intro the holocaust

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  • 1. 1933-1945

2. What was the Holocaust? The Holocaust refers to a specificgenocidal event in twentieth-centuryhistory: the state sponsored, systematicpersecution and annihilation ofEuropean Jewry by Nazi German and itscollaborators between 1933 and 1945. 3. What does HolocaustMean? Holocaust" is a word of Greek originmeaning "sacrifice by fire." The Nazis, who came to power inGermany in January 1933, believed thatGermans were "racially superior" andthat the Jews, deemed "inferior," werean alien threat to the so-called Germanracial community. 4. What does "State Sponsored"and "Systemic" Mean? 5. State Sponsored and SystemicMean The government made decisions thatwould support the cleansing ofGermany at every level such at:school, police, politicians, andgovernment officials. 6. The Introduction of Hitler to Government Following the appointment of Adolf Hitleras chancellor on January 30, 1933, theNazi state (also referred to as the ThirdReich) quickly became a regime inwhich Germans enjoyed no guaranteedbasic rights. This applied TO ALLGERMANS! 7. The People of Germany WereNo Longer Safe! 8. Killing of the Sick and Weak At least 200,000 mentally or physicallydisabled patients, mainlyGermans, living in institutionalsettings, were murdered in the so-calledEuthanasia Program. 9. Killing Children The Reich Ministry of the Interior circulateda decree compelling allphysicians, nurses, and midwives to reportnewborn infants and children under the ageof three who showed signs of severemental or physical disability. 10. Two young brothers, seated for a family photograph in theKovno ghetto. One month later, they were deported to theMajdanek camp. Kovno, Lithuania, February 1944. 11. Murder Public health authorities began toencourage parents of children withdisabilities to admit their young children toone of a number of specially designatedpediatric clinics throughout Germany andAustria. The clinics were in realitychildrens killing wards where speciallyrecruited medical staff murdered theiryoung charges by lethal overdoses ofmedication or by starvation. 12. The Germans and their collaborators killedas many as 1.5 million children The fate of Jewish and non-Jewish childrencan be categorized in the following way: 1)children killed when they arrived in killingcenters; 2) children killed immediately afterbirth or in institutions; 3) children born inghettos and camps who survived becauseprisoners hid them; 4) children, usuallyover age 12, who were used as laborersand as subjects of medical experiments;and 5) those children killed during reprisaloperations or so-called anti-partisanoperations. 13. The Killing Spreads During the era of the Holocaust, Germanauthorities also targeted other groupsbecause of their perceived "racialinferiority": Roma (Gypsies), thedisabled, and some of the Slavic peoples(Poles, Russians, and others). Othergroups were persecuted onpolitical, ideological, and behavioralgrounds, among themCommunists, Socialists, JehovahsWitnesses, and homosexuals. 14. Arresting Woman and Children 15. The Ghettos During World War II, ghettos were citydistricts (often enclosed) in which theGermans concentrated the municipaland sometimes regional Jewishpopulation and forced them to live undermiserable conditions. 16. Ghettos and Escaping Poland St. Louis 17. Warsaw Ghetto, 1940 18. Jewish man and children in Kutno, 1940 (Photo: Getty Images) More Photos 19. Emptying the Ghettos 20. Railroad System 21. More Maps Introduction to Maps Auschwitz Dachau 22. The Camps-Dachau In the early years of the Nazi regime, theNational Socialist government establishedconcentration camps to detain real andimagined political and ideologicalopponents. 23. Barracks in the quarry camp of the Natzweiler-Struthof concentration camp. 24. Aerial view of Neuengammeconcentration camp. 25. Prisoners Loading up On CattleCars to Auschwitz-Birkenau 26. Auschwitz-Birkenau 27. One Building of Barracks 28. Barracks 29. Toilets 30. View of the walled entrance to the gas chamber in the main camp ofAuschwitz (Auschwitz I). This gas chamber was in use for only a shorttime before being converted into a bomb shelter. In the background is abuilding used by the Gestapo as a regional headquarters. (April 1945) 31. Canisters of Zyclon B 32. Inside a Gas Chamber 33. SS Soldiers 34. Two ovens inside the crematorium at the Dachauconcentration camp. (July 1, 1945) 35. Railroad Entry to Auschwitz 36. To Understand the Scale ofLoss of Life. 37. Life in the Camps 38. Burning Bodies 39. Mass Graves 40. Mass Graves 41. Corpses of Women Piled Up onthe Floor of Block 11 (Fen. 1945) 42. STILL FROM A POSTWAR SOVIET FILM: Jewishchildren, kept alive in the Auschwitz II (Birkenau)concentration camp, pose in concentration campuniforms between two rows of barbed wire fencingafter liberation. (After January 27, 1945) 43. A prisoner being suspended and subjectedto low pressure experimentation. (March - August 1942) 44. Burning the Bodies