhance the viewers' experience, silent films were commonly accompanied by live musicians in an orchestra, a theatre organ, and sometimes sound effects and even commentary spoken by the showman or projectionist

History and development of editing

Analogue editing Analogue editing was used before editing on a computer. The film negative when completed was cut down and pasted into an order. It then went through a machine such as Moviola or K.E.M this was done for many years as many editors preferred this compared to when computers where introduced, these machines which would cut tapes and stick them together were known as analogue machines, as they were hardware machines as they required you to be involved in the process of cutting and sticking together tapes, They used to use machines such as Steen becks which revolutionized the industry when it was introduced. which were used to play tapes through computers so they could the tapes with more detail the tapes would be cut and attached back together depending in the order of the scenes, this process can take a very long time as, the pictures on the tape could in 24th of a second, which could mean for editors that it would take a very long time to edit down the tape to a two hour movie, the directors could record up to 200 hours of film for a movie and this could stretch from LA to Vegas, so it was very difficult with what they had to decide what to keep and what to cut. The transition from analogue machinery to digital editing was around the late 1990s. Digital Editing didnt come around until the late 1990s around 1998 star wars the first movie was released, this was the first transition for a movie to be edit using digital based editing instead of machinery such as the moviola and the steenbecks. Editing with a computer is much faster and more efficient for film in the beginning the first introduction of. Many different programs can be used such as Final Cut Pro, Adobe Premier and iMovie. Footage is put onto the timeline and is then cut and pasted into an order and then the effects are added. These programmed introduced more features, within editing which revolutionized the industry allow movies to have a lot more detail as special effects and the effects introduced gave the industry much more depth, as there are now many different ways in which movies can be edited as of all the different details that go into movies today are a lot more vast compared to when movies were first brought around showing the massive improvement in technology and how it as allowed things such as film to grow also and movies are a big thing of today.