ppt on educational psychology

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<ol><li> 1. Introduction to Educational Psychology </li><li> 2. INTRODUCTION OF PSYCHOLOGY Meaning &amp; Historical Background Of Psychology The word psychology is derived from Greek word psycho &amp; logos. Psycho means soul and logos means science. The science of soul. It is scientific because it is systematic study of observable events/behavior and behavior is unlearned process where in include reflexes, physiological process and instincts and it is learned behavior also because all behavior acquire through practice. It can be overt and covert. Today Psychology is scientific method of collecting data about individual and groups to analyze and predict their behavior. </li><li> 3. INTRODUCTION OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Educational psychology is nothing but one of the branch of applied psychology. It is an attempt to apply the knowledge of psychology to the field of education. In other words , educational psychology is the study of the experience and behavior of the learner in relation to educational environment. DEFINITIONS: Crow and Crow put it as: Educational Psychology describes and explains the learning experience of an individual from birth through old age.(1973) According to Peel: Educational Psychology is the science of education.(1956) EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Education by all means, is an attempt to mould and shape the behavior of students. Its aims to produce desirable changes in them for all-round development of their personalities. The essential knowledge and skill to do this job satisfactorily is supplied by educational Psychology as Peels puts it in the following words: Educational Psychology helps the teacher to understand the development of his pupils, the range and limits of their capacities the process by which they learn and their social relationships (1956) </li><li> 4. NATURE AND SCOPE OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY </li><li> 5. NATURE OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Its nature is scientific since it has been accepted that it is a science of education. The relationship between education and education psychology also throws light on its nature. We can summaries the nature of educational psychology in following ways. By applying the principles and techniques of psychology, it tries to study the behaviour and experiences of the pupils. Education Psychology limits its study to the behaviour of the pupils(learner) in relation to educational environment. It gives the necessary knowledge and skill(technical guidance) for giving education to the pupils in a satisfactory way. It is applied positive science. Educational Psychology is not a perfect science. It employs scientific methods and adopts scientific approach to study the behaviour of an individual in educational environment . Therefore, it is proper to call its nature as scientific. </li><li> 6. Scope of Educational Psychology Learning experiencesLearner or pupil Teacher Learning situation and environment Learning processes </li><li> 7. The subject matter of education psychology, if it is at all necessary to draw its boundaries, revolves round these pivots mentioned above. Learner: The total subject matter of educational psychology primarily revolves around this factor-learner. This subject of the subject acquaints us with the need of knowing the learner and deals with the learner and deals with the techniques of knowing him well. Learning experiences: This is the second area of educational psychology and though the subject does not directly connect itself with the problem of what to teach or what learning experiences to provide the learner, it has the responsibility of suggesting the techniques on acquiring learning experiences. Educational psychology helps in deciding the kinds of learning experiences desirable at different stages of growth and development of the learner so that these experiences can be acquired with a greater ease and satisfaction. In this area, education psychology has the subject matter which facilitates the selection of the desirable experiences for the learner. Learning processes: After knowing the learner and deciding on the types of learning experiences that are to be provided , the next problem arises when helping learner properly acquires these experiences with ease and convenience. Therefore around this pivot, educational psychology deals with the nature of learning and how it takes place and comprises topics such as laws, principles and theories of learning, remembering and forgetting perceiving , </li><li> 8. Concept formation, thinking and reasoning process, problem solving, transfer of training, ways and means of effective learning and so on. Learning situation or environment: Under this topic , educational psychology focuses on the environmental factors and learning situations which come between the learner and the teacher. Teacher: Last but not the least is the teacher. It emphasize the need of knowing the self for a teacher to play his role