italian risorgimento “revival” and the unification movement

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ITALIAN RISORGIMENTO Revival and The Unification Movement Slide 2 The Legacy of France Napoleon Invaded Italy and added much of Italy to the French Empire Established puppet governments Structure of French govt efficient bureaucracy Ideas of political rights and personal liberty end of feudalism Decrease in influence and power of RCC Slide 3 Congress of Vienna Sept. 1814 GB, Russia, Austria, Prussia met in Vienna, Austria to discuss the restructuring of Europe after the defeat of Napoleon Klemens von Metternich foreign minister of Austria dominated the congress Guided by the following principles balance of power, legitimacy, conservatism Slide 4 Balance of power one country would not be allowed to dominate European politics Some European powers allowed territorial gains Legitimacy rightful monarchs restored to power after Napoleon Conservatism political order and stability maintained through strong governments Did not advocate extension of political rights Slide 5 Principle of intervention major European powers had the right to intervene in countries experiencing revolutions to maintain balance of power Liberalism political philosophy of the middle class that advocated political/personal liberty, constitutional monarchy Against conservatism Slide 6 Italy Intentionally kept divided and weak by Austria in order to protect their southern flank 5 Main territories Piedmont the House of Savoy Victor Emmanuel I Lombardy Venetia annexed by Austria Grand Duchy of Tuscany dominated by Austria The Papal States ruled by the Papacy but influenced by Austria and France Kingdom of the Two Sicilies supported by Austria Slide 7 Carboneria the Society of Charcoal Burners Secret society pledged to expel Austria from the Italian states Wanted Italian independence, constitutional liberties, united Italy in confederation/federal form Inspired revolutions in Italy in the 1820s and 1830s, but ultimately failed to do lack of unity Slide 8 Development of Nationalism Giuseppe Mazzini - lawyer Young Italy (1831) secret society created to achieve Italian unity through insurrection against the foreign countries Advocated creation of unified Italian republic and universal suffrage Proponent of Big Nationalism Early attempts at insurrection failed Slide 9 Neo-Guelphs Advocated an Italian confederation under the leadership of the pope Neo-Ghibellines Advocated an independent Italy under the leadership of a secular ruler Not necessarily united Piedmont (Charles Albert) take lead in unification Slide 10 Development of Trade Piedmont: Reduced grain tariffs Signed trade agreements with other European countries like France and the German states Development of RRs Austria protectionist did not allow Italian states free trade irritated Italian states that depended on trade Slide 11 Revolutions of 1848 1847 Piedmont annexed Sardinia after request of Sardinia 1847 Creation of customs league between Papal States, Piedmont, and Tuscany Austrian controlled states left out 1848 Ferdinand II (Two Sicilies) granted liberal constitution to avoid popular uprising Tuscany, Papal States, Piedmont followed Civil liberties, free press, representative assembly Slide 12 1848 Milan (Lombardy) and Venice (Venetia) rebelled against Austrian rule (after uprisings in Austria) Piedmont intervened to support Lombardy goal of Charles Albert was to annex Lombardy Pope Pious IX refused to declare war on Austria Catholic nation pope lost support and nationalistic support Austria put down the insurrection Charles Albert forced to abdicate (1849) Victor Emanuel II (son) became king of Piedmont Slide 13 The Rome Uprising (1848-1849) Pope forced to flee Rome to the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies after refusal to declare war on Austria Mazzini and Garibaldi joined insurrection in Rome Signaled breach between people and church 1849 Roman republic with elected Constituent Assembly declared Created a constitution Mazzini leadership position Slide 14 France under Louis Napoleon sent troops to defeat rebels in Rome and restore the Pope to power in the Papal States Ferdinand II (King of Two Sicilies) also sent troops French troops occupied the city July 1849 and maintain foreign army to protect position of the pope. Mazzini fled to London; Garibaldi fled to Americas (wife died fleeing Rome) Slide 15 1849 - Restoration of the monarchs in Italy Constitutions in Naples, Tuscany and the Papal States removed Mainly with Austrian assistance Piedmont maintained constitution Slide 16 Legacies of 1848/49 Desire for liberal political reforms and constitutions Influence of foreign powers (Austria and France) remained on the peninsula Lack of political unity and direction among the Italian states Pope cannot be counted on to expel the foreign powers Piedmont position of leadership little foreign influence, liberal constitution, good economy, foreign support Piedmont and the Italian states will need foreign assistance to expel Austria and other foreign influence cannot go it alone Slide 17 Slide 18 Slide 19 Realpolitik Applies to both foreign and domestic policy Pursuit of a nations self-interest based on a realistic assessment of the costs and consequences of action No morality in decisions No ethics in decisions Analysis of the situation dictates the best course of action for that time Slide 20 Cavour foreign diplomacy Count Camillo di Cavour prime minister of Piedmont-Sardinia Led Italian unification movement Believed Piedmont needed foreign assistance to expel Austria from the Italian states Fostered support with Britain and France Began with commercial treaties Supported Br. and Fr. in Crimean War against Russia Used Crimean War to bring European attention to Italian unification issue Slide 21 Plombieres Agreement (1858) Four Confederated States Piedmont-Sardinia include Venetia, Lombardy, and Northern Duchies Central Italian State under leadership of Prince Napoleon Bonaparte, Napoleon IIIs cousin Smaller Papal kingdom Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Piedmont-Sardinia expand territory France replace Austria as influential country on peninsula and receive Nice and Savoy from PS Russia pacified by possible revision of Peace of Paris from the Crimean War to allow Russian warships on the Black Sea Slide 22 Cause for War France only agreed to fight against Austria if Austria provided the excuse for war Austria drafted soldiers from Venetia and Lombardy PS agreed to accept Italian deserters from the Austrian army and mobilized forces along the PS and Austrian border Austria issued ultimatum against PS to stop accepting deserters PS rejected the ultimatum and Austria invaded PS France joined the war against Austria in support of PS 100,000 troops led by Napoleon III Use of RR first significant use in warfare Slide 23 French and PS troops defeated Austrian army in Lombardy Austrian defeat prompted Prussia to mobilize army on Prussian / French border Cavour sparked nationalist insurrections against Austrian supported rulers in Bologna, Tuscany, Parma, and Modena Napoleon III arranged armistice with Austria at Villafranca w/o consulting PS and Cavour Slide 24 Treaty of Turin (1860) PS annexed Lombardy, Tuscany, Modena, Parma and Bologna Used plebiscites to justify annexation France received Savoy and Nice Used plebiscites to justify annexation Slide 25 Giuseppe Garibaldi in Southern Italy Cavour encouraged uprising in Sicily to protest a milling tax and increased cost of bread in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Garibaldi landed in Sicily with his 1,000 Red Shirts and defeated the Neapolitan Army Garibaldi next invaded the city of Naples and the southern boot again victorious Cavour sent PS troops into the northern part of the Papal States to prevent invasion by Garibaldi Slide 26 Garibaldi gave the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies to PS and Victor Emmanuel III Plebiscites justified the annexations of Sicily, Naples, and the Papal States Victor Emmanuel III took the title of the King of Italy in March 1861 Cavour died in June 1861 Slide 27 Austro-Prussian War (1866) PS had alliance with Prussia PS received Venetia for assisting Prussia and victory against Austria Slide 28 The Acquisition of Rome The Franco-Prussian War (1870 1871) France pulled troops out of Rome to fight Prussia Italian army occupied Rome Rome = capital city of new Italy Plebiscite to justify annexation The Law of Papal Guarantees Vatican City = independent and ruled by the Pope


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