instructional strategies planner

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Classroom routines and procedures By Denise Young Establishing clear classroom routines and procedures is necessary for ensuring that your classroom runs smoothly. Students need to know what is expected of them in your classroom. To ensure that you have smooth transitions throughout the day, think carefully about the routines for which you must plan. Clarify them in your mind. It may be helpful to make a list of transitional times throughout the day (see the list below to help you get started!). Other teachers or your mentor can serve as resources by sharing their own classroom procedures and routines. Before establishing specific procedures or routines, it is necessary to have a discussion with students about their importance. During this discussion, you should be able to talk about the rationale behind various routines. When possible, invite students to create procedures with you. This process can nurture a sense of ownership and community in your classroom. In establishing procedures or routines, it is important to: Ensure that students understand the reason for the routine. Clarify the procedure through modeling. Allow students opportunities to practice the routine through rehearsal. Try not to overwhelm students by teaching too many routines at once. The process of establishing routines and procedures may take several days. Remember that it will probably be necessary to revisit this process as you see the need. The following list may help you get started in thinking about times during the day for which you may want to establish procedures and routines: Beginning the day Entering and exiting the classroom Labeling papers Collection and distribution of papers Signaling for quiet and attention 1

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Page 1: Instructional strategies planner

Classroom routines and procedures

By Denise Young

Establishing clear classroom routines and procedures is necessary for ensuring that your classroom runs smoothly.

Students need to know what is expected of them in your classroom. To ensure that you have smooth transitions throughout the day, think carefully about the routines for which you must plan. Clarify them in your mind. It may be helpful to make a list of transitional times throughout the day (see the list below to help you get started!). Other teachers or your mentor can serve as resources by sharing their own classroom procedures and routines.

Before establishing specific procedures or routines, it is necessary to have a discussion with students about their importance. During this discussion, you should be able to talk about the rationale behind various routines. When possible, invite students to create procedures with you. This process can nurture a sense of ownership and community in your classroom.

In establishing procedures or routines, it is important to:

Ensure that students understand the reason for the routine. Clarify the procedure through modeling. Allow students opportunities to practice the routine through rehearsal. Try not to overwhelm students by teaching too many routines at once. The process of establishing

routines and procedures may take several days. Remember that it will probably be necessary to revisit this process as you see the need.

The following list may help you get started in thinking about times during the day for which you may want to establish procedures and routines:

Beginning the day Entering and exiting the classroom Labeling papers Collection and distribution of papers Signaling for quiet and attention Appropriate times for moving around the room Emergency drills and procedures Going to the restroom Moving throughout the school Late arrival Grading and homework policies (including make-up work) Asking questions Finishing an assignment early Dismissal



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Hot Tips for Managing Classroom Behavior

The ability to manage students’ behaviors is the number one concern of beginning teachers, and is near the top for most experienced teachers. The inability to effectively manage students’ behavior accounts for more teacher dismissals than any other cause, including lack of knowledge of subject matter. Here are some tips on effective classroom management gleaned from research and observations of effective teachers:

Invest in relationship building from the beginning.

Expect to be tested by some students.

Preserve your classroom momentum at all costs.

Deliver interesting, fast-paced, organized learning experiences.

Be sure your rules and expectations are clear.

It is also better to have a few, rather than may rules.

Avoid causing student to lose face in from of their peers.

Keep you eyes moving.

Continually monitor what is happening in your classroom.

Practice the principle of “escalation.” (Don’t go after a fly with a baseball bat.)

Use the power of silence.

Don’t overreact.

Develop selective hearing.

Divide and conquer.

Never argue with a student in front of the class.

Quiet reprimands are much more effective than loud ones.

Clearly focus on a student’s “behavior,” not the student.

Understand the school’s student behavior code.

Reinforce positive behaviors.

Use praise effectively.

User group contracting to reward good performance.

Vary rewards.

Develop classroom routines early in the year.

Be cautious of touching students when they are angry.

Be aware of concealment activities used by students.

Avoid branding a student a “failure” because of one mistake.

Avoid punishing the whole class for the misbehavior of one student.

Try to find acceptable means for students to receive the attention and approval they often seek through misbehavior.

Always have a couple of “sponge activities.”

Don’t be too quick to send students to the principal’s office or to call their parents.

Don’t send students out into the hallway as a punishment.

For persistent, serious problems with a student, use the private teacher-student conference.

If you feel overwhelmed by a student’s challenging behavior, don’t be afraid to consult other professionals.


