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TROPICAL RAINFORESTS Defining Characteristics Agra, Joseph Yzrael Arsenio, Jesher Jos

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  • 1.TROPICAL RAINFORESTSDefining Characteristics Agra, Joseph Yzrael Arsenio, Jesher Joshua

2. Introduction Rain forests are called "cradles of diversity". They spawn and support 50 percent of all livingorganisms on Earth even though they cover less than 5%of Earths surface. A rainforests importance is truly incomprehensiblewhen it comes to species diversity. 3. Tropical Rainforests 4. Tropical Rainforests 5. Introduction Sunlight is a major limiting factor. There is no annual rhythm to the forest; rather eachspecies has to evolve its own flowering and fruitingseasons. A variety of strategies have been successful in thestruggle to reach light to adapt to the low intensity oflight beneath the canopy. 6. Distribution 7. Location Tropical rainforests mainly occur inside the Worldsequatorial regions. Tropical rainforests are restricted to the small land areabetween the latitudes 22.5 North and 22.5 South of theequator - between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Tropicof Cancer. 8. Location The largest unbroken stretch of rainforest is found in theAmazon river basin of South America. Over half of this forest lies in Brazil, which holds aboutone-third of the worlds remaining tropical rainforests. Another 20% of the worlds remaining rainforest existsin Indonesia and Congo Basin, while the balance of theworlds rainforests are scattered around the globe intropical regions. 9. Precipitation and Temperature 10. Precipitation and Temperature An important characteristic of tropical rainforests ismoisture. Tropical rainforests usually lie in tropical zones wheresolar energy produces frequent rainstorms. 11. Precipitation and Temperature Rainforests are subject to heavy rainfall, at least 80", andin some areas over 430" of rain each year. High volumes of rain in rainforests can cause localstreams and creeks to rise 10-20 feet over the course oftwo hours. Mean monthly temperatures are above 64 F; 12. Precipitation and Temperature There is usually a brief season of reduced precipitation.In monsoonal areas, there is a real dry season, but that ismore than compressed for with abundant precipitationthe rest of the year. 13. Structure Most of life in the tropical rainforest exists vertically inthe trees, above the shaded forest floor - in the layers. Each tropical rainforest canopy layer harbors its ownunique plant and animal species interacting with theecosystem around them. The primary tropical rainforest is divided into at leastfive layers: the overstory, the true canopy, theunderstory, the shrub layer, and the forest floor. 14. Structure 15. Forest Floor The area is mostly shade. Barely and direct lightreaches this level, thus almost no plants grow in thisarea as a result. Since hardly any sun reaches the forest floor thingsbegin to decay quickly. A leaf that might take one year to decompose in aregular climate will disappear in 6 weeks. Giant anteaters live in this layer. 16. Forest Floor 17. Understory Layer Little sunshine reaches this area so the plants have togrow larger leaves to reach the sunlight. The plants in this area seldom grow to 12 feet. Many animals live here including jaguars, red-eyed treefrogs and leopards. There is a large concentration ofinsects here. 18. Understory Layer 19. Canopy Layer This is the primary layer of the forest and forms a roofover the two remaining layers. Most canopy trees have smooth, oval leaves that cometo a point. Its a maze of leaves and branches. Many animals live in this area since food is abundant.Those animals include: snakes, toucans and treefrogs. 20. Canopy Layer 21. Emergent Layer The tallest trees are the emergents, towering as muchas 200 feet above the forest floor with trunks thatmeasure up to 16 feet around. Most of these trees are broad-leaved, hardwoodevergreens. Sunlight is plentiful up here. Animals found are eagles, monkeys, bats andbutterflies. 22. Emergent Layer 23. Biotic Factors 24. Animal Adaptations The tropical rainforest is a wet, warm forest oftrees that grow very closely together. The canopyin the rainforest can release gallons of watereach year into the atmosphere. The resultingmoisture hangs over the forest, keeping theinterior warm and humid. Animals living in therainforest have had to adapt to these wet, warmconditions and have had to find niches thatallow them to thrive. They do this by alteringspecies characteristics to fit the tall trees, theconstant humidity and the rainforest floor. 