projekt anglisht "scotland"

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Topic: United Kingdom

Topic:United KingdomSubtopic:Scotland

1

CapitalEdinburghLargest CityGlasgowOfficial Language(s)English, Gaelic, ScotsGovernmentConstitutional monarchyQueen (of the UK)Queen Elizabeth IIPrime Minister (of the UK)David Cameron MPFirst Minister of ScotlandNicola SturgeonMSPArea78,772 km (30,414 sq mi)PopulationAround 5.2 million(National Records of Scotland)Population Density64/km (167.5/sq mi)GVA per head19,744 (2009)(Office for National Statistics)CurrencyPound sterling (GBP)

GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION

Small but mighty, Scotlands geography is a huge part of its charm. From wild coastlines to sandy coves, rolling hills, towering Munros, dense forests and sparkling lochs, Scotland is home to some of the most stunning landscapes in the British Isles. And with a strategic location near the best of Europe and beyond, its the perfect destination for work and play.Scotland is a part of the United Kingdom (UK) and occupies the northern third of Great Britain. Scotlands mainland shares a border with England to the south. It is home to almost 800 small islands, including the northern isles of Shetland and Orkney, the Hebrides, Arran and Skye.Scotlands location is to the mid-west of Europe and is surrounded by several different seas. Located to the east of Scotland is the North Sea, which divides the country from other areas of Europe, in particular Norway and the rest of Scandinavia. Across the North Sea to the south-east is Denmark and further south still is Germany.North and west of Scotlands mainland is the Atlantic Ocean. Travelling north from Scotland will eventually bring you to Iceland and Greenland.To the south-west, across the Irish Sea, is Scotlands closest neighbouring island of Northern Ireland and Eire.

Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland, although Edinburgh is the capital and political centre of the country.An abundance of natural resources such as coal, iron and zinc contributed significantly to the industrial growth of Scotland during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Today, energy is a major component of Scotland's econom.Whilst Scotland is the largest producer of petroleum in the European Union, the production potential of renewable energy has emerged as an important economic and environmental issue in recent years.

THE HISTORY OF SCOTLANDTheHistory of Scotlandis known to have begun by the end of thelast glacial period(in thepaleolithic), roughly 10,000years ago.Prehistoric Scotlandentered theNeolithic Eraabout 4000bc, theBronze Ageabout 2000bc, and theIron Agearound 700bc. Scotland's recorded history began with the arrival of theRoman Empirein the1stcentury, when theprovinceofBritanniareached as far north as the line between thefirthsofClydeto theForth. North of this wasCaledonia, whose people were known inLatinas "Picti", "the painted ones". Constant risings forced Rome's legions back:Hadrian's Wallattempted to seal off the Roman south and theAntonine Wallattempted to move the Roman border north. The latter was swiftly abandoned and the former overrun, most spectacularly during theGreat Conspiracyof the 360s. As Rome finallywithdrew from Britain,Gaelicraiders called theScotibegan colonizing Western Scotland and Wales.According to 9th- and 10th-century sources, the Gaelic kingdom ofDl Riatawas founded on the west coast of Scotland in the 6th century. In the following century, theIrishmissionaryColumbafounded a monastery onIonaand introduced the previouslypaganScotiandpagan PictstoCeltic Christianity. FollowingEngland'sGregorian mission, the Pictish kingNechtanchose to abolish most Celtic practices in favor of theRoman rite, restricting Gaelic influence on his kingdom and avoiding war withSaxonNorthumbria.Towards the end of the 8th century, theViking invasionsbegan. Successive defeats by the Norse forced the Picts and Gaels to cease their historic hostility to each other and to unite in the 9th century, forming theKingdom of Scotland