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This overview will help you integrate steps toward building positive relationships with students and their parents throughout the year. Use this as a guide for your efforts as the school year progresses.

Before the School Year BeginsBegin building relationships with students by proactively reaching out to them and their parents before the school year begins:

____ Write introductory notes to all students and parents.

____ Call students who have had difficulties.

____ Call the parents of students who have had difficulties.

At the Beginning of the School YearWhen the school year begins, you can continue building positive relationships with your students by getting to know them, having them get to know you, and –of utmost importance—earning their respect.

____ Take charge in the classroom

____ Establish high expectations for behavior.

____ Provide positive attention.

____ Get to know your students.

____ Let the students get to know you.

___ Send parents a copy of your classroom management plan.

____ Begin making positive phone calls, sending positive notes to parents.

Throughout the YearMaintain high expectations for behavior and continue providing positive attention. Reach out to all of the students and their parents. Make it a priority to put special effort into relationships with students who are having difficulty in class.

____ Spend time talking with students regarding non-academic topics.

____ Attend student extracurricular events.

____ Call students after a difficult day.

____ Call students when they are absent.

____ Celebrate student birthdays.

____ Continue positive communication with parents.

____ Conduct home visits.

Classroom Management for Academic Success © 2006 by Solutions 3

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Categories of Instructional Strategies That Affect Student Achievement




Identifying similarities and differences 1.61 45Summarizing and note taking 1.00 34Reinforcing effort and providing recognition .80 29Homework and practice .77 28Nonlinguistic representations .75 27Cooperative learning .73 27Setting objectives and providing feedback .61 23Generating & testing hypotheses .61 23Questions, cues, and advance organizers .59 22

Identifying Similarities and Differences$7

from Classroom Instruction that Works Robert J. Marzano, Debra, J. Pickering, Jane E. Pollock, MCREL, 2001.

Summary of Research on Identifying Similarities and Differences

Guidance in identifying similarities and differences enhances students' understanding of and ability to use knowledge.

Independently identifying similarities and differences enhances students' understanding of and the ability to use knowledge.

Representing similarities and differences in graphic or symbolic form enhances students' understanding of and ability to use knowledge.

Identifying similarities and differences can be accomplished in a variety of ways: comparing, classifying, creating metaphors, and creating analogies.

Classroom Practice in Identifying Similarities and Differences

The key to effective comparison is the identification of important characteristics.

Organizing elements into groups based on their similarities is the basis of classifying.

The key to constructing a metaphor is to realize that the two items in the metaphor are connected by an abstract or non-literal relationship. 

Analogies help us see how seemingly dissimilar things are similar, increasing our understanding of new information. The typical use a "blank is to blank" as "blank is to blank" type of comparison but can also be diagramed.


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Summarizing and Note Taking$15

from Classroom Instruction that Works Robert J. Marzano, Debra, J. Pickering, Jane E. Pollock, MCREL, 2001.

Summary of Research on Summarizing

Sometimes summarizing and notetaking are referred to as mere "study skills". However, they are two of the most powerful skills students can acquire. Summarizing and note taking provide students with tools for identifying and understanding the most important aspects of what they are learning.

To effectively summarize, students must delete some information, substitute some information and keep some information.

To effectively delete, substitute, and keep information, students must analyze the information at a fairly deep level.

Being aware of the explicit structure of information is an aid to summarizing information.

Classroom Practice in Summarizing

Rule-Based Strategy follows a set of rules or steps to develop a summary. Summary Frames use a series of questions designed to highlight the critical

elements for specific types of information. Reciprocal Teaching involves summarizing, questioning, classifying and


Summary of Research on Note Taking

Verbatim is the least effective way to take notes. Notes should be considered a work in progress. Notes should be used as study guides for tests. The more notes that are taken, the better.

Classroom Practice in Note Taking

Teacher-Prepared Notes are one of the most straight forward uses of notes.

Variety of formats: Informational Outlines, Webbing and Combination Notes.

Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition$14

from Classroom Instruction that Works Robert J. Marzano, Debra, J. Pickering, Jane E. Pollock, MCREL, 2001.

Summary of Research on Reinforcing Effort

People generally attribute success at any given task to one of four causes: ability, effort, other people and luck.

Not all students realize the importance of believing in effort. Students can learn to change their beliefs to an emphasis on effort.


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Classroom Practice in Reinforcing Effort

Teach and exemplify the connection between effort and achievement. Students can see the connection between effort and achievement by

periodically keeping track of their effort and its relationship to achievement,

Summary of Research on Providing Recognition

Rewards do not necessarily have a negative effect on intrinsic motivation. Reward is most effective when it is contingent on the attainment of some

standard of performance. Abstract symbolic recognition is more effective than tangible rewards.

