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  • Government of India Ministry of Urban Development

    Central Public Health & Environmental Engineering Organisation (CPHEEO)

    IN COLLABORATION WITH

    GERMAN INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

    May 2014

    http://moud.gov.in

    MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT MANUAL

  • Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management

    Page | iv

  • Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management

    Page | v

    Message

  • Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management

    Page | vi

    Foreword

  • Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management

    Page | vii

    Preface

  • Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management

    Page | viii

    Acknowledgement

  • Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management

    Page | ix

    Vision Statement

    The Ministry of Urban Developments vision of the National Urban Sanitation Policy states that

    All Indian cities and towns become totally sanitized, healthy and liveable and ensure and sustain good public health and environmental outcomes for all citizens with a special focus on hygienic and affordable sanitation facilities for the urban poor and women.

    With the support of the Municipal Solid Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 2000 of the Ministry of Environment & Forest, the Ministry of Urban Development aims to guide all urban areas in the country towards Sustainable Municipal Solid Waste Management, adopting the aspects of waste minimization at source with an emphasis on the 3R principles of reduce, reuse and recycle; with proper systems of segregation, collection, transportation, processing, treatment and disposal in complete harmony with the environment, thereby leading to the achievement of the aim of NUSP.

  • Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management

    Page | x

  • Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management

    Page | xi

    Table of ConTenTs

    Message - -------------------------------------------------------------------------------v

    Foreword ------------------------------------------------------------------------------vi

    Preface - -----------------------------------------------------------------------------vii

    Acknowledgement ----------------------------------------------------------------viii

    Vision Statement --------------------------------------------------------------------ix

    PArt I: SAlIent FeAtureS oF the MSwM MAnuAl: An oVerVIew ----------------1

    1. IntroductIon: how to uSe thIS MAnuAl ------- 5

    2. MAnAgeMent ASPectS: PlAnnIng, InStItutIonAl And FInAncIAl ASPectS ---------- 8

    2.1 the regulatory Framework: Key requirements by the MSw rules, 2000 and draft revised MSw rules 2013 and other directives ------------------------ 8

    2.2 Modern Integrated Municipal Solid waste Management: concepts & Benefits -----------------------------10

    2.3 Preparation of A Municipal Solid waste Management Plan - A Seven Step Approach ------------------13

    2.3.1 Step 1: Policies, Programmes & legal Framework -------------------15

    2.3.2 Step 2: Assessment of current Situation & gap Analysis -----------15

    2.3.3 Step 3: Stakeholder consultation for MSwM Planning -------------15

    2.3.4 Step 4: Preparation of draft MSwM Plan -------------------------------15

    2.3.5 Step 5: Schedule for Implementation------------------------------------16

    2.3.6 Step 6: Stakeholder consultation for MSwM Plan Validation -----16

    2.3.7 Step 7: council Approval for MSwM Plan-------------------------------16

    2.4 role of State and regional level Authorities -------------16

  • Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management

    Page | xii

    2.4.1 Creation of Regional Facilities ---------------------------------------------17

    2.5 understand local SWM needs -----------------------------------17

    2.6 role of Stakeholders in MSwM Planning -------------------18

    2.7 establish Appropriate Institutional Mechanisms -------19

    2.8 ensure Sustainable Financing for MSwM --------------------20

    2.9 Make-or-Buy decisions / Public Private Partnership (PPP) ---------------------------------------------------24

    2.10 centralized Vs. decentralized MSw Management Systems ------------------------------------------------27

    2.11 role of the Informal Sector -------------------------------------28

    3. technIcAl ASPectS: collectIon, SegregAtIon & trAnSPortAtIon ----------------- 29

    3.1 At-Source Minimization: options to reduce the Amount of waste -----------------------------------------------29

    3.2 waste Segregation, collection and transportation ----31

    3.2.1 Segregated collection --------------------------------------------------------32

    3.2.2 Street cleaning and drain cleaning Material --------------------------35

    4. technIcAl ASPectS: ProceSSIng & treAtMent oF MSw ------------------------------------ 36

    4.1 waste treatment: how to Select Appropriate technologies ----------------------------------------------------------36

