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Chapter 3 Tropical Rainforest How Can We Save The Rainforest?

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Chapter 3

Chapter 3Tropical RainforestHow Can We Save The Rainforest?

Think about this!How did the name tropical rainforest come about?

TROPICAL

RAIN

FOREST

Suggested questions for students:1. What does it mean by tropical?2. Where is the tropical region?3. Does Singapore lie in the tropical region?4. Which other countries lie in the tropical region?5. What kind of natural environment would be commonly found in the tropical region?6. Have you ever visited a tropical rainforest?

Note: Tropical rainforests are very wet environments, as the word rain in the name suggests.

Show students some videos of tropical rainforest:Rainforest: Beneath the canopy http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7HfeBP3vaEITropical rainforest http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YUuA-C_I3DE

Tropical RainforestIn this section, you will explore these Guiding Questions:What are tropical rainforests? Where can they be found?What is deforestation and which areas have been deforested?Why does deforestation occur?How does deforestation impact people and the environment?How should we manage deforestation?

Watch a video of the tropical rainforest. Take note of the features of a tropical rainforest.

Beneath the Canopy youtube video

1. What are tropical rainforests?

Which photo do you think shows a tropical rainforest?

There are three different forest types presented in these pictures. Remind students about the brief discussion earlier (on the name tropical rainforest) if they find difficulty selecting the correct picture that shows a tropical rainforest.

Fig 3.2 Different types of forest: Textbook pg 74

1. What are tropical rainforests?

Suggested question for students:What do you notice when you are in a tropical forest in terms of characteristics of trees (e.g. height, size, leaves, roots) and life in the forest (e.g. animals)?(This question is to help students use their senses [sight, smell, touch, hear] to observe the rainforest)You may use the pictures above to elicit answers from students, for example:Trees that are evergreenTrees and other plants grow very close to one anotherHabitat for many animals

Source: Wikimedia Commons

1. What are tropical rainforests?Characteristics of tropical rainforestThick and luxuriantBroadleaved (to capture sunlight for photosynthesis)evergreen trees they do not shed all their leaves at the same time. Found in areas that experience high rainfall (about 1,500 2,500 mm annually) and high temperature (about 26oC) throughout the year

1. What are tropical rainforests?Characteristics of tropical rainforestDiversity of plant speciesStructure of tropical rainforest

1. What are tropical rainforests?Characteristics of tropical rainforestDiversity of plant speciesHot and wet environment gives rise to rich biodiversity (range of plant and animal species found in an area)In Amazon rainforest in South AmericaIn forests in United Kingdom300 different plant species within 0.01 km2 (1 football field)40 plant species within 27,000 km2

1. What are tropical rainforests?Characteristics of tropical rainforestDiversity of plant speciesDifferent types of food can be found:Fruits (e.g. bananas, mangoes)Spices (e.g. pepper, cinnamon)Vegetables (e.g. corn, pandan)Nuts (e.g. Brazil nuts, walnuts)

1. What are tropical rainforests?Characteristics of tropical rainforestStructure of the tropical rainforestA tropical rainforest has primarily three layers:Emergent layer (above 30 m)

Canopy layer (2030 m)

Undergrowth layer (below 20 m)

Show students a video on the structure of the tropical rainforest:Layers of a Rainforest http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-Ax6zlSzyNM

Watch a video that describes the structure of a tropical rainforest.

Show students a video on the structure of the tropical rainforest:Layers of a Rainforest http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-Ax6zlSzyNM

1. What are tropical rainforests?Characteristics of tropical rainforestStructure of the tropical rainforestEmergent layer (above 30 m)Uppermost layer where some trees rise and tower above other treesCan grow up to 50m 80mThe emergent layer is formed by the crowns of these trees.Trees in this layer usually have tall, straight and smooth trunks with few branchesE.g. Tualang tree, Kapok tree