Classroom Practice in Providing Recognition

Make the recognition as personal to the student as possible. The Pause, Prompt and Praise strategy of providing recognition is best used

when students are engaged in a particularly demanding task. Concrete, symbolic tokens of recognition should be given for accomplishing

specific performance goals.

Homework and Practice$16

from Classroom Instruction that Works Robert J. Marzano, Debra, J. Pickering, Jane E. Pollock, MCREL, 2001.

Summary of Research on Homework

Less homework should be assigned to younger students than to older students.

Parent involvement in homework should be kept to a minimum. The purpose of homework should be identified and articulated. If homework is assigned, it should be commented on.

Classroom Practice in Assigning Homework

Establish and communicate a homework policy. Design homework assignments that clearly articulate the purpose and

outcome. Vary the approaches to providing feedback.

Summary of Research on Practice

Mastering a skill requires a fair amount of focused practice. While practicing, students should adapt and shape what they have learned.

Classroom Practice Regarding Practicing Skills

Students should be encouraged to keep track of their speed and accuracy.


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Design practice assignments that focus on specific elements of a complex skill or process.

Plan time for students to increase their conceptual understanding of skills or processes.

Nonlinguistic Representations$13

Please note:  ASCD has the chapter about Nonlinguistic Representations in full-text on their web site.

Summary from Classroom Instruction that Works Robert J. Marzano, Debra, J. Pickering, Jane E. Pollock, MCREL, 2001.

Summary of Research on Nonlinguistic Representations

A variety of activities produce nonlinguistic representations.

o Creating graphic representations. o Generating mental pictures. o Drawing pictures and pictographs. o Engaging in kinesthetic activity.

Nonlinguistic representations should elaborate on knowledge.To download a PowerPoint presentation on this strategy click this link: Powerpoint

Classroom Practice in Nonlinguistic Representation

Graphical organizers are the most common way to help students generate nonlinguistic representations. 

Other nonlinguistic representations include physical models, generating mental pictures, drawing pictures and pictographs, and engaging in kinesthetic activity.

Cooperative Learning$11

from Classroom Instruction that Works Robert J. Marzano, Debra, J. Pickering, Jane E. Pollock, MCREL, 2001.

Summary of Research on Cooperative Learning

Organizing groups based on ability should be done sparingly. Cooperative groups should be kept small in size. Cooperative learning should be applied consistently and systematically, but

not overused.


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Cooperative Learning five defining elements:

1. Positive interdependence2. Face-to-face interaction3. Individual and group accountability4. Interpersonal and small group skills5. Group processing

Classroom Practice in Cooperative Learning

Use a variety of criteria for grouping students.

Use a variety of group patterns:  Informal or ad hoc (last few minutes of a class period), formal (long enough to complete an academic project) and base groups (semester or year, providing students with long-term support).

Managing group size - keep groups small. Combine cooperative learning with other classroom strategies.

Questions, Cues, and Advance Organizers$8

from Classroom Instruction that Works Robert J. Marzano, Debra, J. Pickering, JaneE. Pollock, MCREL, 2001.

Summary of Research on Cues and Questions

Cues and questions should focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual.

"Higher level" questions produce deeper learning than lower level questions. "Waiting" briefly before accepting responses from students increases the

depth of student answers. Questions are effective learning tools even when asked before a learning


Classroom Practice in Cues and Questions

Explicit cues provide students with a preview of what they are about to experience.

Questions that elicit inferences help students "fill-in" missing information. Analytic questions help students critique information. The types of analysis

are analyzing errors, constructing support, and analyzing perspectives.

Summary of Research on Advance Organizers

Advance Organizers should focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual.

"Higher level" advance organizers produce deeper learning than the "lower level" advance organizers.

Advance Organizers are most useful with information that is not well organized.

Different types of advanced organizers produce different results.


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Classroom Practice in Advance Organizers

Expository advance organizers describe new content. Narrative advance organizers present information in story format. Graphic advance organizers provide nonlinguistic representations. Skimming before reading is a form of advance organizer.


Cooperative Learning is a teaching strategy in which small teams, each with two to five students of mixed ability levels and talents, use a variety of learning activities to maximize their own and each other’s learning. All team members gain from each other’s efforts, thus creating an atmosphere of achievement.


Complete work accurately, on time, and to a high standard of quality. Work in teams to achieve mutual goals and objectives.

