module 4: instructional strategies

of 23 /23
Module 4: Instructional Strategies Course Title: Designing & Delivering Successful Training Programs

Author: cardet1

Post on 18-Nov-2014

161 views

Category:

Education


0 download

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

 

TRANSCRIPT

  • 1. Module 4: Instructional Strategies Course Title: Designing & Delivering Successful Training Programs

2. 2 What are instructional strategies? 3. 3 The Instructional Framework Instructional Strategies 4. 4 What is the Instructional Framework? Identifies and illustrates the interrelationship among instructional approaches 5. Represent the broadest level of instructional practices Present a philosophical orientation to instruction Used to select and structure teaching strategies, methods, skills, and learner activities 4 Instructional Models: Information Processing Personal Social Interaction Behavioral 5 Four Components of Instructional Framework 1. Instructional Models 6. Determine the approach taken by an instructor to achieve learning objectives 5 categories: o Direct o Indirect o Interactive Experiential o Independent Study 6 Four Components of Instructional Framework 2. Instructional Strategies 7. Used by an instructor to create learning environments Specify nature of learning activities o Direct o Indirect o Interactive Experiential o Independent Study 7 Four Components of Instructional Framework 3. Instructional Methods 8. Represent the most specific instructional behaviors Examples: questioning, discussing, explaining, demonstrating, planning, and structuring 8 Four Components of Instructional Framework 4. Instructional Skills 9. 9 Instructional Strategies Direct Instruction Indirect Instruction Interactive Instruction Experiential Learning Independent Study 10. Instructor must focus on: Curriculum Prior experiences and knowledge of learners Learners interests Learners learning styles Developmental levels of learners Employ variety of strategies to meet learning objectives 10 How to Choose Instructional Strategies 11. Highly teacher-directed and usually deductive Effective for providing information or developing step-by-step skills Includes instructional methods such as: lecture didactic questioning explicit teaching practice and drill demonstrations 11 1. Direct Instruction Direct Instruction 12. 12 Example Direct Instruction Method Lecture Purpose/Description Presentation and clarification of information, usually to a large group. Lectures are more effective when designed to spark group discussion and when main ideas are demonstrated with visual aids. Type Mostly Instructor-centered Specific Questions to determine appropriateness of method 1. Can you develop interest in the lecture? 2. Are there appropriate audio-visual support systems? 3. Can you pose questions in your lectures? 4. How can visual aids be incorporated in order to make the lecture more effective? 5. How can the lecture used to spark discussion? 13. Learner-centered strategy Role of instructor shifts from lecturer/director to that of facilitator, supporter, and resource person Seeks a high level of learner involvement in: observing, investigating, drawing inferences from data, forming hypotheses Includes instructional methods such as: reflective discussion concept formation concept attainment problem solving guided inquiry 13 2. Indirect Instruction Indirect Instruction 14. 14 Example Method Inquiry Purpose/Description To involve learners in conveying content. It promotes understanding and clarification of concepts, ideas, and feelings. Reflective discussions encourage learners to think and talk about what they have observed, heard or read. Type Mostly Learner-centered Specific Questions to determine appropriateness of method: 1. Do you want learners to be actively involved in the activity? 2. How much time is available? 3. Is there time to clarify differences? Is there time for conclusions and follow up? 4. Do you have to listen to all interactions/conversations taking place? 5. Is divergent thinking a desirable end? 6. Would other strategies work better or just as well? 7. How much control do you need? 8. Can interest be aroused and maintained? Indirect Instruction 15. Learner-centered strategy Relies heavily on discussion and sharing among participants Allows learners to learn from peers and instructors to: develop social skills and abilities organize their thoughts to develop rational arguments Includes a range of interactive instructional methods, such as: whole-class discussions small group discussions or projects learner pairs or groups working on assignments together 15 3. Interactive Instruction Interactive Instruction 16. 16 Example Method Small-group Discussion Purpose/Description To explore a problem or an area of study, engage in discussion and/or hands-on tasks in order to investigate problems, and find solutions/reach conclusions It requires active participation in questioning events and in putting several factors together (conceptualizing) to explore a hypothesis or theory. Type Mostly Learner-centered Specific Questions to determine appropriateness of method 1. Does the content/subject require active learning in concept development? 2. How much teacher guidance can you provide? 3. Which questions are more effective and most productive? 4. How can enough information be gained in order to allow for the formation of hypotheses? 5. What will be learned about the inquire process? Interactive Instruction 17. Learner-centered, inductive, and activity-oriented strategy Emphasis on the learning process rather than the product Personalized reflection about an experience and the formulation of plans to apply learning to other contexts are critical factors It can be viewed as a cycle consisting of 5 phases: experiencing sharing analyzing inferring applying 17 4. Experiential Learning Experiential Learning 18. It includes instructional methods, such as: surveys role-play simulations field trips observations model building experiments 18 4. Experiential Learning Experiential Learning 19. 19 Example Method Surveys Purpose/Description To gather large amounts of information from groups of people. A sample (group of people) is selected and then a number of questions are asked of each person. Information is collected, results are put together and conclusions are formed. The survey and results are then presented in an appropriate format. Type Mostly Learner-centered Specific Questions to determine appropriateness of method 1. Is divergent thinking a desirable end? 2. What questions will be asked during the survey? 3. Who will be surveyed? 4. How will the information be recorded? 5. What is the most appropriate way to analyze and present the data collected? Experiential Learning 20. Encourages learners to take responsibility for planning and pacing their own learning Helps learners become self-sufficient and responsible citizens by enhancing individual potential Initiated by learners or instructors and focuses on planned independent study by learners under the guidance or supervision of an instructor Includes instructional methods purposefully provided to foster the development of individual learner initiative, self-reliance, and self-improvement, such as: learning contracts, research projects, reports, and essays. 20 5. Independent Study Independe nt Study 21. 21 Example Method Learning Contracts Purpose/Description To communicate plans of intended learning objectives developed by the learner alone or in conjunction with the teacher. Learners agree to complete assignments, or they may, with teacher approval, select their own topics of study, and assume major part of the responsibility for forming objectives, developing and selecting activities, and securing materials needed to complete the activities. Type Mostly Learner-centered Specific Questions to determine appropriateness of method 1. What work do you wish to include in the contract? 2. What books or other resources are available to the learner? 3. How long will it take to develop a detailed plan, to gather resources, and to finish the assignment? 4. What criteria will you use to evaluate the work produced? Independe nt Study 22. 22 Instructional Methods 23. What knowledge, skill, or attitude needs to be learned? How much preparation time is available? Would other strategies work better or just as well? How much control do you need? Can interest be aroused and maintained? 23 Questions to Determine Choice and Appropriateness of a Strategy