Image: Textbook pg 77

1. What are tropical rainforests?Characteristics of tropical rainforestStructure of the tropical rainforestCanopy layer (20 30 m)The trees grow to heights of 20 30m to reach for sunlight.Trees grow close together (dense)Crowns interlock to form an almost continuous cover This blocks up to 90% of the suns rays from reaching the forests floor

Image: Textbook pg 77

1. What are tropical rainforests?Characteristics of tropical rainforestStructure of the tropical rainforestCanopy layer (20 30 m)Lianas: Thick, woody vines that twine up trees to reach for sunlight.Epiphytes: Plants which grow on trees to reach more sunlight(includes ferns, orchids, mosses, lichens)

Suggested questions for students:1. Why do you think lianas grow and twine up trees?To reach for sunlight

2. Why do you think epiphytes grow on trees?To receive more sunlight and to increase chances of dispersing their seeds or spores by wind

Images: Textbook pg 77

1. What are tropical rainforests?Characteristics of tropical rainforestStructure of the tropical rainforestUndergrowth layer (below 20 m)Dark because suns rays blocked by the canopy.Plants are small, thin and widely-spaced due to lack of sunlight.Consists of plants such as moss, ferns, some lianas and epiphytes.They have much larger leaves compared to those in the other layersThin layer of leaf litter due to rapid decomposition caused by hot and wet environment.

Suggested questions for students:

1. Why do you think the undergrowth layer is able to grow near the forest floor?Openings created by fallen canopy trees allow sunlight to reach the forest floor

2. Why is the layer of leaf litter thin even though there is dense vegetation?- Rapid decomposition occurs in tropical climate (hot and wet)

1. What are tropical rainforests?Characteristics of tropical rainforestAdaptation of plantsLeavesLeaves are broad Helps trees capture sunlight for photosynthesisLeaves have waxy, leathery or hairy surfaces Helps to minimise the loss of moisture through transpiration due to the high temperatures

Image: Textbook pg 78

1. What are tropical rainforests?Characteristics of tropical rainforestAdaptation of plantsLeaves

Some leaves have narrow, downward pointing tips (drip tips) Allow water to run off easilyPrevents fungi and bacteria from growing on the leaves

Image: Textbook pg 78

1. What are tropical rainforests?Characteristics of tropical rainforestAdaptation of plantsFruit and flowers

- colourful and strong-smelling to attract insects and other animals to assist in seed dispersal and pollination Air is usually still (lack of wind) which is hard for seed dispersal and pollination by wind Fruit of the cacao plantRafflesia, the worlds largest flower

Image: Textbook pg 78

1. What are tropical rainforests?Characteristics of tropical rainforestAdaptation of plantsRoots

Buttress roots which grow from 1 5 m above the ground To support the heavy weight of tall trees

Suggested recap question for students:Why are trees in the tropical rainforest tall?Trees in the rainforest are tall because of the favourable climatic conditions for plant growth and because of the competition for sunlight.

Image: Textbook pg 78

1. What are tropical rainforests?Characteristics of tropical rainforestAdaptation of plantsRootsShallow rootsNutrients from the rapid decomposition of fallen leaves and branches are mostly found in the top layer of the soilWater is available throughout the year, therefore there is no need for the roots to grow deep to search for water.

1. What are tropical rainforests?Uses of tropical rainforestsWater catchmentGreen lungs of the earthHabitat to flora (plants) and fauna (animals)Habitat to indigenous peopleSource of timberMedical application

Uses of tropical rainforestsa) Water catchmentRefers to an area drained by a river and the smaller rivers that flow into it

Rain falls in tropical rainforests

Trees stop rain from reaching the ground directly

Water slowly drips from the trees

Contributes to water supplyBecause impurities in rainwater are trapped in the soil before it flows into the reservoirs, forests help to maintain the quality of water.

