Sanitation Masterplan Gili Balu

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Near final draft Waste and Sanitation Gili Balu , West Sumbawa Author : Reville Saw

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<ul><li><p>5.5 SANITATION &amp; WASTE STRATEGY</p><p>&gt; 12015MASTERPLAN EIGHT ISLANDS ECO REGIONS INDONESIA</p><p>X</p><p>5.5 SANITATION AND WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY</p><p>Proper waste management is vital for maintaining the environmental</p><p>integrity of the Gili Balu area. Untreated waste will be highly detrimentalparticularly to the marine eco-system in the area The goals for Gili Balu</p><p>EcoRegion integrated sanitation and solid waste strategy are:</p><p>Greywater treatment for reuse as domestic irrigation water source</p><p>Blackwater minimization, treatment and safe integration into</p><p>landscapes</p><p>Phased evolution to a modern waste management platform for</p><p>waste recovery and recycling</p><p>Phasing out and eventual elimination of landfill and open burning of</p><p>waste as disposal options</p><p>The re-use of on-site water sources grey and blackwater shall result ina sustainable wastewater management program. Innovative solutions in</p><p>treating and reusing wastewater improves sanitation and redefines awaste product as a valuable resource.</p><p>The sanitation strategy is a comprehensive design solution that requires</p><p>specialist knowledge of low-tech yet cutting edge, integrated, and</p><p>contextually appropriate solutions. As waste flows increase additional</p><p>technologies may be added.</p></li><li><p>5.5 SANITATION &amp; WASTE STRATEGY</p><p>&gt; 22015MASTERPLAN EIGHT ISLANDS ECO REGIONS INDONESIA</p><p>SOLID WASTE RECOVERY PROGRAM FOR ECOREGION</p><p> Source separation of recyclable materials followed by waste depot sorting, with export by IBCM to Surabaya for reprocessing</p><p> Toxic and hazardous materials stored safely and exported for reprocessing</p><p> Organic materials processed using modern composting processes with a JV partnership to be used in revegetation projects</p><p>SANITATION AND WASTEGoals Overall: Create a Holistic Sanitation Strategy </p><p>Solid waste</p><p>GreywaterBlackwater</p><p>INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN: A THREE TIERED STRATEGY</p></li><li><p>5.5 SANITATION &amp; WASTE STRATEGY</p><p>&gt; 32015MASTERPLAN EIGHT ISLANDS ECO REGIONS INDONESIA</p><p>MAINLAND WEST SUMBAWA WASTEWATER STRATEGY</p><p> Larger settlements with concentrated populations suitable for centralizedblackwater collection and primary anaerobic treatment, followed by</p><p>transport to secondary treatment and disposal irrigation in timber and fuel</p><p>wood plots</p><p> Isolated settlements using sealed septic tanks and vegetated leachfields</p><p> Tourist facilities to use septic or modified Asian style (wet) compostingtoilets</p><p> Onsite reuse of greywater in wastewater homegardens for shade and fruit,or irrigation of woodlots</p><p>GILI BALU WASTEWATER STRATEGY</p><p> As for Isolated settlements on the mainland or Alternative systems proposed to be mixed based upon specific enclave</p><p>needs</p><p> Centralized (vacuum sewage) for boats Specially designed water based independent (septic tank) Dry system independent (Terra Preta / Compost Toilet )</p><p>SANITATION AND WASTEWastewater</p></li><li><p>5.5 SANITATION &amp; WASTE STRATEGY</p><p>&gt; 42015MASTERPLAN EIGHT ISLANDS ECO REGIONS INDONESIA</p><p>Source separation of waste streams</p><p> Separate rubbish bins provided fororganic, rubbish and recyclables with</p><p>community education targeting youth</p><p>and employees as ambassadors of</p><p>change</p><p> Greywater types separated at sourceand diverted to different treatments</p><p> Blackwater minimised and treatedanaerobically to reduce TDS and</p><p>pathogen load</p><p> All wastewater treated prior to dischargethrough appropriate filter beds</p><p>Sorting and processing for export</p><p> Recyclable glass, metals, plastics sorted,compressed and stockpiled</p><p> Future technologies entering the marketnow show waste plastics and rubber can</p><p>be converted to liquid transport fuels</p><p> Exported by sea in IBCM shippingcontainers for cost recovery to</p><p>reprocessing facilities in Surabaya</p><p>Toxic and hazardous waste</p><p> May include