properly in the process of education. It discusses he conflicts motivation, anxiety, adjustment level of aspiration etc. Moreover it throws light on the essential personality traits, interest, aptitudes, characteristics of effective teaching etc. so as to inspire him to become a successful teacher. </li><li> 9. SCHOOLS OF PSYCHOLOGY </li><li> 10. Sigmund Freuds school of Psychoanalysis SCHOOLS OF PSYCHOLOGY Structuralism Functionalism Behaviorism Gestalt School Humanistic School Existential School </li><li> 11. THE IMPORTANT SCHOOLS OF PSYCHOLOGY ARE AS FOLLOWING: 1. STRUCTURALISM: This school of psychology was started by wundt. The goal of structuralism was to find the elements which make up the mind. The main method used by them to discover the elementary units of mind was introspection. 2.FUNCTIONALISM: The functioning of mental process and how the mind works was seen as the subject matter of psychology observations of actual behaviour was used to supplement data gathered from introspection. 3.BEHAVIORISM: This school is proposed by J.B Watson. It is rooted in Thorndikes theory of trial and error learning which stress that behaviours and formed through association between stimulus and response that are stamped into the behaviours of the organism through the 3 basic laws of frequency, recurancy, and law of effect. Later Pavlov postulated that through associate a previous neural stimulus could be condition to elicit a response. Classical conditioning stands as one of the most important paradigm of learning. Skinners theory of instrumental or operant conditioning stresses that the rate of an organism responses(increase or decreases) is directly influenced by the subsequence delivery of a re-enforcer or a punisher. The behaviour according to behaviourists whether adaptive or in adaptive is learned and psychology should concern itself only that which objectively observable and measurable. </li><li> 12. 4.SIGMUND FREUDS SCHOOL OF PSYCHOANALYSIS: Sigmund Freud would has been great Hollywood screenwriter. His stories of personalities in one of desire, power, control and freedom. Our personality represent a drama of sort, acted out in our mind. The ancient Greek thought that all peoples were actor in the drama of the god above. For Freud, we are simply actors in the drama of our mind, pushes by desire, pulled by conscience. According to Freud, there is conscious, sub- conscious and unconscious levels in person and there are three dimension of a personality which call id, ego and super-ego . According to psychoanalyst it is the expression of unconscious drives that shows up in behaviour and thoughts. 5.GESTALT SCHOOOL: Wertheimer, Kohler and Kafka were the proponents of this school. This group made their greatest contribution and perception and learning theory from which cognitive theory was eventually evolved. The formation of Gestalt as configuration is arrested by innate tendencies of organism, its perceptual experience on the basis of similarity continuity and closure. The Gestalts state that the mind should be thought of as a result from the whole bottom at sensory activities and the relationship within this pattern,. They maintained or mentioned that of mind is not made up of a combination of simple elements.. A famous psychiatrist once said that evil man do what good man only dream of. </li><li> 13. 6.HUMNISTIC SCHOOL: Karl Roger is the proponent of this school. They believe that man is essentially good and rational with I-me-myself as the centre of experience. The most important striving is self actualization . People react to way, consistent to their perceptions of world. Perceived that threats is followed by defense, rigidity, narrowing at perception and defense mechanisms. The therapist must view the client as an individual with the capacity of self-direction and be able to express a sense of positive unconditional regards. 7.EXISTENTIAL SCHOOL: The ultimate challenge to human existence is the sense at personal identity and to build meaningful links with the world. Modern man suffers from confusion and the strain of blind conformity and striving for increased self determination. Man is viewing as a choosing, free, and responsible agent anxiety in many ways is unavoidable however, the individual can be neurotic or can comfort and challenged. </li><li> 14. APPLICATION OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY IN THE TEACHING OF DISABILITY </li><li> 15. Teaching is the purposeful which influence learning . Teaching and learning are closely related. Total range of teaching learning operation can be divided into three broad levels: Memory level: Thoughtless teaching Understanding: Thoughtful teaching Reflective level: Most thoughtful teaching Reflective (most thoughtful) Understanding level ( Thoughtful) Memory level (Thoughtless) Fig. HIERARCHICAL ORDER OF THE LEVEL OF TEACHING LEARNING </li><li> 16. Memory levels falls at the bottom. It is the most thoughtless behaviour. Reflective level is at the top. It is the most thoughtful behaviour and needs the involvement of higher cognitive abilities. The understanding level