Seeps into the ground and is stored as groundwaterFlows as runoff into the rivers or reservoirs

b) Green lungs of the earthTropical rainforests help the earth to breatheMore than 20% of the earths oxygen is generated by the Amazon rainforestAbsorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and release oxygen (photosynthesis)They act as the earths natural air purifier as they absorb 2.4 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide in one year. Dense vegetation of tropical rainforests keeps the earth cool

Uses of tropical rainforests

Image: Textbook pg 81

c) Habitat to flora (plants) and fauna (animals)Home to more than 2 million species (1/2 of worlds species)

Uses of tropical rainforests

Suggested question for students (before showing the pictures):What are some flora and fauna found in a tropical rainforest?

Habitat to flora (plants) and fauna (animals)Abundance and diversity of flora and faunaAmple sunlight is converted by the plants into energy and food (photosynthesis) which allows plants to thrive In turn, the plants are eaten by animals for survivalContinuous canopy is a habitat where other plants can grow and animals can live in

Uses of tropical rainforests

d) Habitat to indigenous people60 million indigenous people (original inhabitants of a country) are wholly dependent on the tropical rainforest been living in tropical rainforests for thousands of yearse.g. Yanomami (Amazon rainforest), Penan (rainforest in Sarawak)An indigenous group living in the Amazon rainforest

Uses of tropical rainforests

Image: Textbook pg 82

Habitat to indigenous peopleTropical rainforests provide these people with daily necessities (food, clothing and medicine)They obtain food by either hunting and gathering (hunt fish, gather wild fruit and nuts), or agriculture (growing of crops)[As such, they are known as hunter-gatherers or shifting cultivators]

Uses of tropical rainforests

Yanomami Tribes

e) Source of timberTimber refers to the the wood (e.g. teak, ebony, mahogany and meranti) used to build or make things such as doors, window frames and furnitureTropical rainforests supply about 1/5 of the worlds industrial timberprovide fuel wood to people for cookingUses of tropical rainforests

Suggested question for students:Why are tropical hardwoods often chosen over other materials to make doors, window frames and furniture?- They are valued for their strength, durability, texture and beauty

f) Medical applicationIn Amazon rainforest, nearly 3,000 plant species have been identified to have medicinal propertiesMany of the foods (e.g. Brazil nuts) have cancer-fighting propertiesUses of tropical rainforests

Medical application

25% of all modern medicines come from rainforest plantsUses of tropical rainforests

Images: Textbook pg 84

Medicine in the Rainforest

People value the rainforest for different reasonsUses of tropical rainforests

Images: Textbook pg 85

World distribution of tropical rainforests2. Where are tropical rainforests found?

Map: Textbook pg 88

Global distribution of tropical rainforestsLess than 5% of the earths land surfaceEquatorial climate (between latitudes 20 N and 20 S) where there is abundant sunlight, high temperatures and heavy rainfall throughout the yearHigh annual temperatures (of more than 26oC, with a range of 23oC) and high annual rainfall (1,5002,500mm)Main areas : Amazon Basin, the Congo Basin, Southeast Asia.2. Where are tropical rainforests found?

World distribution of tropical rainforests2. Where are tropical rainforests found?

Amazon Basin in South AmericaCongo Basin in AfricaSoutheast Asia

Map: Textbook pg 88

Latitudes

Are imaginary horizontal lines that run in an east-west direction around the Earth.

The Equator is the longest line of latitude it divides the Earth into two equal halves (Northern and Southern Hemisphere)

LatitudesLatitudes are measured in degrees and minutes from the Equator

They increase in value as they move northward and southward.

Distribution of tropical rainforests in SingaporeMany parts of Singapore were originally covered with rainforestsAfter 1819: Rainforests were rapidly cleared to grow crops and build infrastructure1882: Only 7 per cent of the original rainforests remainedToday: Rainforests occupy an area of about 20 km2 (3% of total land area) and are mainly found at the Central Catchment Nature Reserve and Bukit Timah Nature Reserve3a. Where are tropical rainforests found?

Suggested recap question for students:What is the main purpose of nature reserves?- Nature reserves act as water catchment for the reservoirs where these reservoirs store water for human use.

Distribution of tropical rainforests in Singapore2. Where are tropical rainforests found?

1819

Map: Textbook pg 89

Distribution of tropical rainforests in Singapore2. Where are tropical rainforests found?

