judaism in europe 13 th -21 st century camden francis (3)
Post on 01-Jan-2016
Embed Size (px)
Judaism in Europe13th-21st Century Camden Francis(3)
Early HistoryAs Europe approached the Middle Ages, Jewish and Christian ideals began to differ more sharply. Jews embraced a large role of community spirit, with democratic roots, which opposed Christian hierarchy and pope.
(Judaism in Europe) (2)
The Middle AgesWhere as most Christian Europeans endured hardship and pain during the Middle Ages, Judaism flourished during the time period. Between the years of 800 to 1100 Jews numbered around 1.5 million on the continent. Jewish communities tended to be much cleaner and open environments as well, so Jewish people grew up to be healthier and better educated.
(Judaism in Europe) (1)
Jewish Contribution- Middle Ages Since Jews tended to be better-off and well-educated, many rose to high ranking jobs in society, such as, bankers, lawyers, and doctors. Their experience in administration, banking, and medicine, extended to general knowledge as well, and many Christians reached out to Jewish Rabbis to gain a better understanding of the Bible and their own religion. Their services were valued by the elite in Christian culture and therefore Jews avoided the ruthless feudal system in place throughout much of Europe.
(Judaism in Europe)
Roots of Anti-Semitism Soon, many came to be jealous and spiteful of Jews large roles in society. This view was easy to pin on a wealthy minority, and the church soon began to depict the death of Christ as the work of the Jewish people. This single act by the church invoked the most widespread hatred, as many Christians clung to the Church for the only happiness and support in their lives.
(Judaism in Europe)(4)
In 1215, the Fourth Lateran Council called by Pope Innocent III, decreed that Jews must wear special dress, badges or distinctive conical hats, to distinguish them from other people. During Easter in the 1300s, Friars and Priests began to depict Jews in the Passion Plays as the enemy of the church and reason for Christs death, which matched the churchs other propaganda and incited the people.During the Crusades as well, Jews faced discrimination, and were targeted as enemies to the Christian purification of Europe and aim to take back the Holy Land. The first, of the eight crusades, took place in 1095, with the last culminating in 1292.
(Guide to the Holocaust)
Factors in the Jewish Persecution(5)
In mid-fourteenth century Europe experienced the plague or The Black Death. Due to the Jews wealth and cleanliness, they did not suffer as much and therefore were targeted for the cause of the unknown disease, as many more Christians died.Due to the heavy persecution, Jews fled inland to Poland, where many united together and functioned in total Jewish communities. These neighborhoods aided in fortifying the Jews and creating a bond between them through their suffered oppression. (Guide to the Holocaust)(Guide to the Holocaust)
Areas where the plague was undetected tend to correspond with high Jewish population density, the most notable being in Poland and its surrounding area. Poland gladly welcomed the escaping Jews, realizing they would aid in the development of the country, especially the service sector. Polish leaders issued charters to extend rights to Jews in the 13th and 14th centuries and saw the population explode from 15,000 to 150,000.(Pogonowski 16) (6)
With the end of the feudal system, more Christians now entered the small workforce already dominated by Jews. This conflict, along with the Crusades, church propaganda, and bubonic plague, brought about a shift in the disposition of European Jews in Christians minds. Thus European leaders began to take notice and become active in Anti-Semitism, setting a dangerous precedent towards the treatment of Jews.
(Guide to the Holocaust)Precursors to Jewish Expulsion (7)
The Beginnings of Jewish Displacement Governments began to take action in the 15th century as many ghettos were created in Florence, Madrid, Venice, Naples and Rome, to house and keep the Jews separate from others in the community. Thus a dangerous precedent had been set, which would later be followed by Hitler, who used the already established principle of ghettos to further his campaign against Jews and promote its legitimacy.
(Guide to the Holocaust)(8)
Governmental figures began to take note of the Jewish unpopularity, and expelling Jews became common practice so as to achieve political unity through religion. This travesty was most notable in Spain in 1492, when Ferdinand and Isabella ordered an ultimatum: either Jews must convert to Christianity or leave the country. Many nations followed suit.
