Reforestation Masterplan Gili Balu

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Near Final draft Gili Balu EcoRegion Masterplan West SumbawaAuthor : Reville SawLanguage : English


<ul><li><p>5.2 REFORESTATION/FORESTRY STRATEGY</p><p>&gt; 12015MASTERPLAN EIGHT ISLANDS ECO REGIONS INDONESIA</p><p>X</p><p>5.4 REFORESTATION/FORESTRY STRATEGY</p><p>The reestablishment and rejuvenation of forest areas in the Eight Island EcoRegion is a</p><p>long-term program which must consider the local vegetation, wildlife, and ecology of</p><p>the site, as well as cultural and economic realities. The reforestation strategy shall focus</p><p>on the following key steps as a way to recovery:</p><p>Preliminary surveys and consultation with forestry department and consultants.</p><p>Community engagement and coordination with forestry department</p><p>Establishment of Plant Nurseries</p><p>Follow up Community management and education</p><p>Wildlife management with Community and tourism education</p><p>Long Term Management with tourism opportunities</p><p>Social forestry involving the local community in the process is crucial. With sustainable</p><p>forest management as the governing principle an ecosystem-based forestry can be</p><p>adopted. Using three primary objectives following a series of preliminary guidelinesprior to construction; implementing a phased multi-year soil conservation and</p><p>replanting scheme using majority native and some suitable exotic vegetation; and</p><p>establishing a long-term management strategy for flora and fauna, a successful</p><p>reforestation strategy shall be integrated as part of the Master plan development.</p></li><li><p>5.2 REFORESTATION/FORESTRY STRATEGY</p><p>&gt; 22015MASTERPLAN EIGHT ISLANDS ECO REGIONS INDONESIA</p><p>HISTORICAL AND CONTEMPORARY PROBLEMS:</p><p>Currently the area suffers from unsustainable land use, ineffective resource</p><p>management and lack for integrated landscape planning.</p><p>Eco Regions Indonesia (ERI) have management and development</p><p>authority over Gili Balu and the Poto Tano tourism village on the mainland.</p><p>ERI will apply integrated forestry planning methods to these areas and can</p><p>act as advisors in others.</p><p>REFORESTATIONBackground: Existing Context</p></li><li><p>5.2 REFORESTATION/FORESTRY STRATEGY</p><p>&gt; 32015MASTERPLAN EIGHT ISLANDS ECO REGIONS INDONESIA</p><p>There exists remnant areas of high conservation value but a large majority of</p><p>the land requires revitalization, such as:</p><p> Enhancing ecosystem services for flood and dust control, enhancingfisheries and energy savings through increased shading and cooling.</p><p> Erosion control Groundcover and rangeland condition Tree canopy and diversity Fertility and stability of agricultural fields Mangrove and salt flat areas protected from continual grazing</p><p>The reforestation strategy is not just about planting and vegetation:</p><p> It is about creating ecosystem stability and revitalizing the damagedmarine and wildlife habitats</p><p> It is about empowering the local community to take action and bepersonally invested in the long-term effects that will result from the</p><p>oncoming development</p><p> Creating and enhancing economic returns through direct and indirectyields</p><p> Improving human and animal health through ecosystem services. It is about educating visitors and locals alike of ecological practices</p><p>while visiting the EcoRegion</p><p> It is about building sustainable land use ethic that is involving allstakeholders and protects natural resources for current and future</p><p>generations</p><p>REFORESTATIONBackground: Existing Context </p><p>Above : Showing the local problems of </p><p>grazing, erosion, flash flooding, water </p><p>shortages, lack of shade, rubbish and </p><p>generally a poor ugly landscape.</p><p>Below: Some coastal areas are in </p><p>extremely poor condition and will benefit </p><p>from investment in infrastructure and </p><p>landscaping </p></li><li><p>5.2 REFORESTATION/FORESTRY STRATEGY</p><p>&gt; 42015MASTERPLAN EIGHT ISLANDS ECO REGIONS INDONESIA</p><p>EXISTING PROBLEMS:</p><p>This example shows two areas of forest on the same hill, one in its natural state and the</p><p>other highly degraded by misuse. The plan needs to reverse this damage and enhance</p><p>the remaining natural beauty.