76413373 Municipal Solid Waste

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<p>Preface</p> <p>With growing public awareness about sanitation, and with increasing pressure on the government and urban local bodies to manage waste more efficiently, the Indian Solid Waste to Energy sector is poised to grow at a rapid pace in the years to come, opening up attractive avenues for investment for businesses. As the industry is relatively new in India, a better understanding of the trends and opportunities in the Indian waste to energy sector is essential before making investment decisions. The objective of this white paper is to provide inputs on the potential and opportunities of the Indian municipal solid waste to energy industry. The white paper has a special emphasis on practical and actionable intelligence for Indian entrepreneurs and businesses. The white paper has been developed by Energy Alternatives India (EAI) as part of the 2nd RenewCon India 2011 Conference by UBM, held at Mumbai in September 2011. I hope you find this guide useful in your efforts to venture into the attractive Indian solid waste to energy industry.</p> <p>Narasimhan Santhanam Cofounder and Director Energy Alternatives India (EAI) www.eai.in narsi@eai.in</p> <p>www.eai.in</p> <p>2</p> <p>www.eai.in</p> <p>3</p> <p>ContentsPreface ......................................................................................................................................1 Key Takeaways from the White Paper ..................................................................................6 1. Potential for Municipal Solid Waste to Energy .................................................................7 1.1 Introduction to Waste and MSW .................................................................................7 1.2 Municipal Solid Waste (MSW).......................................................................................7 1.3 Municipal Solid Waste Management Scenario in India ...........................................8 1.4 Potential for MSW to energy in India ...........................................................................8 1.5 Technological Routes and Potential End Products from MSW ..............................10 1.6 Key Drivers and Challenges Enhancing Solid Waste Management and Solid Waste to Energy .................................................................................................................12 2. What are the Opportunities in MSW to Energy for Your Business? ..............................15 2.1 Business Opportunities along the MSW to energy value chain .............................15 2.2 Strategic and Financial Benefits from Waste to Energy Business ..........................16 2.3 Potential Risks and Barriers in the MSW to Energy Business ....................................17 3. Is Waste to Energy the Right Opportunity for Your Business?.......................................18 3.1 Companies Could Benefit from the Waste to Energy Sector ................................18 3.2 Key Success Factors and Competencies for W2E Business ...................................18 3.3 Key Indian players in the MSW to Energy Sector .....................................................19 Summary .................................................................................................................................20 Waste to Energy Support from EAI .......................................................................................22</p> <p>www.eai.in</p> <p>4</p> <p>www.eai.in</p> <p>5</p> <p>Key Takeaways from the White Paper</p> <p> estimates, this figure could be twice as much by 2020.</p> <p>About 115000 tons of solid waste is generated per day in the country. By some </p> <p>There exists a potential for generating about 1500 MW of power from municipal solid wastes in the country. The potential is likely to increase further with economic development.</p> <p>Currently, biomethanation / anaerobic digestion and Incineration are the most prevalent and mature technologies for MSW to energy in India. Gasification and pyrolysis are emerging, and currently economically less viable than biomethanation.</p> <p> sub-optimal technologies are some of the key challenges in this sector. </p> <p>Lack of proper segregation at source, inadequate treatment facilities and </p> <p>Business opportunities in waste to energy exist in all three stages of waste to energy Waste Transportation, Waste Management Facilities, and Waste Processing for Energy Recovery.</p> <p> Companies especially in the following industries could benefit from opportunities in the waste to energy domain Energy/Renewable Energy, EPC, Transportation, Sanitation and Facilities Management.</p> <p> Key success factors in waste to energy include Optimal Technology, Efficient Operations, Focus on Costs and Emphasis on Environmental Protection.</p> <p> Some of the prominent companies working in the Indian waste to energy sector include: Ramky Enviro Engineers, A2Z, Hanjer Biotech Energies and SELCO International.