2006

Map: Textbook pg 89

3. What is deforestation? (p86)Spot the differenceAn area in the Amazon rainforest

The two satellite images show the Amazon rainforest in Mato Grosso, Brazil. The first image was taken in 1984, while the second image shows the same place in 2012. These two images show that large parts of the Amazon rainforest in Brazil were cleared over the years. The green areas show the forested areas while white areas show places where the trees have been removed. Many of the areas have been replaced by soybean fields and cattle ranches.

Suggested questions for students: 1. What do you think the green patches and white/brown patches represent?- Forest, farms, urban areas

2. Compare the towns Alta Floresta, Carlinda, Nova Canna in 1984 and 2012. What differences do you notice?- The forested areas have decreased and urban areas or farms have expanded

3. How much of the land was covered with forest in 1984 and 2012?About 90% in 1984, 10% in 2012

4. Which areas are not affected by deforestation?- Northern part and along the river

5. What do you think will happen in 10 years time? More areas deforested or Deforestation stopped because of laws or more green areas because of reforestation efforts

Note the size of this area shown!

Images: Textbook page 86

3. What is deforestation?DeforestationIt is the cutting down and removal of all or most of the trees in a forested areaIf not managed properly, it can lead to the permanent destruction and eventual disappearance of a once renewable resource

19801990Tropical Rainforest19.1 mil km217.9 mil km2

Suggested question for students:Why are trees considered as a renewable resource?- They can be replanted after they are cut down. However, if the rate of deforestation is faster than the rate of reforestation, then it is possible to lose the trees forever.

3b. Which areas have been deforested?Global distribution of deforested areas of tropical rainforestRainforests are disappearing at alarming rates because of human activities:AgricultureMiningLogging Land clearance (for housing and industries)Remaining rainforests are smaller and broken up into fragments

Suggested question for students:What happens when rainforests disappear?- e.g. there will be less biodiversity in the rainforest, trees are more exposed to winds and may fall

3b. Which areas have been deforested?Global distribution of deforested areas of tropical rainforestAt least 320 km2 of tropical rainforest disappear each day

Image: Textbook pg 104

3b. Which areas have been deforested?Global distribution of deforested areas of tropical rainforestAreas of tropical rainforest that have been deforested

Note: You can observe that deforestation has taken place in almost every area where tropical rainforests are found.

Map: Textbook pg 92

3b. Which areas have been deforested?Global distribution of deforested areas of tropical rainforest (TB p92)

Tropical rainforest loss in some countriesDo Lets try it! on pg 93

Table: Textbook pg 92

3b. Which areas have been deforested?Global distribution of deforested areas of tropical rainforest

Deforestation estimates of tropical rainforests in Borneo

If the present rates of deforestation in the world continue, our worlds remaining rainforests could be gone in one hundred years.In Borneo, logging is one of the main reasons that caused rapid deforestation.

Note: Map shows the forest cover loss in Borneo over the years. In 2020, it is predicted that less than half of the original forest cover remains.

Map: Textbook pg 93

Deforestation Video - CNN

4. Why does deforestation occur?Agricultural activitiesCattle ranchingLoggingMining

4. Why does deforestation occur?Agricultural activitiesAgriculture is the growing of crops and raising of animals to provide foodShifting cultivation (a form of subsistence farming activity)Have been the traditional cause of deforestationShifting cultivators grow crops for their own use and consumptionThey allow land to regain its fertility and for vegetation to regrow when they move to the next plot of land

As such, does not pose a major threat to the forest

Suggested question for students:Do you think this activity would be a major or minor threat to the forest?- Minor

4. Why does deforestation occur?Agricultural activitiesLarge-scale commercial agricultural activities on plantationsBurn and clear large areas of the rainforest Crops are grown for cash and are sold to meet both local and global needs

As a result, the rate of deforestation has increased greatly!