Follow work-related rules and regulations.

Demonstrate willingness to work and show initiative.

Display responsible behaviors at work, including avoiding absenteeism and demonstrating promptness.


Speak so others can understand Solve problems and make


Read with understanding

Cooperate with others

Resolve conflicts and negotiate

Use math to solve problems

Observe critically

Listen actively

Take responsibility for learning


"Relationships are the avenue for influence." Unknown

Investment in relationship building allows you to accumulate a “psychological bank account” with your students. Pay now or pay later – you’ll either spend time building a mutually respectful relationship or you’ll spend it later in a classroom power struggle.

Greet students as they enter the class

Listen to students Be aware of students’ interests

Converse with students about daily life

Share information about yourself Be consistent in you responses

Center for Workforce Preparation


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Good Instructional Planning is aligned to course standards; stresses high expectations; has all students actively engaged; involves teachers’ working together; and requires administrative support.

WHEN TO PAIR UP STUDENTS To process new information Review information Get out of their seats to interact

BENEFITS OF PAIRING UP Energize your students Build community Generate multiple ideas

RANDOM PARTNERS (SECRET PAL) Each student in class writes their name on a slip of paper, and then folds the slip in half so their

names are concealed. Have students mix, exchanging slips of paper with classmates. When teach calls “Freeze,” students unfold their slips of par to discover their “Secret Pals.” They pair up with and remember their Secret Pal so at any time you can call out, “Everyone up.

Don’t be the last to find your Secret Pal.”

Don’t be the last to find your Secret Pal.”

Characteristic Partners

Students form partners with others that share similar characteristics. A great way for students to see what they have in common with others in the class. For example, students write down their favorite hobby on a slip of paper. Then have them find another person with the same or a similar hobby. They become Hobby Pals.

Other possible characteristics that students can pair up on are: Sports they enjoy; Favorite movie/television show/radio show/actor/dessert/ junk food/band; Zodiac signs; Pets they own; etc.

STUDENT SELECTED PARTNERS As long as your students are often pairing up with individuals they wouldn’t necessarily choose to

pair up with on their own, why not sometimes let them pair up with that special somebody


Cooperative Learning Standards

Practice Active Listening Help and Encourage Each Other

Everyone Participates

Explain Your Ideas / Tell Why

Complete Tasks

Zero Noise Signal

1. Complete your sentence2. Raise your hand

3. Remain quiet

4. Eyes on the speaker

Ask 3 Before Me

If you have a question, ask 3 of your team members before you ask me.


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1. Positive Interdependence: “We all sink or swim together”

Each team member’s efforts are required for team success. Each team member has a specific and unique contribution because of his/her

resources, talents, and task responsibilities.

2. Face-to-face interaction: “Students become translators”

In cooperative learning teams, students promote each other’s success by sharing resources and helping, supporting, encouraging, and celebrating each other’s efforts.

Teachers structure teamwork so that students help each other by explaining how to solve problems, teaching one’s knowledge to others, checking for understanding, discussing concepts, and connecting present and past learning.

3. Individual accountability / personal responsibility

Each team must be accountable for achieving its goals, and each member must be accountable for contributing his or her share of the work. Each student is individually assessed and the results are given back to the team and individual to determine who needs more assistance and support for learning.

4. Interpersonal and teamwork skills: “Social Skills do not magically appear”

Social skills must be taught just as academic skills are taught. Leadership, decision-making, trust-building, communication, and conflict management are essential to team success.

5. Team reflection: “How are we doing as a team?”

Teachers need to structure teamwork so that team members discuss how well they are achieving their goals and how effectively they are working together. Teams should describe what member actions are helpful and unhelpful and then make decisions about what behaviors to continue or change. This is an ongoing process of self assessment and peer assessment.

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Must be modeled, taught, rehearsed, practiced, used, reinforced, and the skill must mean something. Teach students what “it looks like”, “what it sounds like” and “what it feels like.” Research (Margarita Calderon) has shown that students will learn more and do better if they help their classmates, if they ask for help when they need it, and if they get an explanation with the help. Appropriately used cooperative learning strategies become classroom management strategies.

Teach students how to help each other – notice when a team member needs help; tell your team members to ask you if they need help; when someone asks for help, help them; don’t give answers – give explanations; praise and encourage; and, check to make sure they understand.


What did you like about working together? What could your team do even better next time?

What surprised you most about your team?

Name one thing a team member did which helped you and/or your team.

List at least three member actions that helped the team be successful.

List one action that could be added to make the team more successful the next time.

