# MAP & COMPASS. Learn how to acquire information from a map Learn how to use and navigate with a compass Learn how to plot a route on a map and apply it.

Post on 16-Dec-2015

214 views

Category:

## Documents

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

• Slide 1
• MAP & COMPASS
• Slide 2
• Learn how to acquire information from a map Learn how to use and navigate with a compass Learn how to plot a route on a map and apply it to the field with your compass Become comfortable relying on your map and compass skills in the woods. Objectives
• Slide 3
• Parts of a map Colours Name Index Edition Scale Glossary Grid square Grid reference Contour lines Mean declination Map Datum
• Slide 4
• Name
• Slide 5
• Edition Where else on your map can you find the edition?
• Slide 6
• Index for 1:50 000 map of Halifax # dont always follow each other Which map would you choose?
• Slide 7
• Slide 8
• Index for 1:50 000 maps for large area
• Slide 9
• Scales A reference for distances on a map we use maps with 1:50 000 scale and most commonly a 1:10 000 scale The chequered squares in front of the 0 are for smaller increments
• Slide 10
• 1:50 000 1:10 000
• Slide 11
• Glossary Symbols representing objects on a map NOTE: maps and their symbols can only be as accurate as the map makers can make them. The maps are made with from the data of that specific time period. When was your map made? North American Datum (NAD)? 1983
• Slide 12
• Slide 13
• Glossary: Symbols
• Slide 14
• Glossary: Waterways and woods
• Slide 15
• How do you determine where you are? Grid Squares The lines one your maps make squares called grid squares They help you find yourself more easily They can give you a very precise location Grid squares are always 1 km by 1km (Canadian maps)
• Slide 16
• How to use the Grid Squares UTM: Universal Transverse Mercator Grid Maps have horizontal and vertical grid lines (like latitude and longitude) Full grid numbers are found on the corners of the map (ex: left bottom corner 4929000 northing and 422000 easting) Applicable grid numbers are found along the grid lines and correspond to the bold number
• Slide 17
• Grid numbers
• Slide 18
• Reading the grid square 1st Eastings: lines that describe your position eastward/westward, lines that are vertical 2nd Northings: lines that describe your position north/southward, lines that are horizontal To determine your grid square start at the bottom left corner of the grid square and read into it OR get into the elevator then go up OR jump over the line, then climb into the square
• Slide 19
• Grid Square 34_ 71_
• Slide 20
• 65 66 67 68 69 Using a romer 4546 474849 50 A B A = 47_ 68_B= 48_ 66_ 19753 9 7 3 5 1 4633 19753 9 7 3 5 1
• Slide 21
• MAP EXERCISE Describe what you find at the following grid references 1. 427 347 2. 358 474 3. 473 408 4. 367 308 5. 367 394 6. 537 521 Hatchet Lake Campground Building Cochrans Island Dan Hill Water Tower
• Slide 22
• CONTOUR LINES Contour lines connect a series of areas of EQUAL ELEVATION and are used to illustrate relief and dept on a map
• Slide 23
• Slide 24
• Contour line exercise
• Slide 25
• Contour lines can determine the direction of water flow Along waterways, contour lines form a V shape The V points toward the origin of the river, and therefore, The river flows away from its origin
• Slide 26
• Contour lines used to indicate direction of water flow
• Slide 27
• Water flow exercise Go to 385 356 to McGrath Falls. There are two rivers north of it. Which direction is the river flowing from? 410 308 Croucher Lake. There is a river south east of the lake. Which direction is the river flowing from? Why does the direction of river flow important?
• Slide 28
• COMPASS 360 dial with North sign Direction of travel arrow Index line Orienteering lines Magnetic needle Base plate Ruler Scales
• Slide 29
• Slide 30
• Slide 31
• 2 Ways to use your compass 1. Use it in the field To get a bearing of the direction you are travelling To orient yourself to a bearing you already have Use the RED (action) arrow when youre out being active! Red in the Bed! 2. Use it to get your direction on a map Use the orienteering lines within the dial to line up with the lines on the map
• Slide 32
• Bearing = a number in degrees that depicts a direction (from a map or from a compass)
• Slide 33
• 1. Taking a compass bearing in the field Hold your compass, cradled flat in your palm, in front and away from your body Ensure the direction of travel arrow (arrow on the base plate) is pointed at your target Turn the 360 dial until the Red Needle sits in the Red Bed (NOTE: this is North, but its not necessarily your bearing!) Read your magnetic bearing at the index line on the dial (it may be the same as your direction of travel arrow)