25. Animals in the canopy: Primates Long arms to swing from tree to tree in thecanopy, avoiding predators on the ground 26. The Aye-Aye Nocturnal feeder, to avoid dangerous predatorsby day. Large eyes allow more light in at night Builds nests on top of trees in the canopy Have a longer middle finger to reach withinholes in tree trunks 27. Birds Have large beaks to lose more heat. Birds intropical regions can afford to have larger beaksthan birds in temperate regions. Differently sized beaks allow for differentadaptations according to use 28. Large beaks for cutting up pieces of fruit andnuts Toucan 29. Hooked beaks to tear small prey apart Philippine Eagle 30. Long thin beaks to reach within small holes ontrees Black-cheeked Woodpecker 31. Insects Camouflage allow longer survivability Leaf-mimicking treehopper 32. Farming Leafcutter ants climb tall trees and cut smallpieces of leaves which they carry back to theirnest. The leaf pieces they carry are about 50times their weight. The ants bury the leafpieces, and the combination of the leaves andthe ants saliva encourages the growth of afungus, which is the only food these ants eat. 33. Predators Camouflage allow predators to hunt undetected They blend with the color of the leaves and trees 34. Jaguars spots 35. Amazon Horned Frog 36. Bright Colors Warn prospective predators to stay away fromthem Poison arrow frogs Native Central and South American tribes used to wipe the ends of their arrows onto the frogs skin to make their arrows deadly poisonous. 37. Plant Adaptations Bark In drier, temperate deciduous forests a thick bark helps to limit moisture evaporation from the trees trunk. Since this is not a concern in the high humidity of tropical rainforests, most trees have a thin, smooth bark. 38. Lianas Lianas are climbing woody vines that draperainforest trees. They have adapted to life in therainforest by having their roots in the groundand climbing high into the tree canopy to reachavailable sunlight. Many lianas start life in therainforest canopy and send roots down to theground. 39. Drip tips The leaves of forest trees have adapted to copewith exceptionally high rainfall. Many tropicalrainforest leaves have a drip tip. It is thoughtthat these drip tips enable rain drops to run offquickly. Plants need to shed water to avoidgrowth of fungus and bacteria in the warm, wettropical rainforest. 40. Buttresses Many large trees have massive ridges near thebase that can rise 30 feet high before blendinginto the trunk. Buttress roots provide extrastability, especially since roots of tropicalrainforest trees are not typically as deep as thoseof trees in temperate zones. 41. Prop and stilt roots Prop and stilt roots help give support and arecharacteristic of tropical palms growing inshallow, wet soils. Although the tree grows fairlyslowly, these above-ground roots can grow 28inches a month. 42. Epiphytes Epiphytes are plants that live on the surface ofother plants, especially the trunk and branches.They grow on trees to take advantage of thesunlight in the canopy. Most areorchids, bromeliads, ferns, and Philodendronrelatives. Tiny plants called epiphylls, mostlymosses, liverworts and lichens, live on thesurface of leaves. 43. Pitcher plants Pitcher plant vines in the family Nepenthaceaehave leaves that form a pitcher, complete with alid. Sweet or foul-smelling nectar in the pitcherattracts insects, especially ants and flies, thatlose their grip on the slick sides and fall into theliquid. Downward-pointing hairs inside thepitcher prevent the insects escape. The insectsare digested by the plants and provide nutrients.Pitcher plants are not epiphytes but climbersrooted in the soil. 44. Abiotic Factors Abiotic factors are those non-living, inertelements of an ecosystem that interact with theliving components. The way that the abioticfactors interact with a particular ecosystemdetermines the types of plants and animals thatcan live in that ecosystem. The abiotic factors ofthe rainforest biome are the amount ofwater, sunlight, temperature and soil, andclimate. 45. Water The rainforest normally receives no less than 80inches of rainfall annually. This is one of themost visible abiotic factors of the rain forest. Theair under the canopy layer is still and very humidas a result. The trees also give off water throughtheir leaves in a process called transpiration.This process can account for as much as half ofthe precipitation in a rain forest. 46. Transpiration loss of water vapor from parts ofplants (leaves, stems, roots) 47. Sunlight Light is the main source of energy in the rainforest. Plants use chlorophyll to change energyfrom sunlight into chemical energy throughphotosynthesis. 48. In the rain forest, most of the sunlight isabsorbed by the upper canopy, made up of treesbetween 60 and 100 feet tall. 49. Only about 1 percent of the sunlight that strikesthe top of the rain forest reaches to the forestfloor. Plants are adapted to these conditions --plants in the understory have large leaves tobetter absorb the weaker light, while those in theupper canopy have small leaves to reduce waterloss in the strong sunlight. 50. Soil The rain forest soil is shallow and thin, with fewnutrients and soluble minerals. The heavy rainscommon in rain forests wash away the nutrientsin the soil. As a result, the nutrients in a rainforest are largely found in the roots and leaves ofliving plants, and in the decomposing vegetationon the forest floor, rather than in the soil. 51. Temperature and Climate The temperature in a rain forest rarely getshigher than 93 degrees F or drops below 68degrees. The high and constant temperaturesincrease the rate of evaporation and keephumidity high. Warm temperatures also allowgrowth to occur quickly. As animal and insectlife does not need to expend energy keepingwarm, it can spend more energy on reproductionand reproduce with greater frequency. Thisexplains some of the abundance of life in therain forest. 