If you were the teacher, how would you change this lesson?

What did you learn from your teammate(s) today?

What did you learn from another team?

Did you always say “because” and give a reason for your answer? Explain.


Give immediate and specific feedback. Re-teach or add to teaching.

Encourage oral elaboration and explanation.

Model appropriate behavior.

Offer encouragement and praise.

Encourage teams to solve their own problems.


students drill each other on the material. answers are shared (explanations).

materials are shared.

heads are close together.

students give their opinions easily and candidly.

social skills improve – in teams and elsewhere.

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Think-Pair-Share – Involves a three step cooperative structure.  During the first step the teacher poses a question, preferably one demanding analysis, evaluation, or synthesis, and gives individuals thirty seconds or more to think through an appropriate response (Think). This time can also be spent writing the response. After this "wait time," students then turn to partners and share their responses, thus allowing time for both rehearsal and immediate feedback on their ideas (Pair). During the third and last stage, student responses can be shared within learning teams, with larger groups, or with the entire class during a follow-up discussion (Share). The caliber of discussion is enhanced by this technique since, too often, the extroverts with the quickest hand reflexes are called on when an instructor poses a question to the entire class. In addition, all students have an opportunity to learn by reflection and by verbalization.

Turn to Your Partner – Students are asked to turn to someone sitting next to them and ask or explain something about the lesson: a concept, directions to an assignment, summarizing points to a discussion, etc. Teacher moves around the classroom listening in on responses. If most/all understand, move on to the next concept.

Numbered Heads Together – This is a simple, easy to use structure developed by Spencer Kagan, which is effective for answering questions at all levels of difficulty.

1. Students Number Off – Each student on the team has a different number which can be chosen secretly by the students or assigned by the teacher. For teams of five, one number may be assigned to two students.

2. Teacher Asks a Question – Questions are phrased so that students know that their answer must include an explanation. “Make sure everyone on your team can explain how you arrived at the answer.”

3. Heads Together – Team members discuss the question and make sure each team member knows and can give the correct answer, including an explanation. Time limits may be given as appropriate to keep things moving quickly.

4. Teacher Calls a Number – The teacher calls a number at random and all students with that number can raise their hands, stand, etc. to respond. If a complete answer is not given, another student with that number may be called on to add to the answer.

Roundtable / Simultaneous Roundtable – The teacher announces a topic or poses a question in which the students are to share something with their team. Each student, in turn, writes one answer as a paper and pencil are passed to each member of the team. Usually done in silence, this strategy is good for getting students to recall information, summarize, or brainstorm.

In simultaneous roundtable, each student starts with a piece of paper, writes one answer, and passes it when the teacher says, “pass”. This way several papers are moving at once. Each sheet of paper could have a different question / problem on it so that all students are engaged all the time and perhaps practicing or reviewing more than one concept.

Four Corners – Announce the corners; post a visual in each corner (or area of the room). Announce a statement and provide think time for students to choose a corner; ask them not to be swayed by others’ choices. Have students go to their chosen corners and ask them to brainstorm as a group the reasons for selecting the corner, why a particular corner is best and answers for any other questions you pose. Have students come to consensus on their best ideas. Select a spokesperson to share with the rest of the class. Then invest time in processing the results and the activity.

Jigsaw – Jigsaw can be used in a variety of ways for a variety of goals, but it is primarily used for the acquisition and presentation of new material, review, or informed debate. Select a topic, concept, theme, issue, and break into parts (e.g. Civil War – short term causes, long term causes, short term effects, long

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term effects). If each student’s part is essential, then each student is essential; and that is precisely what makes this strategy so effective.

It is an efficient way to learn the material that encourages listening, engagement, and empathy by giving each member of the group an essential part to play in the academic activity. Group members must work together as a team to accomplish a common goal; each person depends on all the others. No student can succeed completely unless everyone works well together as a team. This “cooperation by design” facilitates interaction among all students in the class, leading them to value each other as contributors to their common task.

Divide students into 5 or 6 person jigsaw groups. Divide the day’s lesson into 5-6 segments. For example, if you want history students to learn about Eleanor Roosevelt, you might divide a short biography of her into stand-alone segments on (1) Her childhood, (2) Her family life with Franklin, (3) Her life after Franklin contracted polio, (4) Her work in the White House as First Lady, and (5) Her life and work after Franklin’s death.