</p><p>REFORESTATIONCurrent Situations: Primary Issues </p><p>Rock </p><p>quarrying</p><p>Overgrazing</p><p>Intact panorama </p><p>and biodiversity</p><p>Trees cut</p><p>Remnant forest </p><p>inaccessible by </p><p>goats and people </p><p>Degraded </p><p>landscape</p></li><li><p>5.2 REFORESTATION/FORESTRY STRATEGY</p><p>&gt; 52015MASTERPLAN EIGHT ISLANDS ECO REGIONS INDONESIA</p><p>Stage one: Create a sustainable forestry land use roadmap to recoverywith community and government participation that addresses current</p><p>and future opportunities and needs.</p><p>Stage two, phase one: Reforestation strategy is enacted in alldevelopment areas as official government policy and in community</p><p>demonstration sites (Hydrological management, planting for stabilization</p><p>of slopes and coastlines starts, beautification of panoramas).</p><p>Stage two, phase two: landscape stabilization and enhancementscheme developed is applied in the broader EcoRegion</p><p>Stage three: Landscape management scheme developed for specificneeds such as new industries or specific conservation outcomes as these</p><p>are identified.</p><p>REFORESTATIONReforestation: A Three Stage Process</p><p>Mangrove areas need to be studied and </p><p>protected </p><p>Previously forested hills have been logged, </p><p>grazed and rock mined till all that remains is an </p><p>ugly panorama. They can be restored slowly but </p><p>surely to be both attractive and useful forests</p><p>Erosion is a serious problem across the </p><p>entire region and can be extreme</p></li><li><p>5.2 REFORESTATION/FORESTRY STRATEGY</p><p>&gt; 62015MASTERPLAN EIGHT ISLANDS ECO REGIONS INDONESIA</p><p>Stage one: creating the recovery strategy: Vegetation surveys undertaken by</p><p>competent consultants to create baselinedata. This is to form the basis for the for therecovery efforts. The baseline data willdirect and quantify the recovery program.</p><p> All landscaping and amenities planting willneed to be established fitting in with theintrinsic character of the area andprotecting or restoring the function offorest in development areas.</p><p> Engagement of community andgovernment to align needs and wisheswith the restoration process.</p><p>Stage two, phase one: beginning reforestation:</p><p> Following the establishment of anintegrated landscape vegetation plan,pilot reforestation sites are to beestablished. The size of the pilot plantingswill be determined by the availability ofresources. These may include but are notlimited to; Silvopasture models, mangroveand salt flat rehabilitation, erosion control,home garden fruit tree diversification andconservation projects to return degraded</p><p>areas to diverse and resilient habitat richlansdcapes</p><p> Expansion of reforestation works overthese areas will be phased over severalyears. Vegetation rehabilitation beprioritized by erosion control needs,</p><p> Provision of alternative incomes and animalfodder, environmental services and thebeautification of the area through enhancingpanoramas</p><p>Stage two, phase two: planting and landscape</p><p>scheme outside of developments andneighborhoods:</p><p>The planting and landscape scheme shall bedeveloped in coordination with localgovernment, and external experts to be hiredby the client, to oversee the re-vegetationstrategy. It shall provide the overall successionplan to guide future development. The primaryareas intended for the planting shall be focused</p><p>on: Main road tree planting and surrounding</p><p>community forest Silvopasture areas under the control of or</p><p>in cooperation with the local village Shrubland and rangeland enhancement</p><p>Protection of recharge zones for naturalsprings</p><p> Establishing perennial organic horticulturein fertile gully areas</p><p> Buffer zones for mangrove protection thatbenefit the community</p><p> Firewood plantation for local use</p><p>REFORESTATIONReforestation: A Three Stage Process </p></li><li><p>5.2 REFORESTATION/FORESTRY STRATEGY</p><p>&gt; 72015MASTERPLAN EIGHT ISLANDS ECO REGIONS INDONESIA</p><p>Stage three: Landscape management</p><p>scheme developed for specific needs</p><p>such as amenity plantings or specific</p><p>conservation outcomes:</p><p> Reforestation of the developmentprecincts will be undertaken as</p><p>developer partnerships are</p><p>secured and the permit and</p><p>licensing approval process</p><p>proceeds.