PASS Review Stone Age Periods Old Stone Age -> Paleolithic *hunters and gatherers *stone tools and weapons *cave art / NO written records

Download PASS Review Stone Age Periods Old Stone Age -> Paleolithic *hunters and gatherers *stone tools and weapons *cave art / NO written records

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> PASS Review </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Stone Age Periods Old Stone Age -&gt; Paleolithic *hunters and gatherers *stone tools and weapons *cave art / NO written records </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> STONE AGE PERIODS New Stone Age -&gt; Neolithic *man lived in larger groups *AGRICULTURE BEGAN *DOMESTICATION OF ANIMALS *SURPLUS CROPS *SPECIALIZATION OF JOBS </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Ice Man </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> FIRST CIVILIZATIONS!! RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS: Mesopotamia Egypt China India </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> River Valley Civilizations </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Mesopotamia In the FERTILE CRESCENT Included Sumerian &amp; Babylonian Empires *land between the rivers = TIGRIS &amp; EUPHRATES *Sargon -&gt; created FIRST EMPIRE *Hammurabi -&gt; FIRST CODE OF LAWS Hammurabis Code of Laws *Achievements: wheel, ZIGGURAT (religious center) Hanging Gardens of Babylon, glass, *WRITING = CUNEIFORM </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Map of Fertile Crescent </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Map of Mesopotamia </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Sumerian Cuneiform </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Hammurabis Code of Laws </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> ziggurat </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Judaism Began in Fertile Crescent in Canaan *FIRST MONOTHEISTIC Religion *begun by Abraham *holy text = Torah *Ten Commandments * Moses led Hebrews from Egypt to Canaan </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Torah </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Egypt Began along the NILE RIVER *Menes -&gt; united Upper and Lower Egypt *Khufu -&gt; (Cheops) Great Pyramid *Hatshepsut -&gt; female pharaoh *Tutankhamun -&gt; boy king, tomb found by Howard Carter *architecture = pyramids *writing = HIEROGLYPHICS on papyrus *government = pharaohs *economy = agriculture / FLOODING PRODUCED RICH SILT *religion = polytheistic *mummification </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Egypt Egypt </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> hieroglyphics </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Great Pyramids of Giza </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> India Began along the INDUS RIVER *subcontinent of Asian Himalayas cut it off from the rest of the continent *cities = Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa sometimes called Harappan Civilization *writing = SANSKRIT *TWO religions began here = HINDUISM &amp; BUDDHISM </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Indus River Valley </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Hinduism Polytheistic religion introduced by the Aryans Brahman = supreme being holy text = Vedas / Books of Knowledge CASTE SYSTEM = different levels in society REINCARNATION = cycle of birth, death, &amp; rebirth dharma = laws and duties of Hindus </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Buddhism Founder = Siddhartha Gautama the Buddha Beliefs = Four Noble Truths (Suffering in Life) Middle Way Eightfold Path to reach Nirvana Reincarnation Karma = end result of good &amp; bad acts NO caste system </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Four Noble Truths </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> The Buddha </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> China Began along HUANG RIVER or Yellow River (because of loess or silt) government = dynasties Shang was the first *Mandate of Heaven = right to rule from the gods oracle bones = predict the future </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> China continued: architecture = Great Wall of China -&gt; built to keep out the Mongols tomb for Shihuangdi 1,000s of clay soldiers &amp; horses achievements = SILK, Silk Road, seismograph, new type of rice, gunpowder, woodblock moveable type TWO religions began here = Confucianism &amp; Taoism or Daoism </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Great Wall </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Shihuangdis Tomb </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Seismograph </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Silk Road </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Confucianism Founder = Confucius Social order, harmony, and good government based on STRONG FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS 5 basic relationships Education important to society </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Taoism or Daoism Founder = Laozi People should live simple lives in harmony with nature There should be little interference from the government </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Greece TWO important city-states -&gt; ATHENS &amp; SPARTA Architecture = Parthenon in Athens / temple for the goddess Athena acropolis = high hill in Greeks city-states Sparta = military was important Olympic Games 7 Wonders of the Ancient World (man made) writing = Greek alphabet / adopted from the Phoenicians agora = market place </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Ancient Greece </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> The Parthenon </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Athens FIRST DEMOCRACY in the world!! *people have a voice in the government </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Greece continued People / Know: *Socrates, Plato, &amp; Aristotle = (SPA) philosophers *Archimedes = scientist &amp; mathematician developed concept of pi *Homer = epic poems The Iliad &amp; The Odyssey *Pericles = rich &amp; poor had a part in the government / built Parthenon </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> * Alexander the Great = King of Macedonia conquered land in Europe, Africa, and Asia military &amp; political leader began the Hellenistic Age = the Greek culture spread to other parts of the world </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> Alexanders Empire </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Rome Created a large empire on 3 continents: Europe, Asia and Africa Two groups of citizens = patricians (wealthy) &amp; plebeians (common) TWELVE TABLES = first written laws for Rome Punic Wars = Rome fought Carthage and won Pompeii buried by Mt. Vesuvius </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> Rome continued: Government = REPUBLIC -&gt; people choose representatives to run the government *senators = patricians *tribunes represented plebeians *consuls = 2 elected officials /were supreme judges and commanders of the military </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Roman Empire </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> Rome continued People to know: *Julius Caesar = made himself dictator assassinated by friends *Augustus = (Octavian) first emperor ruled during Pax Romana *Constantine = Byzantine Empire / Eastern Roman Empire allowed Christianity Two Roman Empires formed as Rome declined *Western Roman Empire (Rome) fell first *Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine) Constantinople lasted 1,000 more years </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> Rome continued JUSTINIAN CODE = created by Justinian of the Byzantine Empire-&gt; strict but fair laws which gave the same rights to everyone, rich or poor Achievements = aqueducts, domes, arches, Pantheon, Colosseum, roads, alphabet, Roman numerals, Latin, laws, concrete, keystones, etc. </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> Roman aqueduct </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> Roman Colosseum </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> keystones </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> Christianity Religion begun during the time of the Roman Empire Founder = Jesus Holy Text = Bible Beliefs = monotheistic People will gain salvation if they follow the teachings of Jesus Three largest groups: Catholic, Protestant &amp; Eastern Orthodox </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> Religion of Islam Founder = Muhammad Holy Text = Koran or Quran Islamic God = Allah Five Pillars of Faith: *Faith in Muhammad and Allah *Pray 5 times a day facing Mecca *Almsgiving -&gt; give money to the poor *Fast during the month of Ramadan *Pilgrimage to Mecca once in lifetime </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> Map of West Africa </li> <li> Slide 54 </li> <li> Geography of West Africa: Climate Zones from north to south: Mediterranean Sea Sahel shore of the Sahara Desert Sahara Desert (largest desert in the world) Savanna or grasslands (in the Sahel) Tropical Rainforest </li> <li> Slide 55 </li> <li> Sahel </li> <li> Slide 56 </li> <li> Sahara </li> <li> Slide 57 </li> <li> Ghana GHANA -&gt; first great empire in WEST AFRICA -&gt;controlled gold &amp; salt trade *resources included iron ore &amp; gold *used the iron ore to make tools &amp; weapons *used gold to trade with other nations *MUSLIMS of North Africa were important trade partners with Ghana -&gt; Muslims brought horses, cloth &amp; SALT to trade with Ghana *SALT-&gt; important to preserve food &amp; to stay healthy </li> <li> Slide 58 </li> <li> Mali A great TRADE EMPIRE TIMBUKTU -&gt; major trading city of Mali Trade with MUSLIMS was linked to the conversion of local people to the ISLAM religion Islamic influence was evident in government, education, &amp; architecture in west Africa </li> <li> Slide 59 </li> <li> Songhai the largest of the three west Africa Empires developed along the Niger River it became a rich nation because of the large GOLD-SALT trade routes between Arabia, North Africa, &amp; West Africa </li> <li> Slide 60 </li> <li> Mesoamerica First people came from Asia by way of BERINGIA -&gt; a land bridge that was formed during the Ice Age between Asia and North America Greatest civilizations in Mexico and Central America MAYAS &amp; AZTECS slash and burn agriculture / grew maize stone pyramids for religious purposes steles = flat stones with glyphs (symbols) codex = folding screen book conquered by Spanish Conquistadors </li> <li> Slide 61 </li> <li> Beringia </li> <li> Slide 62 </li> <li> Mesoamerica </li> <li> Slide 63 </li> <li> Mayan Pyramid </li> <li> Slide 64 </li> <li> stele </li> <li> Slide 65 </li> <li> codex </li> <li> Slide 66 </li> <li> Incas Lived in the Andes Mountains in South America Cities = Machu Picchu &amp; Cuzco NO written language Quipu = knotted cord used for record keeping Conquered by Spanish conquistadors </li> <li> Slide 67 </li> <li> Inca Empire </li> <li> Slide 68 </li> <li> quipu </li> <li> Slide 69 </li> <li> Machu Picchu </li> <li> Slide 70 </li> <li> Middle Ages Also known as MEDIEVAL (Latin for middle) Period between AD 500-1400 Between fall of the Roman Empire &amp; the Modern Age FEUDALISM-&gt;way of life during the Middle Ages based on ownership of land and loyalty </li> <li> Slide 71 </li> <li> Middle Ages continued Society: *King or monarch *Lords *Vassals = lower lords *Knights = protected the land *serfs or peasants = worked the land MANORS = lords estate / including castle, farmland, &amp; village GUILDS = first workers unions of craftsmen / set rules on quality of products and prices of products </li> <li> Slide 72 </li> <li> Middle Ages continued MAGNA CARTA = THE Great Charter which for the first time limited the power of a king and gave more power to the nobility King John I = was forced to sign the Magna Carta </li> <li> Slide 73 </li> <li> Slide 74 </li> <li> knight &amp; castle </li> <li> Slide 75 </li> <li> King John signing the Magna Carta </li> <li> Slide 76 </li> <li> Medieval Guilds </li> <li> Slide 77 </li> <li> Japanese and European Feudal System: JAPAN EUROPE *Emperor *King (Monarch) *Shogun *Lord (Noble) *Daimyo *Vassals *Samurai *Knights *Serfs or Peasants--------------------- </li> <li> Slide 78 </li> <li> Crusades HOLY WARS (1096-1272) Purpose = to regain the Holy Lands (Palestine) from the Muslim Turks Outcome = opened TRADE between Europe and Asia Important products that were traded = SPICES, silk, linen, coffee, jewels, etc. </li> <li> Slide 79 </li> <li> Trade Items Included: </li> <li> Slide 80 </li> <li> Bubonic Plague followed Trade Routes from Asia to Europe </li> <li> Slide 81 </li> <li> Renaissance 1400-1600 REBIRTH of Greek &amp; Roman Culture Began in FLORENCE, ITALY Focus on HUMANISM, secular belief on education and what the individual could achieve during his/her lifetime MEDICI family were PATRONS of the arts </li> <li> Slide 82 </li> <li> Renaissance People to Know: Leonardo da Vinci Mona Lisa &amp; The Last Supper Michelangelo painted Sistine Chapel Johannes Gutenberg movable type printing press Martin Luther protested ways of the Catholic Church &amp; began Protestantism </li> <li> Slide 83 </li> <li> Age of Exploration People began to explore to find an all water route to get to Asia to buy the products like spices and silk There was already a land route = the Silk Road Portugal led the way *Vasco da Gama-&gt; rounded Africa to get to Asia Columbus (sponsored by Spain) went west across the Atlantic Ocean to get to Asia * Columbus called the natives Indians because he thought he was in the Indies *He NEVER realized he discovered a New World Ferdinand Magellan-&gt; FIRST TO CIRCUMNAVIGATE the world </li> <li> Slide 84 </li> <li> Vasco da Gama </li> <li> Slide 85 </li> <li> Christopher Columbus </li> <li> Slide 86 </li> <li> Ferdinand Magellan </li> <li> Slide 87 </li> <li> Columbian Exchange </li> </ul>