The Kingdom of Scotland was united under the descendants ofKenneth MacAlpin, first king of a united Scotland. His descendants, known to modern historians as theHouse of Alpin, fought among each other during frequent disputed successions. The last Alpin king,Malcolm II, died without issue in the early 11th century and the kingdom passed through his daughter's son,Duncan I, who started a new line of kings known to modern historians as theHouse of Dunkeldor Canmore. The last Dunkeld king,Alexander III, died in 1286 leaving only a single infant granddaughter as heir; four years later,Margaret, Maid of Norwayherself died in a tragic shipwrecken routeto Scotland. England, underEdward I, would take advantage of the questioned succession in Scotland to launch a series of conquests into Scotland. The resultingWars of Scottish Independencewere fought in the late 13th and early 14th centuries as Scotland passed back and forth between theHouse of Ballioland theHouse of Bruce. Scotland's ultimate victory in the Wars of Independence underDavid IIconfirmed Scotland as a fully independent and sovereign kingdom. When David II died without issue, his nephewRobert IIestablished theHouse of Stewart(the spelling would be changed to Stuart in the 16th century), which would rule Scotland uncontested for the next three centuries.James VI, Stuart king of Scotland, also inherited the throne of England in 1603, and the Stuart kings and queens ruled both independent kingdoms until theAct of Unionin 1707 merged the two kingdoms into a new state, theKingdom of Great Britain.Queen Annewas the last Stuart monarch, ruling until 1714. Since 1714, the succession of theBritish monarchsof the houses ofHanoverandSaxe-Coburg and Gotha (Windsor)has been due to their descent fromJames VI and Iof the House of Stuart During theScottish EnlightenmentandIndustrial Revolution, Scotland became one of the commercial, intellectual and industrial powerhouses of Europe. Itsindustrial declinefollowing theSecond World Warwas particularly acute, but in recent decades the country has enjoyed something of a cultural and economic renaissance, fuelled in part by a resurgentfinancial servicessector, the proceeds ofNorth Sea oiland gas.

SCOTTISH CUISINEScottish cuisineis the specific set of cooking traditions, practices andcuisinesassociated withScotland. It has distinctive attributes and recipes of its own, but shares much with widerBritishandEuropean cuisineas a result of local and foreign influences, both ancient and modern. Traditional Scottish dishes exist alongside international foodstuffs brought about by migration.Scotland's natural larder ofgame,dairyproducts,fish,fruit, andvegetablesis the chief factor in traditional Scots cooking, with a high reliance on simplicity and a lack ofspicesfrom abroad, as these were historically rare and expensive.

Scotland, with its temperate climate and abundance of indigenous game species, has provided a cornucopia of food for its inhabitants for millennia. The wealth of seafood available on and off the coasts provided the earliest settlers with their sustenance. Agriculture was introduced, with primitiveoatsquickly becoming the staple.In common with many mediaeval European neighbours, Scotland was afeudal statefor a greater part of the second millennium. This put certain restrictions on what one was allowed to hunt, therefore to eat. In the halls of the great men of the realm, one could expectvenison,boar, various fowl and songbirds, expensive spices (pepper,cloves,cinnamon, etc.), and the meats of domesticated species. From the journey mandown to the lowestcottar,meat was an expensive commodity, and would be consumed rarely. For the lower echelons of mediaeval Scots, it was the products of their animals rather than the beasts themselves which provided nourishment. This is evident today in traditional Scots fare, with its emphasis on dairy produce. It would appear that the average meal would consist of apottageof herbs and roots with bread and cheese when possible.BeforeSir Walter Raleigh's introduction of the potato to the British Isles, the Scots' main source ofcarbohydratewas bread made from oats orbarley. Wheat was generally difficult to grow because of the damp climate. Food thrift was evident from the earliest times, with excavatedmiddens displaying little evidence of anything but the toughest bones. All parts of an animal were used.The mobile nature of Scots society in the past required food that should not spoil quickly. It was common to carry a small bag of oatmeal that could be transformed into a basicporridgeoroatcakesusing agirdle(griddle). It is thought that Scotland's national dish,haggis, originated in a similar way: A small amount ofoffalor low-quality meat, carried in the most inexpensive bag available, a sheep or pig's stomach. It has also been suggested that this dish was introduced byNorseinvaders who were attempting to preserve their food during the long journey fromScandinavia.

ARTS

Scottish artis the body ofvisual artmade in what is now Scotland, or about Scottish subjects, since prehistoric times. It forms a distinctive tradition within European art, but the political union with England has led its partial subsumation inBritish art.The earliest examples of art from what is now Scotland are highly decorated carved stone balls from theNeolithicperiod. From theBronze Agethere are examples of carvings, including the first representations of objects, andcup and ring marks. More extensive Scottish examples of patterned objects and gold work are found theIron Age. Elaborately carvedPictish stonesand impressive metalwork emerged in Scotland the early Middle Ages. The development of a common style ofInsular artacross Great Britain and Ireland influenced elaborate jewellery andilluminated manuscripts such as theBook of Kells. Only isolated examples survive of native artwork from the late Middle Ages and of works created or strongly influenced by artists