</p><p> The timing of developerpartnerships and approval will</p><p>determine the timing of the</p><p>reforestation program for the</p><p>development precincts.</p><p> Reforestation of developmentprecincts will be guided by the</p><p>demonstration plantings and</p><p>reforestation pilot and extension</p><p>programs that have been carried</p><p>out during stage one and two.</p><p> Further details as to exact locationsand specific schemes shall be</p><p>introduced in following phases</p><p>after full assessment of the</p><p>EcoRegion and identification of</p><p>specific conservation and amenity</p><p>needs.</p><p> Development precincts will alsoundertake the reforestation of</p><p>precinct annexure i.e. adjoininglandscapes that bound the</p><p>development area (refer to</p><p>reforestation plan).</p><p> Allocation of these annexes is to bedetermined by the master planning</p><p>team and ERI.</p><p>Note: It is possible that stage two,</p><p>phase two and stage three</p><p>processes can occur simultaneously.</p><p>REFORESTATIONReconstructing landscape: A Three Stage Process </p></li><li><p>5.2 REFORESTATION/FORESTRY STRATEGY</p><p>&gt; 82015MASTERPLAN EIGHT ISLANDS ECO REGIONS INDONESIA</p><p>REFORESTATION</p></li><li><p>5.2 REFORESTATION/FORESTRY STRATEGY</p><p>&gt; 92015MASTERPLAN EIGHT ISLANDS ECO REGIONS INDONESIA</p><p>PHASING OF DEVELOPMENT</p><p>REFORESTATION</p></li><li><p>5.2 REFORESTATION/FORESTRY STRATEGY</p><p>&gt; 102015MASTERPLAN EIGHT ISLANDS ECO REGIONS INDONESIA</p><p>The restoration planning process to landscape rehabilitation involves:</p><p> Focus on a holistic approach, letting informed reality guide the design process,making the creative connections between elements</p><p> Recognizing the critical importance of goals, and especially prioritized, holistically-considered decision-making for planning</p><p> Acknowledge the role of people as a crucial part of the system maintaining thatland health is a direct reflection of the people</p><p> Use conscious sensitive design to integrate and bring out the unique character ofthe place in landscape management</p><p> Integrate the land improvement tools of sustainable use of plants and animals toaccelerate building of fertility and biodiversity</p><p> Pay attention to and plan according to scaled organization of landscapes(recognition of nested hierarchies and the interplay dynamics between levels - see</p><p>KSOP) as an explicit dimension needed to effectively plan for permanence</p><p> Seek ways to increase flexibility, adaptive capacity, and resilience of the wholelandscape.</p><p>REFORESTATIONLandscape planning ethic </p><p>Community workforce restoring </p><p>native forest in Tanjung Ringgit </p><p>EcoRegion </p><p>Keyline Scale of Permanence (KSOP):1. Climate2. Landscape3. Water Supply4. Roads/Access5. Trees6. Structures7. Boundaries and Fences</p><p>8. Soil</p><p></p></li><li><p>5.2 REFORESTATION/FORESTRY STRATEGY</p><p>&gt; 112015MASTERPLAN EIGHT ISLANDS ECO REGIONS INDONESIA</p><p>REFORESTATIONSummary: Reforestation 7 Step ProgramPreliminary Works</p><p> Climate data collection Stakeholder consultation, biodiversity surveys, landscape </p><p>hydrological and contour studies, soil types, road and access planning. Prioritize needs to </p><p>match capacity.</p><p>Commencement</p><p> Ensure government and community support for action plans.</p><p> Erosion control and water management, fire control, excluding livestock and soil </p><p>conditioning.</p><p> Environmental awareness education.</p><p>Plant Establishment</p><p> Establish community supported reforestation and silvopasture demonstration areas. </p><p> Collect planting material from remnant vegetation to use in community supported </p><p>nurseries.