module 4: instructional strategies

Module 4: Instructional Strategies Course Title: Designing & Delivering Successful Training Programs

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Page 1: Module 4: Instructional Strategies

Module 4:Instructional Strategies

Course Title:Designing & Delivering Successful Training Programs

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What are instructional strategies?

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The Instructional Framework

Instructional Strategies

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What is the Instructional Framework?

Identifies and illustrates the interrelationship among instructional approaches

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• Represent the broadest level of instructional practices

• Present a philosophical orientation to instruction

• Used to select and structure teaching strategies, methods, skills, and learner activities

• 4 Instructional Models:

• Information Processing

• Personal

• Social Interaction

• Behavioral

Four Components of Instructional Framework1. Instructional Models

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• Determine the approach taken by an instructor to achieve learning objectives

• 5 categories:

o Directo Indirecto Interactive Experientialo Independent Study

Four Components of Instructional Framework2. Instructional Strategies

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• Used by an instructor to create learning environments

• Specify nature of learning activities

o Directo Indirecto Interactive Experientialo Independent Study

Four Components of Instructional Framework3. Instructional Methods

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• Represent the most specific instructional behaviors

• Examples: questioning, discussing, explaining, demonstrating, planning, and structuring

Four Components of Instructional Framework4. Instructional Skills

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Instructional Strategies

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• Instructor must focus on:

▫Curriculum▫Prior experiences and knowledge of learners▫Learners’ interests ▫Learners’ learning styles▫Developmental levels of learners

•Employ variety of strategies to meet learning objectives

How to Choose Instructional Strategies

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•Highly teacher-directed and usually deductive

•Effective for providing information or developing step-by-step skills

• Includes instructional methods such as:▫ lecture▫didactic questioning▫explicit teaching▫practice and drill▫demonstrations

1. Direct InstructionDirect


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Method Lecture

Purpose/Description • Presentation and clarification of information, usually to a large group.

• Lectures are more effective when designed to spark group discussion and when main ideas are demonstrated with visual aids.

Type Mostly Instructor-centered

Specific Questions to determine appropriateness of method

1. Can you develop interest in the lecture?2. Are there appropriate audio-visual support systems?3. Can you pose questions in your lectures?4. How can visual aids be incorporated in order to make

the lecture more effective?5. How can the lecture used to spark discussion?

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• Learner-centered strategy

• Role of instructor shifts from lecturer/director to that of facilitator, supporter, and resource person

• Seeks a high level of learner involvement in:▫ observing, investigating, drawing inferences from data, forming


• Includes instructional methods such as:▫ reflective discussion▫ concept formation▫ concept attainment▫ problem solving▫ guided inquiry

2. Indirect InstructionIndirect


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ExampleMethod Inquiry

Purpose/Description • To involve learners in conveying content. • It promotes understanding and clarification of concepts, ideas,

and feelings. • Reflective discussions encourage learners to think and talk about

what they have observed, heard or read.

Type Mostly Learner-centered

Specific Questions to determine appropriateness of method:

1. Do you want learners to be actively involved in the activity?2. How much time is available? 3. Is there time to clarify differences? Is there time for

conclusions and follow up?4. Do you have to listen to all interactions/conversations taking

place?5. Is divergent thinking a desirable end?6. Would other strategies work better or just as well?7. How much control do you need?8. Can interest be aroused and maintained?

Indirect Instruction

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• Learner-centered strategy

• Relies heavily on discussion and sharing among participants

• Allows learners to learn from peers and instructors to:▫ develop social skills and abilities ▫ organize their thoughts ▫ to develop rational arguments

• Includes a range of interactive instructional methods, such as:▫ whole-class discussions▫ small group discussions or projects▫ learner pairs or groups working on assignments together

3. Interactive Instruction Interactive Instruction

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ExampleMethod Small-group Discussion

Purpose/Description • To explore a problem or an area of study, engage in discussion and/or hands-on tasks in order to investigate problems, and find solutions/reach conclusions

• It requires active participation in questioning events and in putting several factors together (conceptualizing) to explore a hypothesis or theory.

Type Mostly Learner-centered

Specific Questions to determine appropriateness of method

1. Does the content/subject require active learning in concept development?

2. How much teacher guidance can you provide?3. Which questions are more effective and most productive?4. How can enough information be gained in order to allow for the

formation of hypotheses?5. What will be learned about the inquire process?

Interactive Instruction

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• Learner-centered, inductive, and activity-oriented strategy

• Emphasis on the learning process rather than the product

• Personalized reflection about an experience and the formulation of plans to apply learning to other contexts are critical factors

• It can be viewed as a cycle consisting of 5 phases:▫ experiencing▫ sharing▫ analyzing▫ inferring▫ applying

4. Experiential LearningExperiential


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•It includes instructional methods, such as:▫surveys▫role-play▫simulations▫field trips ▫observations▫model building▫experiments

4. Experiential LearningExperiential


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ExampleMethod Surveys

Purpose/Description To gather large amounts of information from groups of people. A sample (group of people) is selected and then a number of questions are asked of each person. Information is collected, results are put together and conclusions are formed. The survey and results are then presented in an appropriate format.

Type Mostly Learner-centered

Specific Questions to determine appropriateness of method

1. Is divergent thinking a desirable end?2. What questions will be asked during the survey?3. Who will be surveyed?4. How will the information be recorded?5. What is the most appropriate way to analyze and

present the data collected?

Experiential Learning

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• Encourages learners to take responsibility for planning and pacing their own learning

• Helps learners become self-sufficient and responsible citizens by enhancing individual potential

• Initiated by learners or instructors and focuses on planned independent study by learners under the guidance or supervision of an instructor

• Includes instructional methods purposefully provided to foster the development of individual learner initiative, self-reliance, and self-improvement, such as:

▫ learning contracts, research projects, reports, and essays.

5. Independent Study Independent Study

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ExampleMethod Learning Contracts

Purpose/Description • To communicate plans of intended learning objectives developed by the learner alone or in conjunction with the teacher.

• Learners agree to complete assignments, or they may, with teacher approval, select their own topics of study, and assume major part of the responsibility for forming objectives, developing and selecting activities, and securing materials needed to complete the activities.

Type Mostly Learner-centered

Specific Questions to determine appropriateness of method

1. What work do you wish to include in the contract?2. What books or other resources are available to the

learner?3. How long will it take to develop a detailed plan, to gather

resources, and to finish the assignment?4. What criteria will you use to evaluate the work produced?

Independent Study

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Instructional Methods

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•What knowledge, skill, or attitude needs to be learned?

•How much preparation time is available?

•Would other strategies work better or just as well?

•How much control do you need?

•Can interest be aroused and maintained?

Questions to Determine Choice and Appropriatenessof a Strategy