Suggested question for students:Do you think this activity would be a major or minor threat to the forest?- Major

4. Why does deforestation occur?Agricultural activitiesExample:By 2010, about 242,000 km2 of the Amazon rainforest have been converted into soya bean farmsMajor ingredient in food for cattleAlso, processed into products such as soya milk and tofu

Large areas of rainforest are being cleared for soya bean farms in the Amazon Basin

Image: Textbook pg 94

4. Why does deforestation occur?Cattle ranchingInvolves operating large farms to raise cattleLarge areas of rainforest are cleared to create land for cattle to graze

Large tracts of the Amazon rainforest are being lost to cattle ranchingFor example:80% of deforestation in the Amazon rainforest is caused by land cleared for cattle ranching1986: Less than 10 million head of cattle2011: 79 million head of cattle

Image: Textbook pg 94

4. Why does deforestation occur?Cattle ranchingA large amount of beef from cattle in the Amazon is exported to other countries (e.g. USA, Britain)

Image: Wikimedia Commons

4. Why does deforestation occur?LoggingThe cutting down of trees for timberCommercial logging of tropical hardwoods (teak, mahogany, rosewood) to make furniture, building materials and charcoalGrowing demand for timber products Increases logging activities

Commercial logging is responsible for destroying 50,000 km2 of tropical rainforest every year!

Image: Textbook pg 95

4. Why does deforestation occur?LoggingLogging reduces the number of trees and damages the rainforest as a whole

Why?For every tree extracted, five are badly damaged (falling tree will destroy the surrounding trees or smaller-sized plants)Also, the soil is exposed to erosion

4. Why does deforestation occur?LoggingExample:To meet needs in ChinaHuge demand for timber for making disposable chopsticks and paper Caused heavy logging in the rainforests of Congo and Cameroon in Central Africa, Brazil and Indonesia

4. Why does deforestation occur?MiningPrecious metals and gemstones (gold, copper and diamonds) are found beneath many tropical rainforestsForests are cleared to establish the mines and construct roads to transport the mined materials

NASA satellite image showing the extent of deforestation caused by the Carajs Mine, Brazil

Image: Textbook pg 95

4. Why does deforestation occur?MiningExample:Carajs Mine in Brazil has a rich variety of mineral reservesIn 2007: 296 million tonnes of iron ore were extracted (18 billion tonnes of minerals including gold and copper) These minerals are needed to produce electronic products such as computers and telephones as well as electrical wires

Suggested question for students:What are the uses of copper and gold minerals?- Many electronic products such as computers and telephones have gold components- Copper is mostly used to make electrical wires

4. Why does deforestation occur?Although human activities have led to deforestation, some may view these activities as key to development:The clearing of forests provides land for communities to build houses, factories, officesRoads can be built and this makes trade and transport easierAlso, the land can be converted to agricultural land to allow the production of more food

Lets try it! (Textbook pg 96):1. From the news article, what are the causes of deforestation? Farming, large-scale plantations, charcoal production etc. to meet human demands

2. What is the relationship between deforestation and people moving into cities?People shift to cities to look for better jobs. With better jobs, they would be able to afford more and better things e.g. food. So to meet with their demands, forests have to be cleared and the land is turned into a cattle pasture (for example) which will supply the beef that they can now afford etc.

Article: Textbook pg 96

5. How does deforestation impact people and the environment?Environmental impactLoss of biodiversityLoss of water catchment areasIncreased risk of flooding, soil erosion and sedimentationEnhanced greenhouse effectEconomic impactDepletion of natural resourcesSocial impactEffects on indigenous people

Environmental impactLoss of biodiversityDeforestation destroys the habitats of plants and animalsLoss of biodiversity = Loss of the variety of plants and animals -> extinction of plant and animal species -> lesser variety of resources (eg. Food, medicine, timber)Changes in biodiversity may increase the occurrence of insect-borne diseases (e.g. malaria, dengue fever)lack of nutrients in the soils may not be able to support the biodiversity that once existed on that land

5. How does deforestation impact people and the environment?

Suggested questions for students:1. Why would the changes in biodiversity increase the likelihood of insect-borne diseases?Deforestation can significantly alter a mosquito population by reducing predators of the insects or by giving mosquitoes more breeding grounds2. Why do you think there is a lack of nutrients in the soils of a deforested area?The top soil which contains majority of the nutrients would get washed away easily because the deforested land is exposed to rain.