</p> <p>www.eai.in</p> <p>6</p> <p>1. Potential for Municipal Solid Waste to Energy1.1 Introduction to Wastes and MSW (I feel MSW is not needed here as we are explaining that in the following sec)Growth of population, increasing urbanization, rising standards of living due to technological innovations have contributed to an increase both in the quantity and variety of wastes generated by various activities. Broadly, waste can be classified as urban wastes, industrial wastes, biomass wastes and biomedical wastes. Urban Waste Industrial Waste Biomass Waste Biomedical Waste Wastes from households, commercial activities etc. (excluding waste arising from mining, construction or demolition processes etc.). Solid, semi-solid, liquid, or gaseous or residual materials (excluding hazardous or biodegradable wastes from industrial operations) Biomass residue is defined as biomass by-products, residues and waste streams from agriculture, forestry, and related industries. Waste materials generated at health care facilities, such as hospitals, blood banks as well as medical research facilities and laboratories.</p> <p>1.2 Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) includes commercial and residential wastes generated in municipal or notified areas in either solid or semi-solid form. It consists of household waste, construction and demolition debris, sanitation residue, and waste from streets and so forth. Some of the examples of MSW include: paper, glass, metals, synthetic polymers, inerts (stones, sand, pebbles etc), hides and leather discards, pharmaceuticals wastes (tablets, ointments, lotion etc), kitchen wastes (fruit and vegetable peels, raw and processed food ingredients) Municipal Solid Waste</p> <p>Organics</p> <p>Recyclables</p> <p>Inerts</p> <p>Kitchen waste Agro-waste Vegetable waste Garden waste Cattle dung</p> <p>Plastic Paper Old cloth Syringes Tin can Metals</p> <p>Carbon paper Thermo coal Sand</p> <p>Classification of Municipal Solid Waste</p> <p>www.eai.in</p> <p>7</p> <p>1.3 Municipal Solid Waste Management Scenario in IndiaManagement of MSW continues to remain one of the most neglected areas of urban development in India. As per estimates, 115000 tons of solid waste is generated per day in the country. Even small regions within cities could be the source of large amounts of MSW. For example, a slum in Dharavi in Mumbai generates about 80 tons of MSW per day, which is almost the same as the waste generation of the entire state of Tripura (which generates 100 tons per day). MSW management in India involves interplay of six functional elements - generation of waste, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and recovery and disposal. Most of the MSW generated is dumped into land or on the outskirts of the city without any treatment. Municipal agencies spend about 5-25% of their budget on MSW management, but less than 5% of the total amount is spent on final disposal of waste, which shows that hardly any attention is given to scientific disposal of waste. In spite of such a heavy expenditure, the present level of service in many urban areas is so low that there is a threat to the public health in particular and the environmental quality in general.</p> <p>1.4 Potential for MSW to Energy in IndiaThere exists a potential for generating an estimated 1500 MW of power from the municipal solid wastes in the country. The potential is likely to increase further with economic development. The state-wise break-up of MSW generation and potential for power production is presented in the following table:</p> <p>State/ Union Territory Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Chandigarh Chhattisgarh Delhi Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh</p> <p>Recovery Potential (MW) 107.0 6.0 67.0 5.0 22.0 111.0 98.0 18.0 1.0 8.0 125.0 32.0 68.0</p> <p>State/ Union Territory Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Orissa Pondicherry Punjab Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttaranchal West Bengal</p> <p>Recovery Potential (MW) 250.0 1.5 1.5 1.0 19.0 2.0 39.0 53.0 137.0 1.0 154.0 4.0 126.0</p> <p>Potential for Recovery of Electrical Energy (MW) from Municipal Solid Wastes by Indian States Source: TERI and MNRE; MT Million Tonnes</p> <p>www.eai.in</p> <p>8</p> <p>www.eai.in</p> <p>9</p> <p>1.5 Technological Routes and Potential End Products from MSWEnergy can be recovered from the organic fraction of waste (biodegradable as well as non- biodegradable) through thermal, thermo-chemical and biochemical methods. The table below highlights the basic principles of the technology and the potential end product that can be obtained from them.