instructional strategies planner

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  • 1. Classroom routines and proceduresBy Denise YoungEstablishing clear classroom routines and procedures is necessary for ensuring that your classroom runssmoothly.Students need to know what is expected of them in your classroom. To ensure that you have smoothtransitions throughout the day, think carefully about the routines for which you must plan. Clarify them inyour mind. It may be helpful to make a list of transitional times throughout the day (see the list below to helpyou get started!). Other teachers or your mentor can serve as resources by sharing their own classroomprocedures and routines.Before establishing specific procedures or routines, it is necessary to have a discussion with students abouttheir importance. During this discussion, you should be able to talk about the rationale behind variousroutines. When possible, invite students to create procedures with you. This process can nurture a sense ofownership and community in your classroom.In establishing procedures or routines, it is important to: Ensure that students understand the reason for the routine. Clarify the procedure through modeling. Allow students opportunities to practice the routine through rehearsal. Try not to overwhelm students by teaching too many routines at once. The process of establishing routines and procedures may take several days. Remember that it will probably be necessary to revisit this process as you see the need.The following list may help you get started in thinking about times during the day for which you may wantto establish procedures and routines: Beginning the day Entering and exiting the classroom Labeling papers Collection and distribution of papers Signaling for quiet and attention Appropriate times for moving around the room Emergency drills and procedures Going to the restroom Moving throughout the school Late arrival Grading and homework policies (including make-up work) Asking questions Finishing an assignment early DismissalSource: 1
  • 2. Hot Tips for Managing Classroom BehaviorThe ability to manage students behaviors is the number one concern of beginning teachers, and is near thetop for most experienced teachers. The inability to effectively manage students behavior accounts for moreteacher dismissals than any other cause, including lack of knowledge of subject matter. Here are some tips oneffective classroom management gleaned from research and observations of effective teachers: Invest in relationship building from the beginning. Expect to be tested by some students. Preserve your classroom momentum at all costs. Deliver interesting, fast-paced, organized learning experiences. Be sure your rules and expectations are clear. It is also better to have a few, rather than may rules. Avoid causing student to lose face in from of their peers. Keep you eyes moving. Continually monitor what is happening in your classroom. Practice the principle of escalation. (Dont go after a fly with a baseball bat.) Use the power of silence. Dont overreact. Develop selective hearing. Divide and conquer. Never argue with a student in front of the class. Quiet reprimands are much more effective than loud ones. Clearly focus on a students behavior, not the student. Understand the schools student behavior code. Reinforce positive behaviors. Use praise effectively. User group contracting to reward good performance. Vary rewards. Develop classroom routines early in the year. Be cautious of touching students when they are angry. Be aware of concealment activities used by students. Avoid branding a student a failure because of one mistake. Avoid punishing the whole class for the misbehavior of one student. Try to find acceptable means for students to receive the attention and approval they often seek through misbehavior. Always have a couple of sponge activities. Dont be too quick to send students to the principals office or to call their parents. Dont send students out into the hallway as a punishment. For persistent, serious problems with a student, use the private teacher-student conference. If you feel overwhelmed by a students challenging behavior, dont be afraid to consult other professionals. 2
  • 3. ReproducibleHOW TO BUILD TRUSTING RELATIONSIPS WITH STUDENTS AND PARENTS THROUGHOUT THE YEARThis overview will help you integrate steps toward building positive relationships with studentsand their parents throughout the year. Use this as a guide for your efforts as the school yearprogresses.Before the School Year BeginsBegin building relationships with students by proactively reaching out to them and their parentsbefore the school year begins:____ Write introductory notes to all students and parents.____ Call students who have had difficulties.____ Call the parents of students who have had difficulties.At the Beginning of the School YearWhen the school year begins, you can continue building positive relationships with your studentsby getting to know them, having them get to know you, and of utmost importanceearningtheir respect.____ Take charge in the classroom____ Establish high expectations for behavior.____ Provide positive attention.____ Get to know your students.____ Let the students get to know you.___ Send parents a copy of your classroom management plan.____ Begin making positive phone calls, sending positive notes to parents.Throughout the YearMaintain high expectations for behavior and continue providing positive attention. Reach out toall of the students and their parents. Make it a priority to put special effort into relationships withstudents who are having difficulty in class.____ Spend time talking with students regarding non-academic topics.____ Attend student extracurricular events.____ Call students after a difficult day.____ Call students when they are absent.____ Celebrate student birthdays.____ Continue positive communication with parents.____ Conduct home visits. Classroom Management for Academic Success 2006 by Solutions Tree 3 107
  • 4. Categories of Instructional Strategies That Affect Student Achievement EFFECT ACHIEVEMENTSTRATEGY SIZE GAINIdentifying similarities and differences 1.61 45Summarizing and note taking 1.00 34Reinforcing effort and providing recognition .80 29Homework and practice .77 28Nonlinguistic representations .75 27Cooperative learning .73 27Setting objectives and providing feedback .61 23Generating & testing hypotheses .61 23Questions, cues, and advance organizers .59 22Identifying Similarities and Differences$7from Classroom Instruction that Works Robert J. Marzano, Debra, J. Pickering, Jane E. Pollock,MCREL, 2001. Summary of Research on Identifying Similarities and Differences Guidance in identifying similarities and differences enhances students understanding of and ability to use knowledge. Independently identifying similarities and differences enhances students understanding of and the ability to use knowledge. Representing similarities and differences in graphic or symbolic form enhances students understanding of and ability to use knowledge. Identifying similarities and differences can be accomplished in a variety of ways: comparing, classifying, creating metaphors, and creating analogies. Classroom Practice in Identifying Similarities and Differences The key to effective comparison is the identification of important characteristics. Organizing elements into groups based on their similarities is the basis of classifying. The key to constructing a metaphor is to realize that the two items in the metaphor are connected by an abstract or non-literal relationship. Analogies help us see how seemingly dissimilar things are similar, increasing our understanding of new information. The typical use a "blank is to blank" as "blank is to blank" type of comparison but can also be diagramed. 4
  • 5. Summarizing and Note Tak