falls in between memory level and reflective level. It requires the involvement of thoughtful behaviour in a moderate reasonable amount. RELATED TO TEACHER: Teacher should have will to teach. Knowledge of subject Individual quality of teacher Child centered education Use of proper teaching method Educationalist should always emphasis the personality variable, behavioural characteristics , verbal and non-verbal charachteristics. Educationalist must have the knowledge of teaching in different subject effectively. The teacher should be experienced, good knowledge of educational psychology,effective knowledgeable etc. Teacher must have the quality to make flexible according to the childs needs Teacher should be used proper teaching methods like natural method and combine method. AS A TEACHER IF WE WANT TO TEACH THE DISABLED(HEARING IMPAIRED) CHILDREN EFFECTIVELY THEN WE HAVE TO APPLY THE EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY IN THE TEACHING OF DISABILITY. </li><li> 17. APPLICATION OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY IN THE TEACHING OF DISABILITY (H.I) To know the learner Early identification and intervention Guidance and counseling to the students as well as parents When to teach, how to teach and what to teach the child Good observation of the children Develop social skills The effect of body language on the children Reward and punishment Learning environment Peer tutoring Improve communication skill Vocabulary and word comprehension </li><li> 18. TO KNOW THE LEARNER: The total subject matter of educational psychology in the teaching of disability is primarily revolves around this factor (learner). So if we want to teach the hearing impaired children so we have to know about the learner to teach them successfully. EARLY IDENTIFICATION AND INTERVENTION: Early identification and intervention of the hearing impaired children is very necessary for the following reasons: 1. Early identification and subsequent early intervention enables effective use of the critical periods of language development; thereby facilitating quick learning of language and verbal communication skills. 2. Early identification can facilitate better social, emotional, educational and personality development by helping in early communication development. We can use educational psychology in early identification and intervention of the hearing impaired children. GUDIDANCE AND COUNCILLING OF THE STUDENTS AS WELL AS PARENTS: By knowing the educational psychology we can give guidance and council ling of the students as well as parents for the educational success of the child. WHEN TO TEACH, HOW TO TEACH AND WHAT TO TEACH THE CHILD: Educational psychology helps the teacher to know what they teach, how to teach and when to teach. Educational Psychology helps us to create a curriculum and co-curricular activities in special education </li><li> 19. GOOD OBSERVATION OF THE CHILDREN: There are so many children which have: Lack of confidence Not able to take decision excessive teasing in the environment So to know all these things educational psychology is the most important weapon. It helps to increase the positive attitude of the child and decrease the negative attitude of the child. Every individual learns to make adjustments through education. DEVELOP SOCIAL SKILL: We can develop the social skill through educational psychology among the children: Arrange buddy system Turn taking behaviour Teach other how to deal the child Play in all levels </li><li> 20. THE EFFECT OF BODY LANGUAGE ON THE CHILDREN: While teaching body language play a very important role to teach the children. Ex- Story-telling , Direct activity. REWARD AND PUNISHMENT: Reward and punishment is the behavioural approach educational psychology helps the teacher to teach when she gives reward and when she gives punishment to the child for positive behavior attitude. LEARNING ENVIRONMENT: Educational Psychology helps us to create the learning environment to teach the hearing impaired childrens. Classroom climate and groups dynamics, techniques and aids which facilitate learning. PEER TUTORING: Educational psychology helps us to peer tutoring. Because of these peer tutoring the children learn very easily. Educational Psychology helps us to prepare the childrens for peer tutoring. </li><li> 21. IMPROVE COMMUNICATION SKILL: For improving communication skill we have to apply the educational psychology. Some suggestions are given below: 1. Speak naturally at normal volume. 2. Get the attention of student before addressing him/her(call the childs name or tap his/her shoulder. 3. Check for understanding. 4. During video tap presentation, try to use a captioned version. VOCABULARY, WORD COMPREHENSION &amp; READING: Use of these strategies to help hearing impaired childrens increase their reading comprehension and stay on par with their hearing peers: 1. Explain the meaning of new words introduced in class. 2. Role play and act out the story 3. Conduct hands-on activities involving objects depicted in the story 4. Teach them cognitive or language strategies that will help th...</li></ol>