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<ul><li><p>Government of India Ministry of Urban Development</p><p>Central Public Health &amp; Environmental Engineering Organisation (CPHEEO)</p><p>IN COLLABORATION WITH </p><p>GERMAN INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION</p><p>May 2014</p><p>http://moud.gov.in</p><p>MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT MANUAL</p></li><li><p>Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management</p><p>Page | iv</p></li><li><p>Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management</p><p>Page | v</p><p>Message</p></li><li><p>Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management</p><p>Page | vi</p><p>Foreword</p></li><li><p>Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management</p><p>Page | vii</p><p>Preface</p></li><li><p>Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management</p><p>Page | viii</p><p>Acknowledgement</p></li><li><p>Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management</p><p>Page | ix</p><p>Vision Statement</p><p>The Ministry of Urban Developments vision of the National Urban Sanitation Policy states that </p><p>All Indian cities and towns become totally sanitized, healthy and liveable and ensure and sustain good public health and environmental outcomes for all citizens with a special focus on hygienic and affordable sanitation facilities for the urban poor and women.</p><p>With the support of the Municipal Solid Waste (Management &amp; Handling) Rules, 2000 of the Ministry of Environment &amp; Forest, the Ministry of Urban Development aims to guide all urban areas in the country towards Sustainable Municipal Solid Waste Management, adopting the aspects of waste minimization at source with an emphasis on the 3R principles of reduce, reuse and recycle; with proper systems of segregation, collection, transportation, processing, treatment and disposal in complete harmony with the environment, thereby leading to the achievement of the aim of NUSP. </p></li><li><p>Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management</p><p>Page | x</p></li><li><p>Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management</p><p>Page | xi</p><p>Table of ConTenTs</p><p>Message - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------v</p><p>Foreword ------------------------------------------------------------------------------vi</p><p>Preface - -----------------------------------------------------------------------------vii</p><p>Acknowledgement ----------------------------------------------------------------viii</p><p>Vision Statement --------------------------------------------------------------------ix</p><p>PArt I: SAlIent FeAtureS oF the MSwM MAnuAl: An oVerVIew ----------------1</p><p>1. IntroductIon: how to uSe thIS MAnuAl ------- 5</p><p>2. MAnAgeMent ASPectS: PlAnnIng, InStItutIonAl And FInAncIAl ASPectS ---------- 8</p><p>2.1 the regulatory Framework: Key requirements by the MSw rules, 2000 and draft revised MSw rules 2013 and other directives ------------------------ 8</p><p>2.2 Modern Integrated Municipal Solid waste Management: concepts &amp; Benefits -----------------------------10</p><p>2.3 Preparation of A Municipal Solid waste Management Plan - A Seven Step Approach ------------------13</p><p>2.3.1 Step 1: Policies, Programmes &amp; legal Framework -------------------15</p><p>2.3.2 Step 2: Assessment of current Situation &amp; gap Analysis -----------15</p><p>2.3.3 Step 3: Stakeholder consultation for MSwM Planning -------------15</p><p>2.3.4 Step 4: Preparation of draft MSwM Plan -------------------------------15</p><p>2.3.5 Step 5: Schedule for Implementation------------------------------------16</p><p>2.3.6 Step 6: Stakeholder consultation for MSwM Plan Validation -----16</p><p>2.3.7 Step 7: council Approval for MSwM Plan-------------------------------16</p><p>2.4 role of State and regional level Authorities -------------16</p></li><li><p>Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management</p><p>Page | xii</p><p>2.4.1 Creation of Regional Facilities ---------------------------------------------17</p><p>2.5 understand local SWM needs -----------------------------------17</p><p>2.6 role of Stakeholders in MSwM Planning -------------------18</p><p>2.7 establish Appropriate Institutional Mechanisms -------19</p><p>2.8 ensure Sustainable Financing for MSwM --------------------20</p><p>2.9 Make-or-Buy decisions / Public Private Partnership (PPP) ---------------------------------------------------24</p><p>2.10 centralized Vs. decentralized MSw Management Systems ------------------------------------------------27</p><p>2.11 role of the Informal Sector -------------------------------------28</p><p>3. technIcAl ASPectS: collectIon, SegregAtIon &amp; trAnSPortAtIon ----------------- 29</p><p>3.1 At-Source Minimization: options to reduce the Amount of waste -----------------------------------------------29</p><p>3.2 waste Segregation, collection and transportation ----31</p><p>3.2.1 Segregated collection --------------------------------------------------------32</p><p>3.2.2 Street cleaning and drain cleaning Material --------------------------35</p><p>4. technIcAl ASPectS: ProceSSIng &amp; treAtMent oF MSw ------------------------------------ 36</p><p>4.1 waste treatment: how to Select Appropriate technologies ----------------------------------------------------------36</p><p>4.2 recycling and recovery --------------------------------------------45</p><p>4.3 Processing technologies ------------------------------------------46</p><p>4.3.1 composting ---------------------------------------------------------------------46</p><p>4.3.2 waste to energy ---------------------------------------------------------------47</p><p>4.3.3 refuse derived Fuel ----------------------------------------------------------47</p><p>4.3.4 technologies under development ---------------------------------------48</p><p>4.3.5 c&amp;d waste Processing -------------------------------------------------------48</p></li><li><p>Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management</p><p>Page | xiii</p><p>5. technIcAl ASPectS: SolId wASte dISPoSAl In MunIcIPAl SAnItAry lAndFIllS ---------------- 49</p><p>5.1 where It All ends: ensure Planning and operation of State-of-the-Art landfills --------------------49</p><p>6. MSwM PlAn IMPleMentAtIon ---------------------- 51</p><p>6.1 MSwM Plan Implementation &amp; requisite clearances ----51</p><p>6.2 contracting Arrangements for MSwM Service Provision -----------------------------------------------------53</p><p>6.2.1 enabling conditions for Successful PSP/PPP contracts ------------54</p><p>7. MAnAgeMent ASPectS: MonItorIng MSw SerVIce ProVISIon ------------------------------ 55</p><p>7.1 Monitoring Mswm Plan Implementation ---------------------55</p><p>7.2 Importance of o&amp;M for ensured Service delivery --------57</p><p>8. whAt to do wIth SPecIAl wASteS? ------------ 58</p></li><li><p>Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management</p><p>Page | xiv</p><p>PArt II: MAnuAl on MunIcIPAl SolId wASte MANAGEMENT ---------------------------------------1</p><p> BAcKground: urBAnIzAtIon And MunIcIPAl SolId wASte --------------------------------- 3</p><p>1. MunIcIPAl SolId wASte MAnAgeMent PlAn: SteP-wISe guIdAnce ------------------------------------- 7</p><p>1.1 requirements and Stipulations by the rules --------------- 7</p><p>1.2 guiding Principles for Municipal Solid waste Management --------------------------------------------------- 8</p><p>1.2.1 the IntegrAted SolId wASte MAnAgeMent SySteM -----------8</p><p>1.2.2 Extended Producer Responsibility ---------------------------------------10</p><p>1.2.3 decentralized waste Management Systems ---------------------------10</p><p>1.2.4 Integration of the Informal Sector ---------------------------------------11</p><p>1.3 overview of developing A MSwM Plan in An urban local Body ----------------------------------------------------12</p><p>1.4 Seven Step Approach for Municipal Solid waste Management Planning ----------------------------------------------18</p><p>1.4.1 Step 1: Policies, Programmes &amp; legal Framework -------------------18</p><p>1.4.1.1 Identify National and State Policies/ Strategies and Their Goals ------19</p><p>1.4.1.2 MSWM Plan - Link To SLbS ----------------------------------------------------22</p><p>1.4.1.3 