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  • United Nations Environment Programme Chemicals

    December 2002

    Central America and the Caribbean REGIONAL REPORT

    G l o b a l E n v i r o n m e n t F a c i l i t y

    Available from:

    UNEP Chemicals 11-13, chemin des Anémones CH-1219 Châtelaine, GE Switzerland

    Phone : +41 22 917 1234 Fax : +41 22 797 3460 E-mail: chemicals@unep.ch http://www.chem.unep.ch

    UNEP Chemicals is a part of UNEP's Technology, Industry and Economics Division

    Regionally Based

    Assessment of

    Persistent

    Substances

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    tra l A

    m e rica

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    e C

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    A P

    T S R

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    Printed at United Nations, Geneva GE.03-00159–January 2003–500 UNEP/CHEMICALS/2003/10

  • UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME

    CHEMICALS

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    DECEMBER 2002

    GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT FACILITY

  • ii

    This report was financed by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) through a global project with co-financing from the Governments of Australia, France, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States of America. This publication is produced within the framework of the Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC). This publication is intended to serve as a guide. While the information provided is believed to be accurate, UNEP disclaim any responsibility for the possible inaccuracies or omissions and consequences, which may flow from them. UNEP nor any individual involved in the preparation of this report shall be liable for any injury, loss, damage or prejudice of any kind that may be caused by any persons who have acted based on their understanding of the information contained in this publication. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this report do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations of UNEP concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

    The Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC), was established in 1995 by UNEP, ILO, FAO, WHO, UNIDO and OECD (Participating Organizations), following recommendations made by the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development to strengthen cooperation and increase coordination in the field of chemical safety. In January 1998, UNITAR formally joined the IOMC as a Participating Organization. The purpose of the IOMC is to promote coordination of the policies and activities pursued by the Participating Organizations, jointly or separately, to achieve the sound management of chemicals in relation to human health and the environment.

    Material in this publication may be freely quoted or reprinted but acknowledgement is requested together with a reference to the document. A copy of the publication containing the quotation or reprint should be sent to UNEP Chemicals.

    Available from: UNEP Chemicals11-13, chemin des Anémones

    CH-1219 Châtelaine, GE

    Switzerland

    Phone: +41 22 917 1234

    Fax: +41 22 797 3460

    E-mail: chemicals@unep.ch

    http://www.chem.unep.ch

    UNEP Chemicals is a part of UNEP’s Technology, Industry and Economics Division

    UNEP CHEMICALS

  • i

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    PREFACE .........................................................................................................V

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .................................................................................VI

    1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................... 1

    1.1. OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT...................................................................... 1 1.1.1. Objectives................................................................................................................................ 1 1.1.2. Results ..................................................................................................................................... 1 1.2. METHODS......................................................................................................... 2 1.2.1. World Regional Dvisions ........................................................................................................ 2 1.2.2. Project Management................................................................................................................ 2 1.2.3. Data ......................................................................................................................................... 2 1.2.4. Funding.................................................................................................................................... 2 1.3. SCOPE OF THE REGIONAL ASSESSMENT ................................................ 2 1.3.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 2 1.3.2. Scope of Central American Assessment ................................................................................. 3 1.3.3. Interregional Links and Collaboration .................................................................................... 3 1.4. CLIMATE .......................................................................................................... 3 1.5. POPULATION................................................................................................... 3 1.6. ECONOMY........................................................................................................ 3 1.7. GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF CHEMICALS................................................. 5 1.7.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 5 1.7.2. Pesticides................................................................................................................................. 5 1.7.3. Industrial compounds .............................................................................................................. 8 1.7.4. Unintended By-products ......................................................................................................... 9 1.7.5. Region-Specific Compounds................................................................................................... 9 1.8. SUMMARY ..................................................................................................... 15 2. SOURCES OF PTS ............................................................................. 17

    2.1. BACKGROUND INFORMATION TO PTS SOURCES ............................... 17 2.2. PESTICIDES.................................................................................................... 17 2.2.1. Aldrin and Dieldrin ............................................................................................................... 19 2.2.2. Chlordane .............................................................................................................................. 20 2.2.3. DDT....................................................................................................................................... 20 2.2.4. Endosulfan............................................................................................................................. 20 2.2.5. Endrin .................................................................................................................................... 21 2.2.6. Heptachlor ............................................................................................................................. 21 2.2.7. Hexachlorobenzene ............................................................................................................... 21 2.2.8. Mirex ..................................................................................................................................... 21

  • ii

    2.2.9. Toxaphene............................................................................................................................. 21 2.3. INDUSTRIAL COMPOUNDS........................................................................ 22 2.3.1. Polychlorinated Biphenyls .................................................................................................... 22 2.4. UNINTENTED BYPRODUCTS..................................................................... 22 2.4.1. Dioxins and Furans ............................................................................................................... 22 2.4.2. Atrazin

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