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  • Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing & Management Review__________________________________________ ISSN 2319-2836 Vol.2 (5), May (2013) Online available at indianresearchjournals.com

    118

    SUSTAINABLE MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

    STRATEGIES: NEED OF PPP MODEL FOR AGRA

    DR.K.VASANTA*; DR.PRIYASAUNI**

    *STAFF MEMBER,

    DAYALBAGH EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTE (DEEMED UNIVERSITY),

    DAYALBAGH, AGRA

    **RESEARCH FELLOW,

    DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS,

    AGRA COLLEGE, AGRA

    _____________________________________________________________________________________

    ABSTRACT

    Due to rapid increases in population over the last few decades, urbanization, industrial growth,

    and rise in living standards, the generation rate of municipal solid waste in Indian cities and

    towns have also accelerated. Improper waste handling poses serious health and environmental

    problems. In India, the urban local bodies, popularly known as the municipal

    corporations/councils, are responsible for management of activities related to public health.

    These bodies are doing their best but not successful in deed. Agra is also an example for the

    above situation. Here also, we find variety of waste leading the city more unhygienic and

    Haphazard growth of urban area particularly in the last 20 years, also developed several slum

    areas. Hygienic conditions and civic facilities are so declining that the existence of such areas in

    the city presents a horrible and dirty view to the tourists. For this city, there should be sustainable

    waste management strategies which arelagging behind.The researcher felt that there should be

    Public Private Partnership to sustain the waste management so that the city appears more clean

    and hygienic. In this paper, we try to analyze the waste management strategies and the need of

    PPP model for Agra.

    KEYWORD: Municipal Corporation, Public Private Partnership, Solid waste, Waste

    Management _____________________________________________________________________________________

    1.INTRODUCTION

    The Agra city is situated on the banks of the river Yamuna. The city is known for TajMahal, one

    of the Seven Wonders of the World which draws tourist from all over theworld. The city has rich

    historical background, which is amply evident from thenumerous historical monuments in and

    around the city.

    Solid Waste Management (SWM) is an organized process of storage,

    collection,transportation, processing and disposal of solid refuse residuals in an

    engineeredsanitary landfill. It is an integrated process comprising several collection methods,

    varied transportation equipment, storage, recovery mechanisms for recyclablematerial, reduction

    of waste volume and quantity by methods such as composting,waste-to-power and disposal in a

    designated engineered sanitary landfill. Solid waste is generated from a number of sources which

    includehouseholds (kitchen and yards), commercial areas (shops, hotels, and

    restaurants),industries (raw material and packaging), institutions (schools, hospitals, and

  • Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing & Management Review__________________________________________ ISSN 2319-2836 Vol.2 (5), May (2013) Online available at indianresearchjournals.com

    119

    offices),construction and demolition sites, wild and domesticated animals (carcasses of

    deadanimals, manure), parks (fallen branches, leaves from trees) and streets (sand, silt,clay,

    concrete, bricks, asphalt, residues from air deposition and dust).Improper and unorganized

    disposal of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in open areasand landfills have a negative impact on

    the living conditions of human beings aswell as the overall environment. It results in spread of

    communicable and non-communicablediseases among human beings and animals, thus affecting

    thewelfare, livelihood and economic productivity. In addition, it causes contaminationsof soil,

    surface water, ground water and generation of toxic and green-house gases.

    Table 1: SOURCE & TYPES OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

    Source Typical Waste Generators Components of solid waste

    Residential Single &multifamily

    dwellings

    Food waste, paper, cardboard, plastics, textiles,

    glass, metals, ashes, special wastes (bulky items,

    consumer electronics, batteries, tires & household

    hazardous wastes

    Commercial Stores, Hotels,

    Restaurants, Markets,

    Office buildings

    Paper, cardboard, plastic, wood, food waste, glass,

    metals, special wastes, hazardous wastes

    Institutional Schools, govt. centres,

    hospitals

    Paper, cardboard, plastics, wood, food wastes,

    glass, metals, special wastes, hazardous wastes

    Municipal

    waste

    Street cleaning,

    landscaping, parks,

    beaches, recreational areas

    Street sweeping, landscape & tree trimmings,

    general wastes from parks, beaches and other

    recreational areas

    Source: National Solid Waste Association of India

    2.POPULATION OF AGRA

    As per as census 2001, the population of Agra is estimated 12.75 lakhs (excludingpopulation of