Form temporary “expert” groups – each student on the team becomes an “expert” on one topic by working with members from other teams assigned the corresponding expert topic. Assign each student to learn one segment, making sure students have direct access only to their own segment. Give students time to become familiar with their segment. Give students in these expert groups time to discuss the main points of their segment and to rehearse the presentations they will make to their Jigsaw group.

Bring the students back into their Jigsaw groups. Upon returning to their teams, each one in turn teaches the group. Ask each student to present her or his segment to the group. Encourage others in the group to ask questions for clarification.

Demonstration of Knowledge – The culminating activity allows individual sharing team members to demonstrate their knowledge of all topics identified in the unit. At the end of the session, a quiz or test is given on the material so that students quickly come to realize that these sessions really count.

Carousel Brainstorming – Decide on a topic and several questions. Place questions on chart paper. Charts are posted on walls. Assign each team to a chart on the wall. Recorder writes the ideas that the group brainstorms in response to the prompt on the chart. At the signal, students move to the next chart, read the prompt and ideas written on the chart, and record additional ideas. After enough rotations, the team returns to their original chart and identifies their three favorite ideas – or any other reflection activity. Additionally, a gallery walk could occur where the groups walk through all the sheets and views the work done by all the teams.

Gallery Walk (or Tour) – Allows students to view each other’s final products while incorporating movement.

1. Completed group products are displayed around the classroom. 2. Teachers states what is to be done (e.g., simple observation, writing questions, adding ideas, etc.).3. On a signal, groups pass from one product to another, responding as groups to the

products they see by writing questions or adding ideas etc. It may be necessary to time each “turn.”

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STRATEGY WHEN USE DIRECTIONS FOR USEHomework Help Before reviewing homework

assignments as whole class or collecting them to be grades

1. Students sit in groups of 2 or 3 & compare answers to their homework.

2. They discuss any for which they do not have the same responses, correct their work when needed, & add the reason they changed those answers.

3. Teacher can then collect papers or use for discussion

Pairs Checking To support guided practice (worksheet, etc.) of a procedure while requiring students to explain their answers to one another and allowing the teacher to circulate and assist groups that need assistance.

1. Partners do the first two or three problems independently.

2. Partners stop and agree on answers to the problems done before repeating the process for the next two three problems.

3. If their answers differ, the students explain their methods to each other and try to decide who is correct.

4. If they cannot agree, then the teacher should be asked to intervene.

Round Robin To get students to recall information, summarize, or brainstorm

1. Students work in groups. 2. The teacher asks a question or poses a

problem with more than one answer. 3. Each group member orally responds one item

at a time around the circle.4. The conversation keeps moving around the

group until the teacher call that time is up or the answer is complete.

Talking Tiles To group students and give them an issue to discuss that requires them to offer an opinion or “take a side.”

1. Use index cards with words “Time to Talk” written on them.

2. Place students in groups of 4 or 5.3. Students are given an issue to discuss that

requires them to offer an opinion or “take a side,” with one student speaking at a time—the student holding the Talking Tile.

4. One student is handed Talking Tile to begin the discussion. The student with Tile is only one permitted to talk; all others must listen.

5. Teacher monitors the time, allowing a predetermined amount of time before calling for the Talking Tile to be passed.

6. Talking Tile is passed to the right and receiver of Tile speaks next. Teacher may require students to take notes on what others have to contribute.

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To have students think about a topic you identify or a specific question you pose, write their response, and then discuss their individual responses with a classmate.

1. A problem is posed and students think alone about the question for a specific amount of time.

2. Students then take a moment to jot down their thoughts before sharing them with a partner.

3. Then have pairs take some time to compare with other pairs.


To have students share or generate ideas within a specified period of time in a non-evaluative situation.

1. Students are placed in groups of four or five.2. Teacher states the topic.3. A student is designated as the Leader. He/She

makes sure all students understand the topic, invites participation from every member of the group, and doesn’t allow questions, criticism, or praise while generating the list of ideas.

4. Another student is designated as the Recorder. The Recorder writes down the ideas using as few words as possible and verifies with the person suggesting the idea if the written summary is accurate.

5. The remaining students actively participate, building on the ideas of the other students.

6. After a specified time the groups share their ideas with one another.

K-W-L Technique

To capitalize on what students already know about the content material (K), explores information they would like to know about the subject (W), and provides for examination of what was actually learned (L). .

1. Teacher provides a brief oral overview of the content material to be studied. Teacher presents a large chart with columns, labeled K (Know), W (Want to Know), and L (Learned).

2. Students are asked to brainstorm any information they already have about subject to be studied. Teacher writes responses in column labeled K.

