Pre-historic Times. Table of Contents Introduction Introduction Website Links Website Links The Old Stone Age The Old Stone Age The Middle Stone Age The

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Pre-historic Times </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Table of Contents Introduction Introduction Website Links Website Links The Old Stone Age The Old Stone Age The Middle Stone Age The Middle Stone Age The New Stone Age The New Stone Age Neanderthals Neanderthals Cro-magnons Cro-magnons Prehistoric Art Prehistoric Art </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Pre-history vs Historic Periods Prehistoric = no writing Prehistoric = no writing - There was no writing so we have no easy to understand records of what happened. - Have to be detectives Historic = writing Historic = writing - Mankind started to record what happened </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Stone Ages Old Stone Age- 500,000-10,000 years ago Old Stone Age- 500,000-10,000 years ago Middle Stone Age- 10,000-8,000 years ago Middle Stone Age- 10,000-8,000 years ago New Stone Age- 8,000-5,000 years ago New Stone Age- 8,000-5,000 years ago </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Stone Age Stone Age, the time, early in the development of human cultures, before the use of metals, when tools and weapons were made of stone. The dates of the Stone Age vary considerably for different parts of the world. In Europe, Asia, and Africa it began about 2 million years ago. Stone Age, the time, early in the development of human cultures, before the use of metals, when tools and weapons were made of stone. The dates of the Stone Age vary considerably for different parts of the world. In Europe, Asia, and Africa it began about 2 million years ago. In the most advanced parts of the Middle East and Southeast Asia it ended about 6000 bc, but it lingered until 4000 bc or later in Europe, the rest of Asia, and Africa. In the most advanced parts of the Middle East and Southeast Asia it ended about 6000 bc, but it lingered until 4000 bc or later in Europe, the rest of Asia, and Africa. The Stone Age in the Americas began when human beings first arrived in the New World, some 30,000 years ago, and ended in some areas about 2500 bc at the earliest. The Stone Age in the Americas began when human beings first arrived in the New World, some 30,000 years ago, and ended in some areas about 2500 bc at the earliest. Throughout the immense time span of the Stone Age, vast changes occurred in climate and in other conditions affecting human culture. Humans themselves evolved into their modern form during the latter part of it. Throughout the immense time span of the Stone Age, vast changes occurred in climate and in other conditions affecting human culture. Humans themselves evolved into their modern form during the latter part of it. The Stone Age has been divided accordingly into three periods: the Paleolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic. The Stone Age has been divided accordingly into three periods: the Paleolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic. </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Paleolithic (Old Stone Age) Longest period. Longest period. It began about 2 million years ago, when stone tools were first used by humanoid creatures, and ended with the close of the last ice age about 13,000 bc. It began about 2 million years ago, when stone tools were first used by humanoid creatures, and ended with the close of the last ice age about 13,000 bc. The hunting and gathering of food was the norm. At first, single tools, such as chipped pebbles or flaked stone implements, were used for all purposes. Over time, a variety of tools were made for specific purposes. The hunting and gathering of food was the norm. At first, single tools, such as chipped pebbles or flaked stone implements, were used for all purposes. Over time, a variety of tools were made for specific purposes. By about 100,000 years ago, Neanderthal cultures had several types of tools and were using bone implements. By about 100,000 years ago, Neanderthal cultures had several types of tools and were using bone implements. At the end of the Paleolithic period, modern humans (Homo sapiens) made such specialized tools as needles and harpoons. In the Cro- Magnon caves of Europe, wall paintings and evidence of both religious cults and possible social stratification point to the complexity of the cultures. At the end of the Paleolithic period, modern humans (Homo sapiens) made such specialized tools as needles and harpoons. In the Cro- Magnon caves of Europe, wall paintings and evidence of both religious cults and possible social stratification point to the complexity of the cultures. </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age) After 13,000 BC After 13,000 BC Changing weather patterns resulted in the greater availability of food. Changing weather patterns resulted in the greater availability of food. In tropical and temperate forest regions, Paleolithic tools, still chipped, were adapted to the new conditions. In tropical and temperate forest regions, Paleolithic tools, still chipped, were