52. This temperature is attributed to the location ofrainforests. They are near the equator, and sothey receive a high amount of solar radiation. Humid because of high amount of rainfall andsolar energy. Stays mostly the same all throughout the year. 53. TROPICAL RAINFORESTS:HUMAN IMPACT 54. HUMAN IMPACT Several human activities have lead to the degredation ofmany tropical rainforest biomes. These are mainly: Deforestation Overexploitation Introduction of Non-native Species 55. HUMAN IMPACTI. DEFORESTATION In general, deforestation, for whatever cause leads to habitat fragmentation and species displacement. This disrupts the forest ecosystem and might ultimately lead to a loss of biodiversity. 56. HUMAN IMPACTI. DEFORESTATION On a larger scale, this causes a reduction in the number of plant life that capable of converting carbon dioxide in the atmosphere into oxygen, thus contributing to global warming. 57. HUMAN IMPACTCAUSES OF DEFORESTATION Mining and Industry Mining and industrial development lead to directforest loss due to the clearing of land to establishprojects. Roads are constructed through previouslyinaccessible land, opening up and fragmenting therainforest. 58. HUMAN IMPACTCAUSES OF DEFORESTATION Mining and Industry Severe water, air and land pollution occurs frommining and industry. 59. HUMAN IMPACT 60. HUMAN IMPACTCAUSES OF DEFORESTATION Damming and Irrigation The construction of dams destroys the forest andoften displaces organisms from their original habitat. The rates of waterborne diseases increase rapidly. Dams also trap silt, which may lead to coastalerrosion. 61. HUMAN IMPACTCAUSES OF DEFORESTATION Damming and Irrigation The irrigation and industrial projects powered bydams leads to salination of soils and industry leadsto pollution. 62. HUMAN IMPACT 63. HUMAN IMPACTCAUSES OF DEFORESTATION Land Conversion Forests are cut down in order to make way for theconversion of forest land to agriculturalareas, ranches, residential spaces or for other urbanuses. Continual agricultural use often renders the soilextensively depleted which severely decreases theprobability of recovery for these forests. 64. HUMAN IMPACTCAUSES OF DEFORESTATION Land Conversion Urbanization upstream from or near forests mayintroduce pollutants which would endanger anddamage the forest ecosystem. 65. HUMAN IMPACT 66. HUMAN IMPACTII. OVEREXPLOITATION Overexploitation of any resource, through whatever means, disrupts the balance of the forest ecosystem. Depending on what type of organisms are taken out, the ecological impact may vary (i.e. keystone vs dominant species). 67. HUMAN IMPACTREASONS FOR OVEREXPLOITATION Logging Large areas of rainforest are destroyed in order tomake use of several trees selected for their timber. The heavy machinery used to penetrate the forestscauses extensive damage. These may also be asource of pollution. 68. HUMAN IMPACT 69. HUMAN IMPACTREASONS FOR OVEREXPLOITATION Tourism Rainforests are being threatened by excessive, poorlymanaged and loosely regulated tourism. Tourism is not inherently a detrimental, converselytourism, specifically eco-tourism, serves a noblepurpose of informing tourists of environmentalissues and advocacies. 70. HUMAN IMPACTREASONS FOR OVEREXPLOITATION Tourism However, tourism is often used to make easy profit.Some forested areas are opened without priorenlistment of proper management strategies. If left as such, this may leave the rainforest exposedto physical pollutants (i.e. littering). 71. HUMAN IMPACTREASONS FOR OVEREXPLOITATION Tourism Infrastructure development and noise pollution mayalso disturb the inhabiting species and may disruptthe ecosystem. There is also a heightened risk of diseaseintroduction. 72. HUMAN IMPACT 73. HUMAN IMPACTREASONS FOR OVEREXPLOITATION Poaching and Hunting Causes a decline in tropical rainforest biodiversity. Some species are hunted merely for theirfur, plumage or other parts while others arecaptured, shipped and sold as pets. 74. HUMAN IMPACTREASONS FOR OVEREXPLOITATION Poaching and Hunting This greatly disrupts the the forestsecosystems, often driving these species and severalother species that are dependent on them to thebrink of extinction. 75. HUMAN IMPACT 76. HUMAN IMPACTII. INTRODUCTION OF INVASIVE SPECIES An invasive species is a species living outside its native distributional range, which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental. Most introduced species are damaging to the ecosystem they are introduced into since they may invade ecological niches and thus may displace native species. 77. HUMAN IMPACTIII. INTRODUCTION OF INVASIVE SPECIES Only several introductions have resulted with no negative effects and even fewer have been proven to be, in fact, beneficial. 78. HUMAN IMPACTSUMMARY Deforestation Introduction of Invasive Mining and IndustrySpecies Damming andIrrigation Land Conversion Overexploitation Logging Tourism Poaching and Hunting