but not limited to;Chemicals, used engine oils and</p><p>petrochemicals and used drums,</p><p>batteries, medical waste, white goods</p><p>and refrigerants, e-waste, tyres, asbestos</p><p> To be collected and stored securely bystaff trained in safe handling</p><p> Some materials may be processedeconomically on site at later date using</p><p>clean incineration</p><p> Materials exported for reprocessing,where possible seeking cost recovery</p><p>measures</p><p>Organic wastes</p><p>There are three systems proposed to be</p><p>mixed based upon specific enclave needs:</p><p> Thermocomposting hot compost method</p><p> Modern Pyrolysis to biochar, or complete gasification</p><p> Mulching, vermicomposting, silage and slow decomposition</p><p>SANITATION AND WASTESolid waste</p><p>REGIONAL SOLID WASTE STRATEGY METHODS AND SUGGESTIONS</p></li><li><p>5.5 SANITATION &amp; WASTE STRATEGY</p><p>&gt; 52015MASTERPLAN EIGHT ISLANDS ECO REGIONS INDONESIA</p><p>Wastewater source separated according to</p><p>treatment needs and end use</p><p> Greywater types separated at sourceand diverted to different treatments and</p><p>use via separate plumbing</p><p> Blackwater minimised and treatedanaerobically to reduce TDS and</p><p>pathogen load</p><p> All wastewater treated prior to dischargethrough appropriate filter beds</p><p>Blackwater treatment Strategy</p><p> Anaerobic fermentation process beginswithin modern fully sealed septic tanks</p><p> Effluent discharged through planted evapotranspiration leach fields to remove </p><p>nutrients .</p><p>Greywater Liquids Use Strategy</p><p> Greywater separated at source intoLaundry, Kitchen, Shower. Grey water</p><p>may not be stored longer than 12 hours</p><p>or used on vegetable crops for sale or</p><p>supply. Laundry water may be discharged into</p><p>specially planted wastewater gardens.</p><p> Kitchen water may be discharged togarden beds after simple treatment</p><p>through a coarse sand filter box</p><p> Shower water may be dischargeddirectly to approved wastewater</p><p>gardens</p><p>Toilet sanitation for remote and sensitive</p><p>sitesThree systems are proposed to be mixed</p><p>based upon specific enclave needs:</p><p> Centralized (vacuum sewerage) Specially designed water based</p><p>independent (septic tank)</p><p> Dry system independent (Terra Preta /Compost Toilet / no water necessary)</p><p>SANITATION AND WASTESolid waste</p><p>ISLAND SANITATION STRATEGY METHODS AND SUGGESTIONS</p></li><li><p>5.5 SANITATION &amp; WASTE STRATEGY</p><p>&gt; 62015MASTERPLAN EIGHT ISLANDS ECO REGIONS INDONESIA</p><p>Secondary treatment</p><p>Effluent tanks</p><p>Coarse sand Filter</p><p>Diversion option</p><p>Kitchen wastewater</p><p>Irrigation of woodlots managed by body </p><p>corporate</p><p>Vegetated leachfielddisposal</p><p>Communal or individual </p><p>sewage piping</p><p>Domestic plumbing greywater</p><p>Domestic plumbing </p><p>blackwater</p><p>Shower water</p><p>Other water sources</p><p>Option A: isolated individual </p><p>households</p><p>BlackwatereffluentAnaerobic </p><p>sealed septic tank</p><p>PDAM Freshwater source (non </p><p>potable)</p><p>Note: greywater waste from larger public complexes such as hotels shall be handled individually; thus, shall not contribute to wastewater calculations</p><p>Option B: Dense settlements</p><p>Sealed sewage </p><p>tanker truck</p><p>Communal anaerobic </p><p>pretreatment</p><p>Household Wastewater gardens</p><p>Piped mains water</p><p>SANITATION AND WASTEOverall Goals: Create a Holistic Sanitation Strategy </p></li><li><p>5.5 SANITATION &amp; WASTE STRATEGY</p><p>&gt; 72015MASTERPLAN EIGHT ISLANDS ECO REGIONS INDONESIA</p><p>Irrigation</p><p>APPLICATION</p><p>Landscape trees and woodlots</p><p>Drinking Water</p><p>Primary: Enclave Swimming PoolExcess: Infiltration, Sea Outflow</p><p>Water Schematic: Resource Treatment Storage Application</p><p>SOURCE</p><p>BlackwaterAnaerobic sealed </p><p>septic tanks</p><p>Discharge through planted leachfields to </p><p>remove nutrients</p><p>TREATMENT STORAGE</p><p>Greywater</p><p>Sea Water</p><p>Roof Rainwater</p><p>Coarse Sand filter, Wastewater gardens</p><p>Solar Thermal Desalination</p><p>Inline ceramic and carbon filters</p><p>Above ground and underground Tanks </p><p>No storage, direct use only</p><p>Large tanks on ridges</p><p>Localized Stormwater