SUSTAINABLE MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ... Apart from Biomedical Waste generation, ... Private Sweepers collect waste from households inhandcarts and

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<ul><li><p>Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing &amp; Management Review__________________________________________ ISSN 2319-2836 Vol.2 (5), May (2013) Online available at indianresearchjournals.com </p><p>118 </p><p>SUSTAINABLE MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT </p><p>STRATEGIES: NEED OF PPP MODEL FOR AGRA </p><p>DR.K.VASANTA*; DR.PRIYASAUNI** </p><p> *STAFF MEMBER, </p><p>DAYALBAGH EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTE (DEEMED UNIVERSITY), </p><p>DAYALBAGH, AGRA </p><p>**RESEARCH FELLOW, </p><p>DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS, </p><p>AGRA COLLEGE, AGRA </p><p>_____________________________________________________________________________________ </p><p>ABSTRACT </p><p>Due to rapid increases in population over the last few decades, urbanization, industrial growth, </p><p>and rise in living standards, the generation rate of municipal solid waste in Indian cities and </p><p>towns have also accelerated. Improper waste handling poses serious health and environmental </p><p>problems. In India, the urban local bodies, popularly known as the municipal </p><p>corporations/councils, are responsible for management of activities related to public health. </p><p>These bodies are doing their best but not successful in deed. Agra is also an example for the </p><p>above situation. Here also, we find variety of waste leading the city more unhygienic and </p><p>Haphazard growth of urban area particularly in the last 20 years, also developed several slum </p><p>areas. Hygienic conditions and civic facilities are so declining that the existence of such areas in </p><p>the city presents a horrible and dirty view to the tourists. For this city, there should be sustainable </p><p>waste management strategies which arelagging behind.The researcher felt that there should be </p><p>Public Private Partnership to sustain the waste management so that the city appears more clean </p><p>and hygienic. In this paper, we try to analyze the waste management strategies and the need of </p><p>PPP model for Agra. </p><p>KEYWORD: Municipal Corporation, Public Private Partnership, Solid waste, Waste </p><p>Management _____________________________________________________________________________________ </p><p>1.INTRODUCTION </p><p>The Agra city is situated on the banks of the river Yamuna. The city is known for TajMahal, one </p><p>of the Seven Wonders of the World which draws tourist from all over theworld. The city has rich </p><p>historical background, which is amply evident from thenumerous historical monuments in and </p><p>around the city. </p><p> Solid Waste Management (SWM) is an organized process of storage, </p><p>collection,transportation, processing and disposal of solid refuse residuals in an </p><p>engineeredsanitary landfill. It is an integrated process comprising several collection methods, </p><p>varied transportation equipment, storage, recovery mechanisms for recyclablematerial, reduction </p><p>of waste volume and quantity by methods such as composting,waste-to-power and disposal in a </p><p>designated engineered sanitary landfill. Solid waste is generated from a number of sources which </p><p>includehouseholds (kitchen and yards), commercial areas (shops, hotels, and </p><p>restaurants),industries (raw material and packaging), institutions (schools, hospitals, and </p></li><li><p>Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing &amp; Management Review__________________________________________ ISSN 2319-2836 Vol.2 (5), May (2013) Online available at indianresearchjournals.com </p><p>119 </p><p>offices),construction and demolition sites, wild and domesticated animals (carcasses of </p><p>deadanimals, manure), parks (fallen branches, leaves from trees) and streets (sand, silt,clay, </p><p>concrete, bricks, asphalt, residues from air deposition and dust).Improper and unorganized </p><p>disposal of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in open areasand landfills have