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1 WELCOME TO THE WONDERFUL WORLD OF PIPING PUMP & EXCHANGER Valdel Engineers and Constructors, Ltd. BY: SAMI UR REHMAN PIPING DEPARTMENT

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SAMI UR RAHMANPRINCIPAL ENGINEER PIPING DEPARTMENTVALDEL ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTORS

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Valdel Engineers and Constructors, Ltd.

WELCOME TO THE WONDERFUL WORLD OF PIPING

PUMP & EXCHANGERBY: SAMI UR REHMANPIPING DEPARTMENT

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INTRODUCTION OF PUMP

A pump is a physical device that is used to deliver fluids from one location to another through pipe to increase energy of fluids .

LOCATION OF PUMPS

Flammable service shall be located outboard of overhead pipe racks. Non flammable service may be located beneath the pipe rack .

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FORKLIFT

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MAINTENANCE AND ACCESSIBILITY

The coupling between the pump and its driver must be easily accessed Pump seal access must also be considered. Piping must be kept clear from above the horizontally located pumps. For vertical split casing access must be provided in front of the pumps. Clearance for fork lift or mobile cranes should be provided for maintenance . If pumps are located In building monorails or rigging beams should be considered where the overhead access is limited Piping should be self supported during maintenance . ALLOWABLE NOZZLE LOAD The maximum amount of stress that the piping configuration may impose on the pump suction and discharge nozzle should not be exceed to allowable limits. These limits set by the vendor or code (API 610 for centrifugal pumps) VAPOUR PRESSURE The pressure at which the fluid will boil at ambient temperature. If the pressure within a fluid falls below the vapour pressure of the fluid, gas bubbles will form with in the fluid.

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NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD(NPSH)The absolute pressure of the fluid at the inlet to a pump minus the vapour pressure of the liquid.

NPSHa CalculateFluid pressure + positive head friction loss vapor pressure NPSHr is given by vendor and NPSHa must always be greater than NPSHr for the pump to operate properly.

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NPSH is calculated from the bottom Of impeller

Vertical can type are generally use when high NPSH requirements7

TYPES OF PUMPPositive Displacement pumps.

Reciprocating pumps

Dynamic pressure pumps

Centrifugal pumps

Reciprocating pumps

Reciprocating pumps are commonly used to move viscous liquids. Reciprocating pumps are used when high head is required and these pumps require a PSV between pump and discharge block valve and require more maintenance. Pipe support must be given special consideration due to the pulsation.

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CENTRUFUGAL PUMPThese pumps operate by developing a high liquid velocity with uniform pressure in the discharge pipe, Horizontal centrifugal pumps usually fit into three categories End suction Top Discharge Top suction Top discharge Side suction Side discharge

VERTICAL CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

Vertical can type pumps

Reciprocating pumps9

PUMP PIPING Pumps shall be located as close as possible to the source of suction in order to minimize pressure drop with satisfying piping flexibility requirement and nozzle load allowable.

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SUCTION PIPING1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Nozzle loads allowable (as per API 610 or vendor) . Used eccentric Reducer with FSU to avoid cavitations. 5D spool required for smoothness and uniform flow at pump nozzle Temporary strainer. The first elbow should be a long radius and perpendicular to impeller shaft First support should be Adjustable to account for field variations during installation. Block valves accessibility. If we using reducer next to the nozzle where the change in diameter accessed 4 as could result in a disturbed flow pattern into the impellor and cause vibration and rapid wear in a pump.

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1. 2. 3. 4.

DISCHARGE PIPING Concentric reducer Pressure indicator Adjustable support. Check valve (If it is install vertical that required provision for draining liquid trapped above the check valve 3/4 )

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4 3

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END SUCTION TOP DISCHARGE

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TOP SUCTION TOP DISCHARGE

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SIDE SUCTION SIDE DISCHARGE

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SUCTION PIPING

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VERTICAL CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

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SIDE SUCTION SIDE DISCHARGE

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MINIMUM FLOW BYPASS.

If the minimum continuous flow rate required by a pump cannot be assured. than it requires a minimum flow bypass.

WARM UP LINE

The intention is to heat up or maintain the temperature of a machine to temperature greater then the surrounding ambient temperature.