Runoff</p><p>Buried cisterns</p><p>Sea WaterReverse Osmosis </p><p>DesalinationPressurised mains for </p><p>large settlements</p><p>Bioswales, Sand filter, Ozonation</p><p>Note: greywater waste from larger public complexes such as hotels shall be handled individually; thus, shall not contribute to wastewater calculations</p><p>PDAM reservoirSlow sand filter and </p><p>inline filterMains water for large </p><p>settlements</p><p>Water schematic: From Source to Application SANITATION AND WASTE</p></li><li><p>5.5 SANITATION &amp; WASTE STRATEGY</p><p>&gt; 82015MASTERPLAN EIGHT ISLANDS ECO REGIONS INDONESIA</p><p>7.5 SUSTAINABILITY STRATEGIES</p><p>Rain event occursPUBLIC AREA Communal Area</p><p>Rain event occursPRIVATE AREA Housing or Buildings</p><p>WASTEWATER: Sanitary plumbing for Greywater and Blackwater</p><p>VARIOUS TREATMENT MODELS: onsite and offsite</p><p>CONSTRUCTED WETLAND, FILTERS AND OTHER SECONDARY TREATMENT: Greywater / Blackwater Treatment</p><p>APPLICATION: Irrigation</p><p>WASTEWATER IS GENERATED FROM USE </p><p>WITHIN BUILDINGS / </p><p>PRIVATE PLOTS</p><p>Goal 1: Sourcing for irrigation SANITATION AND WASTE</p></li><li><p>5.5 SANITATION &amp; WASTE STRATEGY</p><p>&gt; 92015MASTERPLAN EIGHT ISLANDS ECO REGIONS INDONESIA</p><p>Defining Irrigation Water Source</p><p> General use of treated greywater(shower, laundry, kitchen water) and</p><p>treated or untreated stormwater that</p><p>have been cleansed within enclave.</p><p>Effluent from blackwater purified through</p><p>Constructed Wetlands, Filtered and</p><p>Cleared of Solids/Harmful bacteria may</p><p>be used to irrigate specific areas</p><p> The value of this resource is its constantavailability as it is independent of local</p><p>weather conditions (ie rain) and relies</p><p>only upon visitor frequency</p><p>Process</p><p> Wastewater from buildings conveyedthrough multiple plumbing lines to</p><p>treatment methods matching its level</p><p>and form of contamination</p><p> Dependent on slope, residential densityand location, the majority of wastewater</p><p>by volume will be treated on site with no</p><p>discharge of untreated effluent allowed</p><p>except to communal sewage lines</p><p> Where density or location maketreatment and disposal onsite impossible,</p><p>provisions must be made to transport</p><p>effluent to a suitable treatment area.</p><p> Greywater must not be stored longerthan 12 hours or else bacterial</p><p>populations bloom and it becomes</p><p>blackwater. A surge tank may be fitted</p><p>but no storage of untreated greywater is</p><p>permitted</p><p> Subsequent filters for cleansing,disinfection, solid filtration to be applied</p><p>as required</p><p> Irrigation systems to use branched drainmethod due to its robust features with</p><p>low rate of failure and low maintenance</p><p>needs</p><p>SANITATION AND WASTEGrey/blackwater liquids</p></li><li><p>5.5 SANITATION &amp; WASTE STRATEGY</p><p>&gt; 102015MASTERPLAN EIGHT ISLANDS ECO REGIONS INDONESIA</p><p>GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR IRRIGATION USING GREYWATER</p><p> Drip irrigation is not to be used with greywater due to the higher TDS as it will clog</p><p> Irrigation to be discharged to subsurface (min 200mm) or topped with dry gravel or mulch </p><p> Select plants that respond to high volumes of water but can survive periodswith no input</p><p> Greywater is to be used immediately after use (no longer than 12 hours)</p><p> Use low sodium and low phosphorus biodegradable soaps</p><p> Calculate volume of discharge to 25-40mm/ week 25~ 40m2/m3/week</p><p>SANITATION AND WASTEGrey/blackwater liquid: Irrigation</p><p>Plant species Height (m) Uses</p><p>Banana 2-15 Fruit, mulch</p><p>Citrus 2-8 Fruit</p><p>Fig 6 Fruit</p><p>Bamboo 2-15Construction, craft, tools, mulch</p><p>Elephant grass 5 Mulch, fodder</p><p>Vetiver grass 2 Mulch, thatch</p><p>Drip Irrigation: highly efficient but </p><p>inappropriate for use with greywater</p><p>Drip Irrigation: the small </p><p>holes easily clog with </p><p>suspended sediments</p></li><li><p>5.5 SANITATION &amp; WASTE STRATEGY</p><p>&gt; 112015MASTERPLAN EIGHT ISLANDS ECO REGIONS INDONESIA</p><p>OPTIONS FOR TREATMENT IN WASTEWATER GARDENS:</p><p>Though names may differ, the treatment train process for cleansing water seeks to replicate </p><p>the natural processes of stormwater