a negative impact on </p><p>the living conditions of human beings aswell as the overall environment. It results in spread of </p><p>communicable and non-communicablediseases among human beings and animals, thus affecting </p><p>thewelfare, livelihood and economic productivity. In addition, it causes contaminationsof soil, </p><p>surface water, ground water and generation of toxic and green-house gases. </p><p>Table 1: SOURCE &amp; TYPES OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE </p><p>Source Typical Waste Generators Components of solid waste </p><p>Residential Single &amp;multifamily </p><p>dwellings </p><p>Food waste, paper, cardboard, plastics, textiles, </p><p>glass, metals, ashes, special wastes (bulky items, </p><p>consumer electronics, batteries, tires &amp; household </p><p>hazardous wastes </p><p>Commercial Stores, Hotels, </p><p>Restaurants, Markets, </p><p>Office buildings </p><p>Paper, cardboard, plastic, wood, food waste, glass, </p><p>metals, special wastes, hazardous wastes </p><p>Institutional Schools, govt. centres, </p><p>hospitals </p><p>Paper, cardboard, plastics, wood, food wastes, </p><p>glass, metals, special wastes, hazardous wastes </p><p>Municipal </p><p>waste </p><p>Street cleaning, </p><p>landscaping, parks, </p><p>beaches, recreational areas </p><p>Street sweeping, landscape &amp; tree trimmings, </p><p>general wastes from parks, beaches and other </p><p>recreational areas </p><p>Source: National Solid Waste Association of India </p><p>2.POPULATION OF AGRA </p><p>As per as census 2001, the population of Agra is estimated 12.75 lakhs (excludingpopulation of </p><p>cantonment of Agra) with a decadal growth rate of 30.37%. During thepost-independence period </p><p>commerce showed a phenomenal increase with theassociated industrial development and </p><p>establishment of industrial estate, whichresulted in the increase of city population. In the last four </p><p>decades growth rate wasmaximum of 32.15%. In the year 2011, population of Agra crossed 15 </p><p>lakhs and solid waste also increased with the population increase. Chart 1: Population Projection-Agra </p></li><li><p>Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing &amp; Management Review__________________________________________ ISSN 2319-2836 Vol.2 (5), May (2013) Online available at indianresearchjournals.com </p><p>120 </p><p>3.NAGAR NIGAM The main organization which is responsible for urban governance and civicmanagement is the </p><p>Agra Nagar Nigam. TheNagar Nigam is divided into 90 election wards which are further divided </p><p>into 19Sanitary wards being headed by sanitary inspectors. The sanitary inspector isresponsible </p><p>for managing the fleet routes, collection procedure, allocating diesel tovehicles, street sweeping </p><p>and de-lineation of responsibility of the supervisors andsafaikaramcharis. </p><p>Chart 2: Administrative Structure of Nagar Nigam Agra </p><p> 4. SOURCES OF WASTE GENERATION IN AGRA </p><p>The primary source of waste generation in Agra city are the local households, markets </p><p>andcommercial establishments such as hotels, restaurants, shops etc. Due tomismanagement and </p><p>unavailability of separate handling facilities, Waste fromindustrial establishment, Hospitals and </p><p>nursing homes, slaughter houses, streetsweeping and sanitary drains etc. also contribute to MSW. </p><p>As lot of demolition ofold structures and reconstruction works are taking place, construction </p><p>anddemolition waste is significant. Agra is famous for Petha sweets and petha makingproduces </p><p>substantial quantity of organic waste. Dairy waste also contributes to citywaste generation. Apart </p><p>from this, there is a huge generation of leather and rubbertrimming from small Footwear units </p></li><li><p>Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing &amp; Management Review__________________________________________ ISSN 2319-2836 Vol.2 (5), May (2013) Online available at indianresearchjournals.com </p><p>121 </p><p>spread in the city which adds up major portionto Municipal solid waste.The waste generated in </p><p>the various parts of the city reaches the open dumps anddustbins that are located in each part of </p><p>the city. </p><p>House