• Slide 34
• Lets stand up and try it!
• Slide 35
• Back Bearing Put the RED in the opposite bed. You get the complete opposite bearing, and it should correlate with where you were just coming from.
• Slide 36
• Outside effects on a compass Anything magnetic Power lines Cell phones GPS Large amounts of metal Large metal objects Large metal veins in rocks
• Slide 37
• Map and Compass together! Map and Compass together!
• Slide 38
• 1. Getting a bearing from a map Determine point A and B Draw a line Set the edge of your compass on the line **with your direction of travel arrow actually pointing towards your direction of travel !! Turn the dial **with the North on the dial pointing North (top of map) and line up the orienting lines with the gridlines on the map Read the bearing number at the index line (lines up with direction of travel arrow) This is a MAP bearing
• Slide 39
• ORIENTING MAP & COMPASS A B N
• Slide 40
• Other ways to get a MAP bearing Instead of using your compass to get the bearing, you can use a protractor. You can also use a transparent square grid. Using a ruler to calculate distance is very easy. 360/0 270 90 180
• Slide 41
• Quick bearing taking 360/0 315 45 270 90 225 135 180
• Slide 42
• MAP BEARING EXERCISE S 1 2 3 4 F 12 = ______ S1 = ______ 23 = ______ 34 = ______ 4F = ______ 160 060 226 180 080
• Slide 43
• True North vs Magnetic North There is a Rotational North/South Pole, and a Magnetic North/South Pole The magnetic pole is located on Prince of Wales Island in northern Canada (about latitude 73 N, longitude 100 W) The angle between the True North or Grid North and the Magnetic North is called the MEAN DECLINATION Notice that the declination can be towards the east or towards the west, and there is no declination close to western Ontario (Thunder Bay). The study of the planets magnetic fields is called Geomagnetism.
• Slide 44
• Mean Declination
• Slide 45
• Slide 46
• Slide 47
• How to apply Mean Declination In mainland Nova Scotia, we have an approximate 20 west mean declination When we apply magnetic information (compass) to a map, we have to subtract that 20 When we apply map information to a compass, we have to add 20 MAP +20 MAGNETIC MAGNETIC - 20 MAP
• Slide 48
• 4. Continue on original course Staying on course while going around barriers Direction of travel 20 1. Stop at barrier 2. Pick landmark on other side 3. Walk around the landmark Direction of travel 20
• Slide 49
• Going around trees
• Slide 50
• Staying on course while going around a barrier you cant see through Direction of travel 20 Walk to barrier, and flag or mark point Check back bearing 200 Resume direction of travel 20 290 100 Paces 20 Until the barrier is cleared 110 100 Paces
• Slide 51
• Map & Compass Field Exercises
• Slide 52
• Pacing: measuring how many steps you take to measure 100m. Triangles Straight navigation Pole navigation Navigating a pre-plotted course on a map (afternoon)
• Slide 53
• What you are looking for??
• Slide 54
• Good luck, have fun and be safe!! We will see you on Saturday morning at __________!!
• Slide 55
• Introduction to GPSs Tool that can calculate your location on earth by reading satellite signals in the sky Advantages:can tell you where you are in grid numbers Can show you the path that you took Can input pre-determined locations, then allow the GPS to guide you to them Disadvantages: battery operated Needs access to satellite input (clouds, tree cover,) Shows you the path, not the obstacles (unless you have a new model that has maps incorporated)
• Slide 56
• Introduction to woodslore Staying safe: what should you bring in with you Compass Fire tool (mandatory) Whistle (mandatory) Water Large orange garbage bag Water Leave no Trace
• Slide 57
• Triangulation how to find yourself on a map Triangulation requires good map reading skills. You need to be able to recognize landmarks out in the field, and relate them to symbols/points on your map. You pick three distinguishable landmarks, then take a compass bearing pointing at them, then mark them on your map. Where the three lines intersect, is where you are standing.
• Slide 58
• A B C D E F G H I J K L M 3 - gradual, consistent slope 5 (or 8) - draw or valley with stream 13 (or 4) - cliff face 12 - hill with ridge 9 - spurs on a mountainside 10 - a depression 4 (or 13) 7 - Steeper slope high, gradual low 1 - consistent slope 2 - gradual slope high, steeper low 11 - a saddle between two hills 8 (or 5) 6 - simple round hill