State Level Solid Waste Management Strategies/Policies ---------------23</p><p>1.4.1.4 Identify/Analyse Regional/District Solid Waste Management Plan -------------------------------------------------25</p><p>1.4.1.4.1 Objectives of Regional Solid Waste Management Plans ------------------26</p><p>1.4.1.4.2 Institutional Aspects of Regional Approaches -----------------------------27</p><p>1.4.1.4.3 Implementation of Regional Solid Waste Management Plans ----------28</p><p>1.4.1.4.4 Land Allocation for Regional MSW Projects --------------------------------29</p><p>1.4.1.4.5 Solid Waste Quantity and Tipping Fee ---------------------------------------30</p><p>1.4.1.4.6 Collection and Transportation of MSW --------------------------------------30</p></li><li><p>Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management</p><p>Page | xv</p><p>1.4.1.5 Role of Central, State and Local Governments -----------------------------32</p><p>1.4.1.5.1 Guidance on State &amp; ULb Institutional Linkages --------------------------33</p><p>1.4.2 Step 2: Assessment of current Situation/ Status and Gap Analysis --------------------------------------------------------------35</p><p>1.4.2.1 Gap Analysis ----------------------------------------------------------------------36</p><p>1.4.2.2 Data Collection Methodology --------------------------------------------------41</p><p>1.4.2.2.1 Representative data -------------------------------------------------------------42</p><p>1.4.2.3 Quantification and Composition of Waste ----------------------------------42</p><p>1.4.2.3.1 Waste Quantification ------------------------------------------------------------44</p><p>1.4.2.3.2 Determining Waste Composition ---------------------------------------------47</p><p>1.4.2.3.3 Physical Characteristics of Municipal Waste -------------------------------49</p><p>1.4.3 Step 3: Stakeholder consultation for Planning -----------------------51</p><p>1.4.3.1 Departments Involved in MSWM Planning (Internal Stakeholders) ---------------------------------------------------51</p><p>1.4.3.1.1 Plan Preparation Core Team -------------------------------------------------52</p><p>1.4.3.1.2 Advisory Role ---------------------------------------------------------------------53</p><p>1.4.3.2 External Stakeholders -----------------------------------------------------------53</p><p>1.4.3.3 Defining the Goals and Objectives of the MSWM Plan --------------------54</p><p>1.4.4 Step 4: Preparation of draft MSwM Plan -------------------------------55</p><p>1.4.4.1 Future Projections ---------------------------------------------------------------56</p><p>1.4.4.1.1 Forecasting Waste Generation ------------------------------------------------57</p><p>1.4.4.1.2 Population Projection -----------------------------------------------------------57</p><p>1.4.4.2 Per-Capita Waste Generation --------------------------------------------------59</p><p>1.4.4.3 Rules, Regulations &amp; Municipal bye-Laws ----------------------------------59</p><p>1.4.4.4 Planning for An Institutional Structure (To bridge the Gaps) ----------59</p><p>1.4.4.4.1 Towns below 1 Lakh Population ----------------------------------------------60</p><p>1.4.4.4.2 Cities between 1 and 2.5 lakh population -----------------------------------60</p><p>1.4.4.4.3 Cities having population between 2.5 and 5 lakhs ------------------------61</p><p>1.4.4.4.4 Cities having population between 5 and 20 lakhs -------------------------61</p></li><li><p>Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management</p><p>Page | xvi</p><p>1.4.4.4.5 Cities having population between 20 and 50 lakhs -----------------------61</p><p>1.4.4.4.6 Cities above 50 lakhs population ---------------------------------------------62</p><p>1.4.4.5 Financial Implementation Structure -----------------------------------------63</p><p>1.4.4.5.1 Assessment of overall costs (full cost assessment) -----------------------63</p><p>1.4.4.5.2 Financial Viability of MSWM System -----------------------------------------69</p><p>1.4.4.5.3 Identification of Sources for Finance ----------------------------------------70</p><p>1.4.4.5.4 Deficit