Environmental impactLoss of watch catchment areasForests play an important role in maintaining our water supplyThey enable water to be collected and stored within a water catchment area

5. How does deforestation impact people and the environment?

Environmental impactLoss of watch catchment areas

The Amazon Basin has 7,000 tributariesCountries surrounding the Amazon rainforest depend on water from the Amazon Basin, especially during dry seasons5. How does deforestation impact people and the environment?

Suggested questions for students:1. Can you name the countries that surround the Amazon rainforest?- Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana, Bolivia

2. What will happen to these countries when large-scale deforestation takes place in the Amazon rainforest?Water shortage might occur because the catchment area is affected

Map: Textbook pg 99

Environmental impactLoss of water catchment areasClearing of trees disrupts the water cycle Less transpiration happening, less rain drier climate and drier soils as the ground no longer contains and receives as much water decreased water supply higher water prices5. How does deforestation impact people and the environment?

Suggested question for students:How does the mass clearing of trees disrupt the water cycle?There will be more surface runoff and less infiltration, leading to lesser groundwater and drier soils.No trees means less transpiration, hence drier climate and subsequently decreased water supply.

Environmental impactIncreased risk of flooding, soil erosion and sedimentationWhen trees are cleared, the ground is left bareNo trees, moss and leaf litter to intercept and reduce the impact of rain on the ground. More surface runoff, less infiltration This causes flooding in the surrounding areas

5. How does deforestation impact people and the environment?

Environmental impactIncreased risk of flooding, soil erosion and sedimentation

5. How does deforestation impact people and the environment?

Soil in the forests absorbs rainwater and releases it slowly into the rivers. When rain falls, forests intercept the rain and allow the rainwater to seep into the ground. Infiltration is the process where rainwater seeps into the ground.

Tree roots hold the soil to the ground and keep the ground stable. The moss and leaves that cover the forest floor also serve as a soil cover. On top of that, rain is intercepted by the different forest layers before hitting the ground.

Image: Textbook pg 101

Environmental impactIncreased risk of flooding, soil erosion and sedimentationSoil erosion is the removal of the top layers of soil by rainwater, wind and destructive human activities (logging)When trees are removed no roots to hold the soil, no trees to intercept the rain land becomes exposed soil erosion rain washes the soil into rivers increases the amount of sediments in the rivers affects water quality and aquatic life Increased amount of sediments smothers fish eggs, resulting in lower hatch ratesTurns water cloudy and prevents sunlight from penetrating the water suffocates coral reefs.

5. How does deforestation impact people and the environment?

Environmental impactIncreased risk of flooding, soil erosion and sedimentation

Sediments enter the sea

Coral reefs get suffocated

Sediments will eventually settle and accumulate

5. How does deforestation impact people and the environment?

Suggested question for students:Why do you think the coral reefs will be affected by an increase in amount of sediments?Coral reefs require sunlight to grow

Image: Textbook pg 101

Environmental impactEnhanced greenhouse effectThe gases (eg. Carbon dioxide, methane, water vapour and others) in the atmosphere help keep the earth warm. These are known as greenhouse gases. The warming of the atmosphere is known as the greenhouse effect. Without the greenhouse effect, the earths average temperature will be 18C rather than the current 15CHuman activities such as setting up of industries, transport network and power station have increased the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmopshere more heat trapped in the atmosphere increases the earths temperature Enhanced greenhouse effect

5. How does deforestation impact people and the environment?

A greenhouse is a building made of glass, where you grow plants that need protection from cold weather. The glass allows sunlight to shine in and warm the plants and air during the day. At night, the heat is trapped by the glass and is prevented from escaping. Therefore, the greenhouse remains warm even in cold weather.