</p><p>Plant Community Evolution</p><p> Focus on plants for sustainable production including agroforestry, agriculture, and </p><p>gardens</p><p> Focus on reforestation of conservation and tourism areas with original forest species</p><p> Invigorate the mangroves and establish protection plans</p><p>Plant Community Management</p><p> Grazing management, Weed management, fire management, stormwater</p><p>management</p><p>Wildlife Management</p><p> Wildlife habitat and corridor rejuvenation plan, feral animal strategic plan</p><p>Long Term Management</p><p> Engage local community with education, maintenance, and investment in care of land</p><p> Monitor, evaluate, and self-regulate for long-term testing and research</p><p>1</p><p>2</p><p>3</p><p>4</p><p>5</p><p>6</p><p>7</p></li><li><p>5.2 REFORESTATION/FORESTRY STRATEGY</p><p>&gt; 122015MASTERPLAN EIGHT ISLANDS ECO REGIONS INDONESIA</p><p>Establish baseline data by surveys:</p><p> Contour maps of area Biodiversity and tree survey Consult with community and stakeholders</p><p>Ensure accessible vehicular, service, and pedestrian connections.</p><p>Animal and Wildlife Management: Assist community to protect mangroves and forest areas from uncontrolled</p><p>grazing</p><p> Integrate livestock grazing systems to controlled grazing patterns Assist development of cut and carry agroforestry systems on currently barren</p><p>Village land</p><p> Use lower impact livestock such as horses to control fire risk seasonally Requires developing animal husbandry management plan</p><p>REFORESTATIONStep 1: Preliminary Works </p><p>Mangrove diversity and condition Remnant forest speciesSavannah areas created by past </p><p>farming practices </p></li><li><p>5.2 REFORESTATION/FORESTRY STRATEGY</p><p>&gt; 132015MASTERPLAN EIGHT ISLANDS ECO REGIONS INDONESIA</p><p>A. Controlled and restoration grazing I Currently large areas of salt flats and mangrove are degraded because of</p><p>uncontrolled access by goats, cows and horses. These areas are important sensitive coastal habitat growing under hostile</p><p>conditions that are easily damaged and hard to restore. They have good value to grazing animals as they are evergreen and rich in</p><p>minerals. The grazing pressure is too heavy and has lead to previously productive areas</p><p>becoming barren wastelands. The program wishes to recognize both the Aesthetic, economic and</p><p>environmental potential of these areas and begin a process that can conserveall three simultaneously.</p><p> Salt marsh areas are to be fenced and stock completely excluded duringrecovery.</p><p> Once recovered the project will commence measurements and studies todetermine appropriate timing and duration for crash grazing these areas.</p><p> Crash grazing involves a large amount of animals grazing an area for a very shorttime, it mimics natural herd migration and has proven to stimulate grass andshrublands health and productivity.</p><p>REFORESTATIONManagement approaches </p><p>On Gili Kalong where there are no stock the </p><p>salt flats are green and healthy, while on the </p><p>mainland there are no healthy stands and </p><p>many are dead or dying. Saltfalts can be </p><p>managed for grazing in a way that benefits </p><p>plants, humans and animals </p><p>Benefits of the restoration grazing approach.1. Plant communities are managed to the level of grazing they can sustain2. Grazing patterns mimic natural patterns of wildlife grazing which they are evolved </p><p>to respond to3. Grazing animals add valuable food and income to the community and justify a </p><p>value of conserving salt flats in a natural form4. Grazing animals crash grazing stimulate healthy regrowth by cycling nutrients and </p><p>created a seedbed for regeneration</p></li><li><p>5.2 REFORESTATION/FORESTRY STRATEGY</p><p>&gt; 142015MASTERPLAN EIGHT ISLANDS ECO REGIONS INDONESIA</p><p>REFORESTATIONManagement approaches </p><p>The Gili Kalong landscape is stuck in a </p><p>cycle of fire that leaves a hot, plain and </p><p>dangerous landscape</p><p>Gili Kenawa after a grass wildfire that would </p><p>have been lethal to trees, animals and </p><p>humans caught in its way</p><p>Horses are selective browsers that stimulate </p><p>grassland diversity and allow tree </p><p>regeneration when managed carefully</p><p>A. Cont...</p></li></ul>