# Navigate Using a Map and Compass

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Navigate Using a Map and Compass Measuring Distance on a Map Definition of Map Scale Measuring Straight-line Distances Measuring Road Distances or Distances Not in a Straight Line TPTRANSCRIPT

Navigate Using a Map and Compass

COURSE: BMQ (P Res) EO: d Rank/Name: Navigate Using a Map and Compass Measuring Distance on a Map Definition of Map Scale Measuring Straight-line Distances Measuring Road Distances or Distances Not in a Straight Line B-GL /PT-002 Chapter 3, Section 1, paras 18; Section 2, paras 914 Time: to Reference: Navigate Using a Map and Compass

Measuring Distance on a Map Definition of Map Scale Measuring Straight-line Distances Measuring Road Distances or Distances Not in a Straight Line TP Navigate Using a Map and Compass

Definition of Map Scale Definition of scale The scale of a map is the relationship between the horizontal distance between two points measured on the ground and the same two points measured on the map. This relationship is constant no matter which direction the distances are measured. Navigate Using a Map and Compass

Definition of Map Scale Methods of expressing scale There are two methods used for expressing the scale of a map: by the representative fraction: for example, 1:50 000; or in words: for example, one inch to four miles. Navigate Using a Map and Compass

Definition of Map Scale Representative fractions (RF) The RF is the standard method of expressing a scale on all Canadian Maps and must be understood by all map users. The RF is 1:X, one unit of distance on the map will represent X units of distance on the ground. For example, a scale of 1: means that one in./cm/m on the map represents in./cm/m on the ground. The essential connection is that the same unit of measurement applies both to the map and to the ground measurement. For example a distance of 3 centimetres on a 1: scale map represents 3 times centimetres on the round, that is centimetres or metres. Navigate Using a Map and Compass

Definition of Map Scale Scales expressed in words The use of scales expressed in words is obsolescent but is still in use and must also be understood. The most common example is the one inch to one mile map. In this case, one inch on the map represents one mile on the ground. If a direct comparison is required in metres, it is necessary to turn the scale into its representative fraction 1:63 360, i.e., one inch equals inches or one mile; therefore: 1 centimetre = centimetres = metres For smaller-scale maps such as the quarter-inch, the scale can be expressed as either inch to one mile, or four miles to one inch. The smaller the scale, however, the more likely one is to use the form miles to the inch. Navigate Using a Map and Compass

Definition of Map Scale Comparison of map scales Typically maps with scales of 1: and less are considered large scale, and maps with scales of 1: and greater are considered small scale. Navigate Using a Map and Compass

Definition of Map Scale Effects on a map of a change in scale It is important to realize, when map reading, the effects of a change of scale from a map with a scale of say 1: to one of 1: It is obvious that the distance between two identical points on the maps will be reduced to one-fifth when changing from the larger to the smaller scale. It is not so obvious that this reduction of the distances takes place in all directions equally, and that consequently both sides of a rectangle will also be reduced to one-fifth and the resultant area will be 1/25 of the area on the larger scale map. Similarly, the space between items of detail will be proportionately reduced, and detail will appear more congested. Do you have any questions? Q1: What is the difference between a 1:50 000 scale map and a 1:25 000 scale map? A1: The details on the 1:25 000 scale map will be easier to describe and more visible. Navigate Using a Map and Compass

Measuring Distance on a Map Definition of Map Scale Measuring Straight-line Distances Measuring Road Distances or Distances Not in a Straight Line TP Navigate Using a Map and Compass Measuring Straight-line Distances

Scales on maps All maps carry graphic linear scales (usually in the middle of the lower margin) from which any horizontal distance may be measured on the map in statute miles, kilometres, metres, yards and nautical miles. These may appear in various combinations and various sizes depending on the type and scale of the map sheet. Navigate Using a Map and Compass Measuring Straight-line Distances

Measuring a straight-line distance To measure a straight-line distance between two points, place a straight edge of a piece of paper against the two points and at each point mark the paper. Then, place the paper along the scale line on the map with the right hand mark against one of the major divisions so that the left hand mark lies against the sub-divisions to the left of the zero on the scale. The total distance is then the number of major divisions plus the distance measured to the left of the zero. Navigate Using a Map and Compass Measuring a Straight-line Distance

Use of separate scales Separate scales such as those on the C2 protractor (see Figure 6-4) may be used for measuring short distances on maps. It must be remembered when measuring long distances, that the paper of a map may stretch or shrink quite appreciably, while a metal, plastic or wooden scale does not. The scale drawn on the map stretches or shrinks with the map, and therefore always provides a scale in conformity with the map detail. Navigate Using a Map and Compass Navigate Using a Map and Compass Measuring Straight-line Distances

Use of grid lines Most military maps carry grid lines. The grid lines are a fixed distance apart and may be used to make quick estimations of distances between two points. Separate scales may be checked against the grid lines before use to make sure that the map and the scale agree. Do you have any questions? Q1: What is the distance between Grid Ref A__________ and Grid Ref B________?

Q2: What is the distance between Grid Ref A__________ and Grid RefC________? Q3: What is the distance between Grid Ref E__________ and Grid Ref B________? A1: A2: A3: Navigate Using a Map and Compass

Measuring Distance on a Map Definition of Map Scale Measuring Straight-line Distances Measuring Road Distances or Distances Not in a Straight Line TP Navigate Using a Map and Compass

Measuring Road Distances or Distances Not in a Straight Line Measuring a road distance To measure a distance that is not straight (for example along a road), consider the road as a number of straight or nearly straight sections and proceed as follows: Lay a piece of paper along the first section; Mark it with a tick at the starting point and another at the end of the first section; Navigate Using a Map and Compass

Measuring Road Distances or Distances Not in a Straight Line Then pivot the paper about the second tick until it lies along the second section; Mark the end of the second section with another tick, and repeat the process until the last point is marked; and Read off the paper against the scale Do you have any questions? Q1: What is the distance between ? A1: A2: A3: Navigate Using a Map and Compass

COURSE: BMQ (P Res) EO: d Rank/Name: Navigate Using a Map and Compass Measuring Distance on a Map Definition of Map Scale Measuring Straight-line Distances Measuring Road Distances or Distances Not in a Straight Line B-GL /PT-002 Chapter 3, Section 1, paras 18; Section 2, paras 914 Time: to Reference:

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