    4.2 recycling and recovery --------------------------------------------45

    4.3 Processing technologies ------------------------------------------46

    4.3.1 composting ---------------------------------------------------------------------46

    4.3.2 waste to energy ---------------------------------------------------------------47

    4.3.3 refuse derived Fuel ----------------------------------------------------------47

    4.3.4 technologies under development ---------------------------------------48

    4.3.5 c&d waste Processing -------------------------------------------------------48

  • Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management

    Page | xiii

    5. technIcAl ASPectS: SolId wASte dISPoSAl In MunIcIPAl SAnItAry lAndFIllS ---------------- 49

    5.1 where It All ends: ensure Planning and operation of State-of-the-Art landfills --------------------49

    6. MSwM PlAn IMPleMentAtIon ---------------------- 51

    6.1 MSwM Plan Implementation & requisite clearances ----51

    6.2 contracting Arrangements for MSwM Service Provision -----------------------------------------------------53

    6.2.1 enabling conditions for Successful PSP/PPP contracts ------------54

    7. MAnAgeMent ASPectS: MonItorIng MSw SerVIce ProVISIon ------------------------------ 55

    7.1 Monitoring Mswm Plan Implementation ---------------------55

    7.2 Importance of o&M for ensured Service delivery --------57

    8. whAt to do wIth SPecIAl wASteS? ------------ 58

  • Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management

    Page | xiv

    PArt II: MAnuAl on MunIcIPAl SolId wASte MANAGEMENT ---------------------------------------1

    BAcKground: urBAnIzAtIon And MunIcIPAl SolId wASte --------------------------------- 3

    1. MunIcIPAl SolId wASte MAnAgeMent PlAn: SteP-wISe guIdAnce ------------------------------------- 7

    1.1 requirements and Stipulations by the rules --------------- 7

    1.2 guiding Principles for Municipal Solid waste Management --------------------------------------------------- 8

    1.2.1 the IntegrAted SolId wASte MAnAgeMent SySteM -----------8

    1.2.2 Extended Producer Responsibility ---------------------------------------10

    1.2.3 decentralized waste Management Systems ---------------------------10

    1.2.4 Integration of the Informal Sector ---------------------------------------11

    1.3 overview of developing A MSwM Plan in An urban local Body ----------------------------------------------------12

    1.4 Seven Step Approach for Municipal Solid waste Management Planning ----------------------------------------------18

    1.4.1 Step 1: Policies, Programmes & legal Framework -------------------18

    1.4.1.1 Identify National and State Policies/ Strategies and Their Goals ------19

    1.4.1.2 MSWM Plan - Link To SLbS ----------------------------------------------------22

    1.4.1.3 State Level Solid Waste Management Strategies/Policies ---------------23

    1.4.1.4 Identify/Analyse Regional/District Solid Waste Management Plan -------------------------------------------------25

    1.4.1.4.1 Objectives of Regional Solid Waste Management Plans ------------------26

    1.4.1.4.2 Institutional Aspects of Regional Approaches -----------------------------27

    1.4.1.4.3 Implementation of Regional Solid Waste Management Plans ----------28

    1.4.1.4.4 Land Allocation for Regional MSW Projects --------------------------------29

    1.4.1.4.5 Solid Waste Quantity and Tipping Fee ---------------------------------------30

    1.4.1.4.6 Collection and Transportation of MSW --------------------------------------30

  • Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management

    Page | xv

    1.4.1.5 Role of Central, State and Local Governments -----------------------------32

    1.4.1.5.1 Guidance on State & ULb Institutional Linkages --------------------------33

    1.4.2 Step 2: Assessment of current Situation/ Status and Gap Analysis --------------------------------------------------------------35

    1.4.2.1 Gap Analysis ----------------------------------------------------------------------36

    1.4.2.2 Data Collection Methodology --------------------------------------------------41

    1.4.2.2.1 Representative data -------------------------------------------------------------42

    1.4.2.3 Quantification and Composition of Waste ----------------------------------42

    1.4.2.3.1 Waste Quantification ------------------------------------------------------------44

    1.4.2.3.2 Determining Waste Composition ---------------------------------------------47

    1.4.2.3.3 Physical Characteristics of Municipal Waste -------------------------------49

    1.4.3 Step 3: Stakeholder consultatio

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