Hold Waste Generation: </p><p>The residential/household accounts for about 352MT/Day of total waste generation in the city. </p><p>Table 2: House Hold Waste Generation </p><p> Source: NNA </p><p>Waste from Commercial establishment: </p><p>The commercial areas identified in Agra city are situated throughout the city andinclude Sanjay </p><p>Palace, Bhagwan Talkies chaurah, Bijligharchaurah, NaikiMandi,Rakabganj, DayalBagh Road, </p><p>BhagirathMarg etc. These areas are mixed zonescomprising of commercial (shops and markets) </p><p>and residential areas as well as hotelsand restaurants.MSW generated from Commercial </p><p>establishment is more recyclable and inert wastecompared to organic waste. However a bulk </p><p>waste like cartoon etc. is recycled atsource and does not add on to total MSW generation. </p><p>Table 3: Commercial Waste </p><p> Source: NNA </p></li><li><p>Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing &amp; Management Review__________________________________________ ISSN 2319-2836 Vol.2 (5), May (2013) Online available at indianresearchjournals.com </p><p>122 </p><p>Waste generation from Hospitals &amp; Nursing Homes: </p><p>Apart from Biomedical Waste generation, Hospital and nursing home generates </p><p>noninfectiouswaste which contributes to total MSW generation. According to theCPHEEO </p><p>guidelines the waste generation by medical institution will be around 1.5kg/bed/ day of which </p><p>75% will be noninfectious i.e., Municipal solid waste and25% will be biomedical waste. As </p><p>reported in City Development Plan and by NNA,Agra has 127private hospitals and about 101 </p><p>government hospitals and medicaloffices in the city. The total bed strength reported is about </p><p>8000. </p><p>Waste generation from Hotels/Restaurants/Banquet Hall </p><p>A summary of number of eating joints/ hotels identified in Agra city is provided in Table 4 .The </p><p>waste from these establishments mostly includes left-over food, anddisposable crockery. </p><p>Workers of these establishments dump the wastes at nearbycontainer/ open dump from where the </p><p>same is transported to designated dumpsiteby Nagar Nigam workers. An estimate of the total </p><p>waste generated in metric tonsper day (MT/day) from hotels, restaurants, guest houses, marriage </p><p>halls. </p><p>Table 4: Waste generation from Hotels/Restaurants/Banquet Hall </p><p>Waste generation from Industries </p><p>There are various small scale and cottageindustries in Agra city. Based on observations made by </p><p>the survey team about theseindustries, the MSW is primarily generated from Petha and Footwear </p><p>unit. Petha units are mostly located at NooriDarwazaand Raja Mandi .The petha waste is </p><p>biodegradable and about 50% is eaten up bygrazing animals. However, significant amount of </p><p>waste is thrown in nallah and </p><p>nearby secondary collection points. The leather and rubber trimming from footwearindustry is </p><p>accounted largely at Mantola, Dholikhar, </p><p>Khattipara,Azamganj,Gobarchowki,pankisarai,Naikimandi, shakuntla Nagar, Raj Nagar,khaitana </p><p>road, gopalpura,Nandpura ,Devi road, Mohan pura, Budhvihar,TilaNandRam,Kajiparaand many </p><p>other places. Waste from Large leather and Rubber industry is notprominent but job works done </p><p>by individuals for larger establishment which aremainly done at cottage level does not practice </p><p>recycling rather throw waste in openareas or nallahs. It was also observed that accumulated </p><p>waste at open dump ordustbins was burnt in order to reduce the volume when it remains </p><p>unattended forseveral days. The total leather and rubber waste estimated at secondary </p><p>collectionpoint is approximately 60 MT/ Day. </p></li><li><p>Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing &amp; Management Review__________________________________________ ISSN 2319-2836 Vol.2 (5), May (2013) Online available at indianresearchjournals.com </p><p>123 </p><p>Construction and Demolition Sites: </p><p>This waste varies from time to time depending up on the construction or demolitionactivities in </p><p>Agra city. A major portion of this waste is generally used inreconstruction activities or for filling </p><p>up of