3. Teacher then asks students to share what they would like to know about subject. Teachers may need to encourage students to consider concepts instead of factual information. As responses are given, teachers write them in column label W.

4. Students are then directed to read the text section independently.

5. Students look back to the W column of the K-W-L chart and share responses to issues identified. Their responses are entered under the l column. Teacher can use this time to supplement responses given and encourage students to expand on information provided. Teacher then assesses the mastery of the overall topic.

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Zero Noise Signal

Natural tendency for classroom of teams/groups to become too noisy. Teacher needs to be able to bring noise level quickly back to zero.

Signal to students to stop talking, to give their full attention to teacher, & to keep their hands and bodies still.

1. Teacher raises hand high to signal to students to stop talking.

2. Students complete their sentence, raise their hand and remain quiet.

3. Students turn eyes to teacher.4. Once all students have indicated by their

silence and raised hands, teacher can continue.

1-2-3 Move

Used to transition students from their desks to another area of the room

Transitions should be brief, quiet, free from disruptions

1. Teacher says “One” and students get items from their desk that they need.

2. On 2 students stand and push in their chairs.3. On 3 students move to the instructed area.


Establish norms of appropriate cooperative behavior in classroom

Lay groundwork for team building;

1. Teacher models social & communication skills expected from students; gets clarity/consensus on what is meant by a specific academic/social skill.

2. Teacher develops a T-Chart for specific academic/social skill. Down the left hand side of chart teacher lists what that skill “looks like” and on the right hand side what that skills “sounds like” if someone were to walk into the classroom.

3. Example: Looks like—if I were to walk into your class room (and I couldn’t hear) what would I see to indicate that ______was taking place

4. Example: Sounds like—if I were to walk into your class room (and I couldn’t see) what would I hear to indicate that ______was taking place

5. Charts are posted in the room.6. Helps with classroom management by

establishing consensus on expectations. Suggest getting input from students.

Ask Three Before Me Helps students become responsible for their own learning and behavior.

Gives teacher more time to teach, since the responsibility for answering questions is shared by everyone in the classroom rather than being the sole responsibility of the teacher

o Teach students to ask a partner or teammate before asking you.

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Anticipation Guides Source:

Anticipation guides can have many different formats. Statements are succinct, inviting each student to expand on them with her own opinions.  By publicly stating their position, students are more apt to look for statements in their research which support, contradict, or modify their opinions.

Constructing an Anticipation Guide

Vacca and Vacca (1989) mention the following guidelines: 1. Analyze the material to be read. Determine the major ideas - implicit and explicit - with which

students will interact.

2. Write those ideas in short, clear declarative statements.  These statements should in some way

reflect the world that the students live in or know about. Avoid abstractions.

3. Put these statements into a format that will elicit anticipation and prediction making.

4. Discuss readers' predictions and anticipations prior to reading the text.  Encourage students to

take a position and defend it with examples from their own background.  Give opportunities for

students to share their thoughts with others to foster exposure to different perspectives.

5. Assign the text selection.  Have students evaluate the statements in light of the author's intent

and purpose.

6. Encourage students to revisit the text and the anticipation guide to reflect on their earlier

predictions compared to their feelings after reading and discussion.

Extended Anticipation Guides

An extended anticipation guide has the added feature of students giving written evidence to support their responses.  Students complete the agree / disagree section prior to reading and then, after reading information related to each of the statements, they are asked to indicate if and how the text supports their opinion or not. After reading, class discussions should focus on questions such as the following:

What statements support your opinions?

What statements contradict your opinions?

Why do you still agree or disagree with the writer?

What would help you change your mind?

Sample Anticipation Guide

T F People can be influenced by fictional characters.

T F People can agree on the most influential character.

T F I have used a fictional character as a role model.

T F Many people are easily swayed by opinion.

T F Fictional people have no value to society.

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CLASSIFICATION CATEGORIESIn each column, identify the category used for classification and the criteria for the category.

List items in the each column that meet the criteria for that category.


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Venn Diagram



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Name _____________________________ Topic ________________________





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Pyramid Summarizing Activity

Respond to the prompts below to complete the summary. Remember that each line should be slightly longer than the preceding line so the finished summary resembles a pyramid. (A more detailed description of this strategy can be found in Rick Wormeli’s book, Summarizing Strategies for All Content Areas.)










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GIST – A Cooperative Summarizing Activity(Generating Interaction between Schemata and Text)

See page 62 of Literacy Across the Curriculum for one version.