Management -------------------------------------------------------------86</p><p>1.4.4.6 Analysis of Appropriate PPP Contract Models -----------------------------87</p><p>1.4.4.7 Role of Decentralized MSW Management Systems ------------------------92</p><p>1.4.4.7.1 Favourable conditions for implementation of decentralized systems ----------------------------------------------------92</p><p>1.4.4.7.2 Management &amp; Monitoring of Decentralized MSWM Facilities ---------95</p><p>1.4.4.8 Arrangements for Informal Sector Integration ----------------------------99</p><p>1.4.4.9 Segregated Collection (Door To Door Collection, Street Sweeping &amp; Drain Cleaning), Storage &amp; Transportation ------------------------- 102</p><p>1.4.4.10 Identification of Land &amp; Inclusion in City Master Plan/ City Development Plan -------------------------------------------------- 102</p><p>1.4.4.11 Selection of Process &amp; best Available Technology for Processing &amp; Disposal -------------------------------------------------------------------- 103</p><p>1.4.4.12 Planning for Effective Community Participation Through IEC -------- 113</p><p>1.4.4.12.1 Communicating the MSWM Plan-------------------------------------------- 114</p><p>1.4.5 Step 5: Schedule for Implementation---------------------------------- 121</p><p>1.4.6 Step 6: Stakeholder consultation for MSwM Plan Validation ---------------------------------------------- 123</p><p>1.4.7 Step 7: city council Approval for MSwM Plan ----------------------- 124</p><p>2. technIcAl ASPectS: collectIon, SegregAtIon And trAnSPortAtIon ------------127</p><p>2.1 waste Minimization (At Source reduction and reuse) 127</p><p>2.1.1 waste Minimization in ISwM Hierarchy ------------------------------ 127</p><p>2.1.2 need &amp; Benefits of waste Minimization ------------------------------ 127</p></li><li><p>Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management</p><p>Page | xvii</p><p>2.1.3 Strategies for waste Minimization ------------------------------------- 128</p><p>2.1.3.1 Waste Minimization Strategies Requiring A National or State Level Directive ----------------------------------------------------- 128</p><p>2.1.3.2 Waste Minimization Initiatives Requiring ULb Support/Action ----- 131</p><p>2.1.4 developing A waste Minimization Programme in Local Authorities ------------------------------------------------------ 132</p><p>2.1.5 ensuring Feasibility of waste Minimization Programmes ------- 134</p><p>2.2 Source Segregation ------------------------------------------------ 134</p><p>2.2.1 MSw rules requirements on Source Segregation ---------------- 134</p><p>2.2.1.1 Segregation of Municipal Solid Waste At Source ------------------------ 135</p><p>2.2.1.2 Storage of Municipal Solid Waste At Source ------------------------------ 144</p><p>2.2.1.2.1 Household Level Storage ----------------------------------------------------- 144</p><p>2.2.1.2.2 On-site storage of bulk wastes ---------------------------------------------- 145</p><p>2.2.1.2.3 Storage of municipal solid waste in public places/parks -------------- 146</p><p>2.2.1.3 Storage of Yard Waste/Garden Waste -------------------------------------- 146</p><p>2.2.1.4 Storage and Processing of Special Wastes -------------------------------- 147</p><p>2.2.2 Public Participation &amp; Awareness -------------------------------------- 148</p><p>2.3 collectIon And trAnSPortAtIon -------------------------- 152</p><p>2.3.1 MSw rules requirements on collection &amp; Transportation -------------------------------------------------------- 152</p><p>2.3.2 general Principles ---------------------------------------------------------- 154</p><p>2.3.3 location and organization of Primary collection ----------------- 159</p><p>2.3.4 Vehicles and equipment for Primary collection ------------------- 163</p><p>2.3.4.1 Hand Carts/Tricycle With Containers or bins --------------------------- 164</p><p>2.3.4.2 Tricycle With Hydraulic Tipping Containers ----------------------------- 164</p><p>2.3.4.3 Light Commercial Vehicles (Mini Trucks) With Hydraulic Tipping Containers -------------------...</p></li></ul>

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