Image: Textbook pg 102

Environmental impactEnhanced greenhouse effectDeforestation contributes to enhanced greenhouse effect increased amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphereLess trees means that less carbon dioxide is absorbed and more of it remains in the atmosphere. The burning of rainforests also releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Branches and logs that are left behind become fuel for forest fires.5. How does deforestation impact people and the environment?

Suggested question for students:Why does deforestation increase the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?- Trees absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store it as carbon. The stored carbon is released into the atmosphere when trees are cut down. Less trees means that less carbon dioxide is absorbed and more of it remains in the atmosphere. The burning of rainforests also releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Branches and logs that are left behind become fuel for forest fires.

Environmental impactEnhanced greenhouse effect

Deforestation of tropical rainforest contributes significantly to the total amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere5. How does deforestation impact people and the environment?

Map: Textbook pg 103. (Shows the top 10 contributors to greenhouse gas emissions due to deforestation. More than half of the carbon dioxide released is from Brazil and Indonesia, where large areas of tropical rainforests are found.

Environmental impactEnhanced greenhouse effectThe enhanced greenhouse effect affects people and the environment

For exampleIncreased temperatures can cause ice caps to meltResults in a rise in sea levels and flooding of low-lying coastal areasLow-lying islands (Kiribati and Vanuatu in the Pacific Ocean) may be submerged and disappear into the seaAs such, people living on these islands may lose their homes

5. How does deforestation impact people and the environment?

Suggested question for students:What impact do you think the enhanced greenhouse effect will have on Singapore?- Higher temperature, rise in sea levels, more health problems (e.g. heat stress), dengue outbreaks etc.

Economic impactDepletion of natural resourcesNatural resource: Anything from the natural environment that people can use to satisfy their needs such as food, shelter, clothing, air and waterTropical rainforests provide important natural resources (timber, food and water) for human needs, and they contribute greatly to the economic growth of many countriesRapid deforestation often destroys the rainforest faster than it can replenish itself depletion of natural resources affects earnings of industries that rely on rainforest resources.5. How does deforestation impact people and the environment?

Economic impactDepletion of natural resources

Earnings of industries that rely on rainforest resources get affectede.g. timber trade5. How does deforestation impact people and the environment?

Note: Timber is used to make furniture. As trees are cut down at a faster rate, younger ones cannot grow as quickly to replace them.

Image: Textbook pg 104

Social impactEffects on indigenous people

The Guarani community (Brazil) is living in makeshift camps because parts of the forest were cleared for sugarcane plantations, displacing these people from their homes in the tropical rainforest5. How does deforestation impact people and the environment?

Image: Textbook pg 105

Social impactEffects on indigenous peopleIndigenous people live in harmony with the forest and obtain their needs, such as food and shelter, from it. Cutting down rainforests affects the lives of indigenous peopleThey lose their homes and are forced to adapt to a new ways of living to survive causes indigenous tribes to disperse and cultures to disappear

5. How does deforestation impact people and the environment?

6. How should we manage deforestation?The worrying state of our worlds rainforests signals a need for action!The blue line shows the amount of forests that will be lost from 2012 onwards if we do nothing and continue with deforestation. The red line shows a target we can meet if we take action.

Graph: Textbook pg 107

Conservation: It is the protection of the environment and its natural resources from harm . It involves maintenance, restoration and wise management of resources to avoid permanent depletion of resources6. How should we manage deforestation?

Image: Textbook pg 108

International Year of Forests (IYF) 2011Sustainable resource management: It refers to the careful use of resources to ensure their availability in the futureTo achieve this, laws need to be passed & everyone needs to play his part.

