the unification of italy – the risorgimento piedmont takes the lead 1852 - 60
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The unification of Italy the RisorgimentoPiedmont takes the lead1852 - 60
Victor Emmanuel II
Piedmont-sardinia became the focal point of nationalists hopes1852 Cavour becomes Prime Minister
Wanted to be rid of Austrian influence in Italy and extend the power of Piedmont.He was certain this could never be achieved without foreign help
Cavour had learned the lessons from 1848Italia fara da sa? No!Help would be needed to unify ItalyPiedmont KEPT its constitution the statuto. Piedmont had fought for Italy. It became the focus for nationalist hopes for the future.
Piedmont needed to be modernised to take advantage of her leading position.
How did Cavour modernise Piedmont Sardinia?
Piedmont-Sardinia is modernisedDeveloped the Piedmont political system constitution (granted 1848) - educated elite in control of government and parliament - support from the centre of politics gave him power to manoeuvre Built solid economic foundations trade, agriculture, industry, banking, communicationsPosition of church weakened
Getting foreign help
Getting foreign supportCrimean war (1854-56)Piedmont joins on side of Br and FrPeace conference Paris 1856
Makes personal contacts with Napoleon IIICavour aims to get French help against Austria
Napoleon III gets involvedOrsini assassination attempt 1858Secret meeting at Plombires 1858 - France to get Nice and Savoy - Austria to made to look the aggressor - France would help in war. - Pope to preside over confederation in central Italy - Piedmont to get Lombardy and Venetia (why not all Italy?)
War 1859Piedmontese army mobilisedAustria demands this stopsAustria declares war!France sends 200,000 troopsBattles at Magenta and SolferinoRevolts followed in Central Duchies and Papal States ask for Piedmont to protect them!
Napoleon gets cold feet!Things moving too fast!Carnage of warPrussia mobilising on the Rhine!Napoleon makes peace with Austria - Villafranca
Villafranca 1859Lombardy ceded to France who then passed it to Piedmont.Venetia remains AustrianCentral Duchies to be restored to their rulersVictor Emmanuel had to accept thisCavour furious resigned!
Things could not be stopped in ItalyCentral Duchies & part of Papal States the Romagna, would not accept their old rulers back.Jan 1860 Cavour back as PMOffered Napoleon Nice and Savoy in return for central Italy.Plebiscites arranged March 1860Piedmont takes over the centre!
Then Garibaldi steps in May 1860