    cantonment of Agra) with a decadal growth rate of 30.37%. During thepost-independence period

    commerce showed a phenomenal increase with theassociated industrial development and

    establishment of industrial estate, whichresulted in the increase of city population. In the last four

    decades growth rate wasmaximum of 32.15%. In the year 2011, population of Agra crossed 15

    lakhs and solid waste also increased with the population increase. Chart 1: Population Projection-Agra

  • Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing & Management Review__________________________________________ ISSN 2319-2836 Vol.2 (5), May (2013) Online available at indianresearchjournals.com

    120

    3.NAGAR NIGAM The main organization which is responsible for urban governance and civicmanagement is the

    Agra Nagar Nigam. TheNagar Nigam is divided into 90 election wards which are further divided

    into 19Sanitary wards being headed by sanitary inspectors. The sanitary inspector isresponsible

    for managing the fleet routes, collection procedure, allocating diesel tovehicles, street sweeping

    and de-lineation of responsibility of the supervisors andsafaikaramcharis.

    Chart 2: Administrative Structure of Nagar Nigam Agra

    4. SOURCES OF WASTE GENERATION IN AGRA

    The primary source of waste generation in Agra city are the local households, markets

    andcommercial establishments such as hotels, restaurants, shops etc. Due tomismanagement and

    unavailability of separate handling facilities, Waste fromindustrial establishment, Hospitals and

    nursing homes, slaughter houses, streetsweeping and sanitary drains etc. also contribute to MSW.

    As lot of demolition ofold structures and reconstruction works are taking place, construction

    anddemolition waste is significant. Agra is famous for Petha sweets and petha makingproduces

    substantial quantity of organic waste. Dairy waste also contributes to citywaste generation. Apart

    from this, there is a huge generation of leather and rubbertrimming from small Footwear units

  • Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing & Management Review__________________________________________ ISSN 2319-2836 Vol.2 (5), May (2013) Online available at indianresearchjournals.com

    121

    spread in the city which adds up major portionto Municipal solid waste.The waste generated in

    the various parts of the city reaches the open dumps anddustbins that are located in each part of

    the city.

    House Hold Waste Generation:

    The residential/household accounts for about 352MT/Day of total waste generation in the city.

    Table 2: House Hold Waste Generation

    Source: NNA

    Waste from Commercial establishment:

    The commercial areas identified in Agra city are situated throughout the city andinclude Sanjay

    Palace, Bhagwan Talkies chaurah, Bijligharchaurah, NaikiMandi,Rakabganj, DayalBagh Road,

    BhagirathMarg etc. These areas are mixed zonescomprising of commercial (shops and markets)

    and residential areas as well as hotelsand restaurants.MSW generated from Commercial

    establishment is more recyclable and inert wastecompared to organic waste. However a bulk

    waste like cartoon etc. is recycled atsource and does not add on to total MSW generation.

    Table 3: Commercial Waste

    Source: NNA

  • Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing & Management Review__________________________________________ ISSN 2319-2836 Vol.2 (5), May (2013) Online available at indianresearchjournals.com

    122

    Waste generation from Hospitals & Nursing Homes:

    Apart from Biomedical Waste generation, Hospital and nursing home generates

    noninfectiouswaste which contributes to total MSW generation. According to theCPHEEO

    guidelines the waste generation by medical institution will be around 1.5kg/bed/ day of which

    75% will be noninfectious i.e., Municipal solid waste and25% will be biomedical waste. As

    reported in City Development Plan and by NNA,Agra has 127private hospitals and about 101

    government hospitals and medicaloffices in the city. The total bed strength reported is about

    8000.

    Waste generation from Hotels/Restaurants/Banquet Hall

    A summary of number of eating joints/ hotels identified in Agra city is provided in Table 4 .The

    waste from these establishments mostly

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