percolating through soils, forest and wetlands with such </p><p>uses as:</p><p> Treating runoff from hardscapes such as roads or plazas Purifying the effluent from agriculture, fishing, or farming Offering habitats for animals and plants to revitalize the wildlife population and</p><p>biodiversity</p><p> Recharging surface aquifers </p><p>The systems chosen to treat each wastewater type must match the needs in treating that </p><p>wastewater type and be low maintenance and robust </p><p> Relatively clean water from stormwater and shower water can be discharged to simple infiltration</p><p> Kitchen and laundry water requires additional filtration in sealed systems before discharge to landscape</p><p> Blackwater must be treated to a high level using sealed systems before careful disposal</p><p>Because of the dangers and nuisances of mosquito breeding habitat in the tropics irrigation </p><p>of wastewater gardens should be subsurface</p><p> Mosquitos require surface water to breed so a dry layer of at least 50mm must be maintained at all times</p><p> Discharge points are ideally 200mm below the surface into a thick mulch layer over porous soils </p><p>Coarse organic material has a high carbon content and supports a microbial population </p><p>that quickly removes nutrients and degrades pollutants</p><p> Woodchip mulch and charcoal absorb phosphates, nitrates and the microbes degradeorganic pollutants while feeding directly on disease causing bacteria</p><p> Over time this organic layer breaks down and is converted to rich humus. It is toppedup from above however periodic maintenance involves removing this layer for use in</p><p>reforestation zones and replacing with a new layer. This may be every 6-24 months</p><p> This type of system is constantly renewable and can continue to operate at highefficiency. In contrast to regular artificial wetlands and planter boxes that show high</p><p>early absorbtion but lose efficiency over time as they become saturated with nutrientsVSFW: good oxygen transfer capability, nitrification</p><p>Larger scale wastewater gardens become part of the landscape</p><p>Fibreglass gravel filled Biobox wastewater gardens are an easy way to landscape and treat wastewater. They can be </p><p>made locally</p><p>Grey/blackwater liquids: Cleansing and treatment SANITATION AND WASTE</p></li><li><p>5.5 SANITATION &amp; WASTE STRATEGY</p><p>&gt; 122015MASTERPLAN EIGHT ISLANDS ECO REGIONS INDONESIA</p><p>Branched drain disposal is a low tech robust system for individual plots on slopes</p><p>&gt;3% where wastewater can be disposed of downhill</p><p> To be installed by trained local contractors under supervision using a mix of local and imported components</p><p>http://oasisdesign.net/greywater/brancheddrain/ http://www.mylivinglandscape.com/#!water-management/co8k </p><p>SANITATION AND WASTEGreywater: Cleansing and treatment</p></li><li><p>5.5 SANITATION &amp; WASTE STRATEGY</p><p>&gt; 132015MASTERPLAN EIGHT ISLANDS ECO REGIONS INDONESIA</p><p>WASTEWATER GARDEN EXAMPLES: For larger facilities</p><p>Wastewater gardens do not have to be largeAesthetic appeal of vegetation increases acceptability for</p><p>greywater / terrace treatment</p><p>Select regionally appropriate vegetation suited for climate of Indonesia Vegetation can lower ambient micro-climate temperature of buildings</p><p>SANITATION AND WASTEGreywater: Cleansing and treatment</p></li><li><p>5.5 SANITATION &amp; WASTE STRATEGY</p><p>&gt; 142015MASTERPLAN EIGHT ISLANDS ECO REGIONS INDONESIA</p><p>Cleansing Biotope System Schematic: Bishan Ang Mo Kio Park, from Atelier Dreiseitl</p><p>example shows process of constructed wetland cleansing</p><p>CLEANSING AND TREATMENT: BUILT EXAMPLE OF CONSTRUCTED WETLAND FOR LARGER AREAS</p><p>SANITATION AND WASTEGreywater: Cleansing and treatment</p></li><li><p>5.5 SANITATION &amp; WASTE STRATEGY</p><p>&gt; 152015MASTERPLAN EIGHT ISLANDS ECO REGIONS INDONESIA</p><p>Cleansing biotope: small grass and trees; minimum 10 cm water retention depth</p><p>Front Wall: Natural stone, battered; set on retaining wall foundation</p><p>Topsoil: Compost Rejuvenated Soil</p><p>Storage: polyethylene (PE) tank; perforated top with filter; set on gravel base and compacted sub-grade</p><p>Width: minimum 1 m; average 1.5-3 m</p><p>Terrace to Terrace Height: min...</p></li></ul>