Purpose: To ask students to write a tight, precise summary of a reading passage. Students are to convey a “gist” of what they read by summarizing the text in 20 words or less.Procedure:

1. Ask students to read a short reading passage of no more than three paragraphs.2. Ask the class, or group, to remember important ideas from the passage and list them on the board.3. Discuss the list of words and reduce it to 20 or less. Delete trivial and repetitious information. Include

only essential information. Collapse as many words together as possible. For example, if Robert Fulton, Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Edison are listed, collapse that into the term “inventors.”

4. Use the words to write a summary of the reading. Write the summary and revise it at least once.5. (For the first time, many students will not understand what a summary is. A first effort is a teaching

vehicle for summarizing as much as it is for the information read.)

Variation of GIST—1. Have students write a 20 word summary of an assigned reading onto an index card. The summary

should be on one side of the card and should not have the student’s name.2. The students should stand and move around the room with teacher-provided music, trading cards as they

move.3. When the teacher stops the music, each student should choose a partner from the room.4. With the partner, students read and evaluate the summaries on the two cards they are holding. On the

back of each card, the pair gives the summary a total of 1-7 points in such a way that the two cards’ totals equal 7.

5. Repeat steps 2-4 three more times including scoring on the back of the cards.6. Students return to their seats after the last scoring, taking the card they are holding.7. Students total the scores on the reverse of the cards they are holding.8. The higher the score, the more likely the better the summary.9. The teacher calls for the summaries with the highest totals to be read aloud to the class.

GIST: A Summarizing Strategy for Use in Any Content AreaOverview: To teach students the GIST strategy, have students read newspaper articles obtained from newspaper websites. Students then identify journalism's "5Ws and H" (who, what, where, when, why, and how) and complete a template with the corresponding information they have found in the article. Finally, students use their notes to write a 20-word summary called a GIST. Once students have mastered writing a GIST using newspaper articles, the strategy is then applied to content area texts to support comprehension and summarizing skills.

_______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________

_______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________

_______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________


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_______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________


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Childhood lead exposure linked to adult crimeBy Greg Toppo, USA TODAY May 28, 2008

In what may be the strongest link yet between lead exposure and crime rates, researchers at the University of Cincinnati on Tuesday released new evidence, spanning more than 20 years, that draws a direct relationship between the amount of lead in a child's blood and the likelihood he or she will commit crimes as an adult.

Research has shown before that lead has harmful effects on judgment, cognitive function and the ability to regulate behavior. But until now the best research focused on juveniles, not adults.

Now, researchers have collected data from as early as 1979 when pregnant women and their healthy babies had their blood drawn regularly at four Cincinnati medical clinics. By the time the children were 7, researchers had a complete portrait of lead levels.

Nearly two decades later, the researchers tracked down 250 of the subjects, ages 19-24. Controlling for a host of factors, including parental IQ, education, income and drug use, the team found that the more lead in a child's blood from birth through age 7, the more likely he or she was to be arrested as an adult. The tie between high lead levels and violent crime was particularly strong.

"We need to be thinking about lead as a drug and a fairly strong one," says Kim Dietrich, a professor of environmental health at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine and the principal investigator for the study in the journal Public Library of Science Medicine. "These kids have been exposed to this drug, chronically, since before birth."

For nearly 50 years, researchers have known about the relationship between children's impulsivity and high levels of lead in their bodies. As recently as 2007, economist Rick Nevin tied violent crime rates to historic use of leaded gasoline.

Children in poor neighborhoods are often exposed to high levels of lead from old lead paint in dilapidated homes.

Fordham University School of Law criminologist Deborah Denno, who has studied the effects of lead, calls the findings' ties to adult criminal behavior "very important." Denno studied National Institutes of Health statistics of nearly 1,000 children in Philadelphia and found that a high blood lead level at 7 years old was among the strongest predictors that a child would have both learning difficulties and disciplinary problems in school. High blood lead also strongly predicted whether a child would have a juvenile or adult criminal record.

Denno says Tuesday's data are newer than hers by 20 years. "It's still a huge problem," she says, "and it's still a huge problem among African-American communities and poorer neighborhoods."


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Main Idea

1st Key Point 2nd Key Point 3rd Key Point

Detail Detail Detail Detail Detail Detail


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COMPARING OBJECTSSelect two or more additional objects for which exposure causes concern.

List objects in the top row and complete the information about the characteristics for each object.

CHARACTERISTICS Lead in products

Object 2 Object 3 Object 4 Object 5

Level of exposure(high, medium, low)

Consequences of exposure

Benefits of object to society

Feasibility to avoid exposure