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AUXILIARY PIPINGSeal

pots shall be mounted separately from the machine and driver, and shall not be interfere during removal of the pump for maintenance

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EXCHANGERHeat exchangers are used to transfer heat from one stream to another. The driving force for the operation of a heat exchanger is the temperature difference between fluids. Generally fluids flow in the exchanger in two different pattern.

Co- current fluids flow in same direction

Counter current fluids flow in opposite direction.

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TWO MAJOR TYPES OF HEAT EXCHANGER

Shell and tube Air coolers

SHELL AND TUBE EXCHANGER

Elongated steel cylindrical vessel containing bundles of parallel tubes. One liquid passes through the inside of the shell over the tubes and another liquid passing through the interior of the tubes. A large heat transfer surface in a small space . It can be operated at high pressures are easy to clean. It Can be made of wide variety of materials.

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1-2 HEAT EXCHANGER 1 SHELL PASS, 2 TUBE PASSES

Most commonly used in vapor condensing application

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EXCHANGER PIPING

Exchanger piping must be routed in such a manner that it meets economy,flexibility,support , operation and maintenance access requirements Clearance of 12 from bottom of pipe to grade is adequate elevation for piping, however if a drain is provided a clearance of 4 below the plug should be needed for removal of that plug.

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MAINTENANCE CLEARANCES FOR SHELL AND TUBES25

TYPICAL HORIZONTAL EXCHANGER SUPPORT

PIPING ARRANGEMENT FOR HORIZONTAL SHELL AND TUBE EXCHANGERS

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Plan view

PIPING ARRANGEMENT FOR HORIZONTAL SHELL AND TUBE EXCHANGERSTo facilitate during Removal of the channel head

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Side view

SAMPLE STRUCTURE MOUNTED EXCHANGER INSTALLATION

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SAMPLE OF PIPING ECONOMY ARRANGEMENT

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KETTLE TYPE HEAT EXCHANGER

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PREFERRED LOCATION FOR HEAT EXCHANGER

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AIR COOLER EXCHANGERS

Here the cooling agent used is circulating air It consists of fin tube bundles with a header box attached to each end, and supported horizontally by a steel frame or structure. The inlet nozzles are mounted on the top of the header box and outlet at opposite bottom ends in single pass arrangement and at same ends in double pass arrangement. Air is circulated by multi blade propeller type fans that provide forced or induced drafts.

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PIPING

Piping at Air cooler is not routed over the tube bundles or fans. And It should be kept clear for maintenance.

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ALTERNATIVE AIR COOLER NOZZLE CONFIGURATIONS

Piping for Air coolers specified for fractionating tower overhead must be routed in such a way that there is no liquid pocket between the top of the Tower and Air cooler inlet.34

AIR COOLER EXCHANGERS

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AIR COOLER PIPING CONFIGURATIONS

To ensure that pressure drop is equal on all inlet nozzles in cascade piping. In case of liquid coolers (there is no two phase flow) the cascade piping is not mandatory. Symmetrical piping can be used in these cases.

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SUPPORT DESIGN FOR PIPING AT SHELL AND TUBE EXCHANGERS

In

shell and tubes Exchanger, anchors are generally placed to allow the piping to grow parallel to the growth of the exchanger. This minimizes the stress loads on the nozzles.37

SUPPORTSlots can be cut into the exchanger support for bolt holes to allow movement in a desired direction. If friction force created by the weight of the exchanger are excessive slide plate should be introduced to allow movement. In Air cooler anchors should be placed as close to the exchanger as possible to minimize the growth in the towards nozzles. A line stop in the common header axis at the point where it bifurcates shall be provided so that uniform expansion is allowed on both sides of the header .

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Anchor location

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MAINTENANCE Piping of the shell and tube exchanger is positioned to allow adequate space removal for channel heads and shell covers tube bundles. And in air cooler Platform required for header box and motor maintenance

Bundle removal using an extractor and a mobile crane40

Removal of air cooler sections with a mobile crane

Fixed structure with a travelling gantry

Bundle pulling post

Fixed structure with a trolley beam41

Fixed platform air cooler

Questions?

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The End!

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