7. How should we manage deforestation?

4 strategies of managing deforestationProtection of forested areasReforestationControlled loggingPublic education

7. How should we manage deforestation?

Managing deforestation in the AmazonProtection of forested areasLaws are passed to protect the tropical rainforests from unfavourable activities that might endanger the biodiversity and natural resources.The indigenous tribes living in these areas are also preserved.The Central Amazon Conservation Complex is the largest protected area in the Amazon Basin. It is set aside for the conservation of the biodiversity, education and research

7. How should we manage deforestation?

BenefitsProtection of forested areas Important in the conservation of our indigenous ecosystems and native biodiversityUseful for educational and recreational purposes, and scientific studyHas helped to reduce deforestation in the Amazon

7. How should we manage deforestation?

ChallengesProtection of forested areas - Protected areas are not fenced and are still vulnerable to human impactIn the Amazon, officers responsible for monitoring the protected areas may give in to corruption and allow loggers and miners to illegally enter protected areas- There are not enough forest rangers to patrol the huge areas of the Amazon rainforest families illegally settling in the protected areas

6. How should we manage deforestation?

Managing deforestation in the AmazonReforestationNon-profit organisations, companies and local communities are involved in the reforestation projects in the Amazone rainforest.Eg. Reforestation in PeruOrganised by LATA (Latin America Travel Association) FoundationBuy seedlings from and pays local communities to plant trees. 70,000 trees were planted in 2011

6. How should we manage deforestation?

BenefitsReforestation Reforestation improves soil fertility sustained plant growth.Reduces erosion, maintains the water cycle, and preserves the rainforest habitat and biodiversityCreates more jobs for local communities e.g. producing seedlings to plant, tour guiding

6. How should we manage deforestation?

ChallengesReforestation Can be expensive and time-consumingDepends on the availability of native plants for reforestation

6. How should we manage deforestation?

Managing deforestation in the AmazonControlled loggingAllows logging only in certain areas and in sustainable manner (eg. Only selected plant species can be logged)Ways to control logging:-impose penalties (fines & imprisonment) on irresponsible timber companies-through education & research programmes, timber companies are informed of the damage done and the necessary measures need to be taken to manage the damage. 6. How should we manage deforestation?

BenefitsControlled logging Greater control of illegal logging has led to a decrease in deforestation in the AmazonIn recent years, Brazils environmental enforcement agency has stopped several illegal loggers

The Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources Programme: Every tree that is logged is accounted forPrevents total clearance of a forestBenefits shared with locals who help run this programme

6. How should we manage deforestation?

ChallengesControlled logging Identifying and logging selected trees is time-consuming and difficult to implementAreas designated for controlled logging in the Amazon still face threats from illegal loggers as the rainforest covers a large area, making it difficult to track illegal loggers

6. How should we manage deforestation?

Managing deforestation in the AmazonPublic Education1. Publications magazines published by World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) informing people about rainforests. 2. Ecotourism activities organised by MT Amazon Expeditions to the Amazon rainforests. 3. To people of other countries - Embassy of Brazil in Singapore launched an Amazonia in Singapore Exhibition which showcased the biodiversity of the rainforest and raised awareness of management and conservation strategies

6. How should we manage deforestation?

Possible question for students:What is the purpose of creating public awareness of the state of the rainforest?- Awareness of the rich biodiversity in the rainforest- Hopefully causes people to be more mindful about the way they use rainforest resources

Show students this video from Greenpeace on stopping deforestation in the Amazon:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fo4WXly4QYk

BenefitsPublic education Helps to change peoples mindsets, and increase awareness, understanding and appreciation of forests Knowledge and awareness can lead to action and participation from the community

6. How should we manage deforestation?

ChallengesPublic education Turning environmental awareness into personal behaviour and action is difficultRaising awareness is difficult in some countries with low literacy ratesMany of the countries around the Amazon rely on the rainforest and these countries obtain income from exports derived from the rainforest

6. How should we manage deforestation?

DiscussionWhat can you, as an individual, do to contribute to the global/local efforts to save the rainforest?

Suggested answer:Although saving the rainforest on a global scale is not going to be easy, we can do our part on the local scale. Singapore aims to promote peoples understanding of the rainforest through various events and programmes. As individuals, we can share what we have learnt about the rainforest and conservation efforts with family and friends. We can also be more thoughtful about the way we use products that come from the rainforest.