</p> <p>Technology Thermal Conversion Incineration Complete oxidation of waste matter under high temperature and oxygenated conditions Thermochemical Conversion A. Pyrolysis - Elevated temperature driven decomposition of organic mass fraction in wastes in the absence of air or oxygen B. Gasification - Transformation of organic mass similar to pyrolysis but under limited supply of oxygen Biochemical Conversion Biomethanation - Microbial digestion of complex organics in moisture rich wastes to methane under anaerobic conditions</p> <p>End Products Steam, Purified flue gas, Ash, Heat and electricity</p> <p>Pyrolytic gas, Pyrolytic oil, Heat, Electricity</p> <p>Syngas, Electricity, Heat , Synfuel and Hydrocarbons via FT synthesis. Methane (Biogas), Compost, Power</p> <p>The pathways illustrating the major MSW to energy technologies are highlighted below:</p> <p>www.eai.in</p> <p>10</p> <p>www.eai.in</p> <p>11</p> <p>Highlights</p> <p>Gasification and pyrolysis are thermochemical decomposition processes that are conceptually similar to each other. Both have the advantage of providing a valuable product as a co-product along with the main fuel synthesis/producer gas. Charcoal, which is produced as a co-product, commands a high value in the market. While incineration is the simplest and currently the least costly method, it has two disadvantages it is relatively more polluting than gasification, pyrolysis or anaerobic digestion, and it also produces lesser overall value, as the only by-product is ash, which commands a very low value in the market. Biomethanation (anaerobic digestion) produces methane gas as a major end product, which can consequently be used for heat and power production. The left over activated sludge serves as excellent compost.</p> <p>1.6 Key Drivers and Challenges Enhancing Solid Waste Management and Solid Waste to Energy1.6.1 Potential Drivers Enhancing Waste to EnergyStringent legislative procedures and environmental consciousness drive the technological upgradation for effective management of MSW to rescue the large socio-economic mass in the nation from hazards of municipal waste. Some of the key drivers for enhancing solid waste management in India are represented below:</p> <p>www.eai.in</p> <p>12</p> <p>Legal The laws and regulations in India at the municipal and city levels are becoming stricter than they were earlier. The consequent threat of penalties could act as an important driver for solid waste management Socio Economic The poorer sections of the society get affected most by the harmful consequences of unmanaged waste. With Indian cities comprising large populations under poverty level, this results in significant health problems and societal trauma.</p> <p>Environmental The increasing awareness and concern among public and government for protection of environment is one of the key drivers for SWM.</p> <p>Technological The ability of technology to support SWM is still limited. Development of new and more effective waste-to-energy technologies will act as key drivers and will play an important role in the progress of solid waste management industry. Developmental and Competitive Where there is an absence of strong legislation, competition between cities to provide a clean city with good municipal environmental infrastructure, in order to attract (often foreign) investment can be a key driver. This appears to be particularly important in India where competition for foreign information technology investment is strong.</p> <p>Incentives A number of current and emerging incentives CDM/carbon credits, capital subsidies, high feed in tariffs and other fiscal incentives such as tax holidays can accelerate adoption of waste to energy</p> <p>1.6.2 Prevalent Deficiencies in the Solid Waste Management System in IndiaSome of the deficiencies in the SWM system in India include the following:</p> <p>DeficiencyNo storage and segregation of waste at source Operational inefficiencies in primary collection of waste at the doorstep Irregular street sweeping and garbage collection Inappropriate system of secondary storage of waste</p> <p>DetailsSource storage and segregation of waste based on degradability and hazards and recyclables separation is rarely done in India. Collection of waste only from street collection points and poor door-to-door collection. No proper planning and specific benchmarks for street sweeping. Very poor waste depot sites for secondary storage of waste.</p> <p>www.eai.in</p> <p>13</p> <p>Irregular transport of waste in open vehicles Inappropriate disposal of waste at open dumping grounds Other Deficiencies 1. Waste composition 2. Access to waste</p> <p>Open trucks for transportation and manual loading. No proper engineered landfills for waste disposal.</p> <p>1. High moisture content and a large proportion of inerts make the waste dense and cause transportation and treatment problems 2. Many sources of waste such as those generated in slums are inaccessible</p> <p>www.eai.in</p> <p>14</p> <p>2. What are the Opportunities in MSW to Energy for Your Business?2.1 Business Opportunities along the MSW to energy value chainThe schematic sketch below illustrates the steps carried out in managing the solid wastes in India. In most of the Indian cities, the MSW collection, segregation, transportation, processing and disposal is carried out by the respective municipal corporations and the state governments enforce regulatory policies.Source Storage and Segregation Collection and Transportation Dump Sites Waste Transportation Disposal to Landfills</p> <p>Recyclable Materials Separated</p> <p>Processing for Energy Recovery</p> <p>MSW Co...</p>

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