adapted to the new conditions. </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Neolithic (New Stone Age) In both the Middle East and in Mesoamerica, however, agricultural villages had begun to develop by 8000 BC. In both the Middle East and in Mesoamerica, however, agricultural villages had begun to develop by 8000 BC. This is known as the Neolithic period, or New Stone Age. This is known as the Neolithic period, or New Stone Age. Stone tools became highly polished and varied. By 6000 bc pottery appeared in the ancient Middle East, and copper was used for the first time in some regions. In other regions, the Neolithic arrived much later. Stone tools became highly polished and varied. By 6000 bc pottery appeared in the ancient Middle East, and copper was used for the first time in some regions. In other regions, the Neolithic arrived much later. </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Leakey Anthropologists Anthropologists known for discovering -East African Man, -Homo Habiles -Homo erectus </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> 3.5 million year old footprints A trail of footprints 3 1/2 million years old found by Mary Leakey at Laetoli, Tanzania. These footprints show that human-like creatures were walking upright in East Africa 3 1/2 million years ago. A trail of footprints 3 1/2 million years old found by Mary Leakey at Laetoli, Tanzania. These footprints show that human-like creatures were walking upright in East Africa 3 1/2 million years ago. Although precise relationships between the Australopithecine species and modern man (Homo sapiens) are still subject to debate, new discoveries in Africa promise to continue pushing back the frontiers of knowledge about human prehistory. Although precise relationships between the Australopithecine species and modern man (Homo sapiens) are still subject to debate, new discoveries in Africa promise to continue pushing back the frontiers of knowledge about human prehistory. </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Homo erectus, Neanderthal, Cro-Magnon The reconstructed skulls of three prehistoric humans. From left to right: Homo erectus, Neanderthal, and Cro- Magnon. Homo erectus (formerly known as Pithecanthropus erectus, a part of the species which includes Java Man and Peking Man) lived from 1 1/2 million to 250,000 years ago. The reconstructed skulls of three prehistoric humans. From left to right: Homo erectus, Neanderthal, and Cro- Magnon. Homo erectus (formerly known as Pithecanthropus erectus, a part of the species which includes Java Man and Peking Man) lived from 1 1/2 million to 250,000 years ago. These people were more than five feet tall and probably had spoken languages. Although they used stone tools and fire, no traces of industry were found associated with them. These people were more than five feet tall and probably had spoken languages. Although they used stone tools and fire, no traces of industry were found associated with them. The Neanderthals, who lived from 100,000 to 35,000 years ago, are among the direct ancestors of modern man (Homo sapiens); their burial remains indicate a belief in an afterlife. Cro-Magnon Man lived from 35,000 to 10,000 years ago, in the late Paleolithic (Stone) age, and was similar to modern humans. (GPB) The Neanderthals, who lived from 100,000 to 35,000 years ago, are among the direct ancestors of modern man (Homo sapiens); their burial remains indicate a belief in an afterlife. Cro-Magnon Man lived from 35,000 to 10,000 years ago, in the late Paleolithic (Stone) age, and was similar to modern humans. (GPB) </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Neanderthals Neanderthals are the best known of the ancient humans. The Neanderthals lived in Europe and central Asia between 230,000 and 30,000 years ago longer than Homo sapiens, or modern humans, have lived on Earth. They lived during the most recent Ice Age, when vast sheets of ice covered many northern parts of the world. Neanderthals are the best known of the ancient humans. The Neanderthals lived in Europe and central Asia between 230,000 and 30,000 years ago longer than Homo sapiens, or modern humans, have lived on Earth. They lived during the most recent Ice Age, when vast sheets of ice covered many northern parts of the world. The term Neanderthal (also spelled Neandertal) comes from the Neander Valley near Dusseldorf, Germany. This is where scientists found the first Neanderthal fossils in 1856. The term Neanderthal (also spelled Neandertal) comes from the Neander Valley near Dusseldorf, Germany. This is where scientists found the first Neanderthal fossils in 1856. </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> What do you know about Neanderthals? 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 5. 5. 6. 