(Guide to the Holocaust)(Guide to the Holocaust)
Between 1500 to 1700: An Easing of TensionsAs the Protestant Reformation began, many countries became more accepting of Jewish culture, and took notice of their economic effects on the economy. In 1579, Holland began to allow Jews to freely practice their respective religion. 1655-England allowed Jews to return and settle in the country, and never showed major signs of hostility again.In 1780 Joseph II of Austria abolished the Jew badge and allowed Jews to leave the ghettos. The French Revolution aided in giving citizenship to Jews. (Guide to the Holocaust)
Russian Conflict: The 18th Century As Western governments became more democratized and gave freedoms to the Jewish people, Eastern governments were less accepting, mostly due to their uneven political standing and constant class conflicts. These factors came to a head in Russia in the 1880s with the assassination of the reformist tsar, Alexander II, in 1881. With rumors circulating about possible Jewish collaboration in the murder, Russians took matters into their own hands, organizing Pogroms. These Russian Pogroms were characterized by Christians attacking, looting, and murdering Jews, with little or no resistance from the government. (Jewish Virtual Library)Unstableness in the Russian government was common until after the establishment of the Soviet Union, which created a spawning ground for Anti-Semitism in the country. (9)
The Holocaust: The Beginning The general accepting nature of Western culture aided in protecting Jews in most of Europe. Towards the East though, Anti-Semitism still raged, and was fueled by countries such as Russia, Italy, and most importantly, Germany, who used the minority group as a target of their people; uniting their populations and solidifying their governments. (10)
Adolf Hitler would soon emerge onto the Eastern European Scene as a leading Anti-Semitic, after World War II. As seen before, Hitler used the success of the Jewish people against them, and through supreme oral skill, began to sway many Germans to join his party: The National Socialist German Workers Party, which soon simply become the Nazis. His most severe slander against Jews came after his climb to power, so as to not express his radical side. By the early 1930s, The Nazis had gained much political clout, with Hitler as their leader. In 1932 the Nazis became the largest political party in Germany, and in 1933, Hitler was appointed Chancellor.(Stokes) Hitler(11)
The Jewish population was increasingly persecuted and ostracized from society and under the Nuremburg Laws of September 1935 Jews were no longer considered to be German citizens and therefore no longer had any legal rights. Jews were no longer allowed to hold public office, not allowed to work in the civil-service, the media, farming, teaching, the stock exchange and eventually barred from practicing law or medicine. Hostility towards Jews from other Germans was encouraged and even shops began to deny entry to Jews.(Stokes)(12)
Timeline of the Holocaust1933- Two extermination camps opened in Dachau and Buchenwald - Jews are prohibited from owning land. 1934- Hitler becomes Fuhrer 1935- Jews band from enlisting in the military.1936- Jewish oppression is momentarily halted due to the Olympic games in Berlin- Hitler wished to aid the legitimacy of the state and therefore refrained from open Anti-Semitism with the eyes of the world upon Germany. 1937- Jews are denied from the professional workforce 1938- 32 League of Nations country members meet to discuss growing concern for Jews in Germany but no country will accept the fleeing minority. In Germany- Jews are issued identification cards Kristillnacht occurs. 1939- Jews are relocated to ghettos All gold and silver is taken and curfew is established Jews are taken to railroads for shipment to Extermination Camps. 1940-1945 WWII ensues- Allies vs. Axis of Powers. 1945- 13 main concentration camps are found by the allies and over 500 smaller satellite camps. 18 million people were sent to extermination camps between 1933 and 1945, with an estimated over 10 million of them perishing. (History Place)
The Aftermath As World War II came to a close another crisis was on the horizon: The issue of where to place the enormous amount of displaced Europeans, most prominently the Jews. Many were kept in their old camps, which were now run by the Allies. Although no extermination took place, conditions were still awful to bear and supplies came in slowly. The medical condition of the millions of prisoners was unprecedented and much time and patience had to be exasperated so as to properly treat the Jewish prisoners. War trials began for those responsible for the Holocaust but tensions still remained high as to how to solve the issue of Jewish safety in Europe. The U.S. and England allied in this question and relaxed emigration laws. More importantly though, in 1948, Britain renamed their colony Palestine