giuseppe mazzini – “the heart” grassroots unification italian risorgimento

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  • Giuseppe Mazzini The HeartGrassroots unificationItalian Risorgimento

  • Camillo di Cavour The BrainPrime Minister of SardiniaA liberal wanted to make Sardinia a model of progress, efficiency, and fair government for others to admireTried to improve the economy

  • Camillo di Cavour The BrainDidnt idealize war, but willing to use war to unify Italy Crimean War (1855-1856) Reorganized and strengthened Sardinian armyMain architect of Italian unification

  • Guisseppe Garibaldi The Sword Hero of Two WorldsRed Shirts

  • King Victor Emmanuel II, House of SavoyOnly native Italian monarch in Italy

  • Italian Unification Timeline1870 - Franco-Prussian War, Italy takes RomeITALY UNIFIED1859 War With Austria, Italy gets Lombardy with help of Napoleon III1852 Cavour becomes Prime Minister of Sardinia1861- Victor Emmanuel II Proclaimed King of ItalyCavour dies1860 Garibaldi and the Red ShirtLand in Sicily1871: Rome proclaimed capitalof unified Italy1866: 7 Weeks War, Italy sides with Prussia & receives VeniceRevolution of 1848

  • Otto von Bismarck: The Founding of A German Empire

  • Nationalism Comes to GermanyFrance and Russia had long-standing policy of keeping Germany weak and dividedNationalism came to Germany, but different from ItalySuperiority to SlavsIndependent of West own particular way of life and political systemWere not widespread ideas of individual liberty tended to glorify the state

  • Revolution of 1848 in GermanySeries of revolutions in German statesFrankfurt Parliament of 1848Offered crown of unified Germany to Frederick William IVTurned it down would not accept crown from the gutterGerman states restored

  • Path to UnificationBlood and IronZOLLVEREIN a customs union of German states that did not include Austria. REALPOLITIK, which means realism" do what is necessary, not what is right or moralSCHLESWIG AND HOLSTEIN Seven Weeks' War

  • Franco-Prussian WarNORTH GERMAN CONFEDERATION EMS TELEGRAM: Queen Isabella France opposed the choice of a Prussian Hohenzollern prince to replace Isabella. Napoleon III demanded in July 1870 that KING WILHELM OF PRUSSIA also oppose it. Wilhelm was reluctant to start trouble with France, so he crafted a polite, diplomatic response, which one of his officials conveyed to Bismarck. Bismarck edited the king's words to create the impression that the French ambassador and King Wilhelm had traded diplomatic insults. France thus declared war on Prussia on July 19, 1870. France quickly defeated, GERMAN EMPIRE PROCLAIMED

  • German Unification Timeline1870 - Franco-Prussian War;France losesAlsace-Lorraine1848 Revolution & Frankfurt Parliament1844 Zollverein includes Almost all German states1862 William IBismarck appointedHead of cabinet1871: GermanEmpire Proclaimed;Bismarck appointed Chancellor

    1866- 7 Weeks War; German ConfederationDissolved; Prussia takes Schleswig & Holstein1819 - Carlsbad Decrees1818 Prussia eliminates tariffs 1864 Austria &Germany defeat Denmark: Austria takes Schleswig, Prussia takes Holstein

  • GOALSMETHODSBISMARCKCAVOUR

  • GOALSMETHODSBISMARCKUnification of GermanyIncrease Prussian PowerDecrease Austrian influence in Germany (drive them out of Germany)blood and iron war, trickery, etc (7 Weeks War, tricked Austria; Franco-Prussian War)Realpolitik do whatever is necessary to achieve goals, not what is moral or rightCAVOURUnification of ItalyMake Sardinia a model of progress and efficiency (liberalism)Did not favor war, but was willing to use it if necessary (got involved in Crimean War to have a place at the peace negotiations in order to bring up the Italian question; joined Prussia in 7 Weeks War to get Venetia)Used plebiscites and majority opinion to unifyLet the Red Shirts and Garibaldi do work for him