the low lying areas or kacha road. Theindividual generating construction waste generally </p><p>engages private vehicle to collectthe construction waste and dump it any elsewhere in the city for </p><p>a nominal cost. </p><p>TABLE 5: SOLID WASTE GENERATION </p><p>Source wise break up of Solid Waste </p><p>Sources Waste Generation per day </p><p>(MT) </p><p>Percentage to the Total </p><p>Domestic 271 43.15 </p><p>Shops and Commercial </p><p>Establishments </p><p>262.5 41.80 </p><p>Petha waste 36 5.73 </p><p>Hospital Wastes 9.4 1.50 </p><p>Other* 49.1 7.82 </p><p>Grand Total 628 100 </p><p>*Construction &amp; demolition waste, waste generated by floating population </p><p>Source: Agra Nagar Nigam Detailed Project Report for Integrated Solid Waste Management </p><p>5. MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY IN AGRA </p><p>MSW Collection System in Agra City </p><p>MSW Collection conducted in two stages. In first stage, the waste collectedfrom door to door is </p><p>transported to dustbins and open dumps. In this stage,collection is not very efficient even though </p><p>large numbers of private sweepers areengaged in waste collection from door to door at a nominal </p><p>charge. Most residentsdrop the waste outside their residence, which in-turn is swept away by </p><p>streetsweeping and lifted by means of handcart, rickshaw trolley by Nagar Nigamworkers to the </p><p>nearby opens dumps. </p><p>In second stage waste filled DP Container is replaced with empty DP container byDumper placer </p><p>vehicle. The waste is transported to the designated dumpsite. Wastefrom open dumps is collected </p><p>in trucks/tipper trucks/tractor manually or by JCBsand Loaders and finally transported to the </p><p>designated dumpsite. The mode oftransportation of waste from secondary dumpsites is decided </p><p>on the basis of wastequantity as well as access road. </p><p>Primary Collection Systems </p><p>The primary collection of waste refers to house tohouse collection of waste in the community </p><p>bins either by the resident themselves orby the sanitary workers. There is no organized </p><p>arrangement for house to housecollection of waste in almost whole city except for some part of </p><p>the city. Communitybins are also not available at convenient locations for depositing the waste. </p><p>Private Sweepers collect waste from households inhandcarts and transport it to nearby open </p><p>dump/ Dustbins. Nagar Nigam workers(safaikaramcharis) collect waste that is thrown outside </p><p>the residences while sweepingthe streets. </p></li><li><p>Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing &amp; Management Review__________________________________________ ISSN 2319-2836 Vol.2 (5), May (2013) Online available at indianresearchjournals.com </p><p>124 </p><p>Secondary Waste Collection System </p><p>The MSW collected from each of the primary collection points istransported to designated open </p><p>dump areas and DP containers (mostly on the mainroads), which are the secondary collection </p><p>points identified in Agra. Most of thewaste is transported in rickshaw trolley and handcarts to the </p><p>secondary collectionpoints. The waste from the secondary collection points situated at congested </p><p>placesis lifted manually using pans and favdas tipper trolleys. In other cases JCB/ loadersare </p><p>used to load the tipper truck/trolley, which in turn are used to transport thiswaste. In addition, the </p><p>JCB loaders are used to lift the construction and demolitionwaste. </p><p>Recyclable Wastes </p><p>The recyclable wastes are segregated manually by kabadiwalas and rag-pickers. The kabadiwalas </p><p>purchase recyclable waste from residentialand commercial establishments while rag-pickers </p><p>collect recyclables from marketplaces, dustbins, and dumping sites, and sort them before selling </p><p>off. Majority of such groups are located at RavidasNagar, North Idgah, Police line, Idgah (also </p><p>on the back of IdgahNallah), Kathghar,Mohanpura, Chipitola behind puranimandi, Rakabganj </p><p>near police station etc. </p><p>Bio-degradable Wastes </p><p>The bio-degradable waste is not segregated eithe...</p></li></ul>

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