6. </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Neanderthal Video Main Ideas: Main Ideas: </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Homo Sapiens and Neanderthals Scientists believe Homo sapiens first appeared about 120,000 years ago, which means they coexisted with Neanderthals. Scientists believe Homo sapiens first appeared about 120,000 years ago, which means they coexisted with Neanderthals. Scientists have two theories about the relationship between modern Homo sapiens and Neanderthals: Scientists have two theories about the relationship between modern Homo sapiens and Neanderthals: Out of Africa: The theory states that Homo sapiens first lived in Africa and eventually traveled into Europe and Asia. These humans had evolutionary advantages that allowed them to outliveand perhaps cause the extinction of all other hominid groups (as opposed to apes) such as Neanderthal. Out of Africa: The theory states that Homo sapiens first lived in Africa and eventually traveled into Europe and Asia. These humans had evolutionary advantages that allowed them to outliveand perhaps cause the extinction of all other hominid groups (as opposed to apes) such as Neanderthal. Multiregional: The theory states that modern Homo sapiens evolved from Neanderthal and other hominid groups in Europe and Asia. Multiregional: The theory states that modern Homo sapiens evolved from Neanderthal and other hominid groups in Europe and Asia. </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Group Project Project Aim: Study the physical features and lives of Neanderthals. Research the following: Project Aim: Study the physical features and lives of Neanderthals. Research the following: Physical features and cranial capacity Physical features and cranial capacity Hunting and diet Hunting and diet Tools and weapons Tools and weapons Burial of dead and religion Burial of dead and religion Shelter Shelter Art, music, and language Art, music, and language </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Use the following websites and write a one page group paper. Print out or sketch pictures you find while doing research. Use the following websites and write a one page group paper. Print out or sketch pictures you find while doing research. - In the Stone Ages (see A Neanderthals Day and Follow Your Roots) http://www.neanderthal-modern.com/ http://www.neanderthal-modern.com/ - Neandertals: A Cyber Perspective http://dsc.discovery.com/stories/science/stoneages/s toneages.html - Neandertals: A Cyber Perspective http://dsc.discovery.com/stories/science/stoneages/s toneages.html - Homo Neanderthalensis http://sapphire.indstate.edu/~ramanank/ http://sapphire.indstate.edu/~ramanank/ </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> http://www.handprint.com/LS/ANC/hfs9.html http://www.handprint.com/LS/ANC/hfs9.html Neanderthal for High School Students Neanderthal for High School Students http://members.iinet.net.au/~chawkins/frames. htm http://members.iinet.net.au/~chawkins/frames. htm Gale Discovering http://infotrac.galegroup.com/itweb/newm58356 Gale Discovering http://infotrac.galegroup.com/itweb/newm58356 http://infotrac.galegroup.com/itweb/newm58356 EBSCO http://search.epnet.com EBSCO http://search.epnet.comhttp://search.epnet.com </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Prehistoric Art </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Cave Paintings A prehistoric bison painting from the caves at Altamira, Spain. A prehistoric bison painting from the caves at Altamira, Spain. This image was found in the Painted Hall, a 300-yard deep limestone cave. This image was found in the Painted Hall, a 300-yard deep limestone cave. This cave is a prehistoric gallery of Cro-Magnon art that includes 25 other images of various animals: bison, boars, horses, deer, and a wolf. This cave is a prehistoric gallery of Cro-Magnon art that includes 25 other images of various animals: bison, boars, horses, deer, and a wolf. The paintings date back to the Old Stone Age, around 12,000 B.C. The paintings date back to the Old Stone Age, around 12,000 B.C. </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Pictograph: Painting on a surface like a cave wall. Petroglyph: Design carved into rock or other surface. </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Kentucky Rock Art </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Cave of Lascaux, France Discovered by four boys in 1940. Caves are filled with pictographs and petroglyphs of hundreds of animals. </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> There are almost 600 pictures of animals, mostly horses. Other animals painted are stags, bulls, bison, and ibex. Only one man is painted. </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Why did they paint the cave? What do the paintings mean? Just the animals that were around at that time. Instructions on how to hunt or not to hunt. The cave was used for religious ceremonies. Painting were for good luck in hunting. PowerPoint created by Amy J McCray, WKU Anthropology Undergrad. 2005. </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> References Coy, Fred, Thomas C. Fuller, Larry G. Meadows, and James L. Swauger. Rock Art of Kentucky. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 2003. Coy, Fred, Thomas C. Fuller, Larry G. Meadows, and James L. Swauger. Rock Art of Kentucky. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 2003. Google Images. 1 December 2005. Google Images. 1 December 2005. The Caves of Lascaux. 1 May 2005. The Caves of Lascaux. 1 May 2005. </li> </ul>