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DESCRIPTIONUCL Science Centre ‘Science Lectures for Schools’ 2010 Nov 26. Ian Howarth http://www.star.ucl.ac.uk/~idh/. The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram: Stars Struggle Against Gravity. The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram: Stars Struggle Against Gravity. What’s this got to do with supernovae? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Ian Howarthhttp://www.star.ucl.ac.uk/~idh/UCL Science CentreScience Lectures for Schools 2010 Nov 26
The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram: Stars Struggle Against GravityThe Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram: Stars Struggle Against Gravity
Whats this got to do with supernovae?
Normal stars are in a state of equilibrium between gas pressure pushing outwards and gravity pulling inwards (just like our atmosphere).
However, to maintain the gas pressure we need a heat source. When that source is exhausted, gas pressure is removed, and the star will collapse.
A big star will undergo a big collapse: a supernova
SN 1994D in NGC 4526
RCW 86: remnant of Guest Star from 185SN 1006: brightest star ever seen1054, Crab Nebula
Tychos Star(1572)De nova [et nullius aevi memoria prius visa] stella
Keplers Star (1604)
SN 1885 in M31
Fritz Zwicky (1898-1974)(coined Supernova)
SN 1937ANGC 4157
~1x107KNuclear burning: HHe
Helium burning:The continuing struggle against gravity...Carbon burning:~108K~109K
Then what...? Gravitys victory!
Lifetimes (yrs)Burning StageSun9M25MH burning10102x1077x106He burning1082x1067x105C burning380160Ne burning1.11.0Si burning0.0040.003
Velocities ~1/4 c
Cooling by photo-disintegration+56Fe134He+4nand electron capturep++e-n+e
Most energy comes out in neutrinos
Shock wave propagates out over a day or so observed SN
SN 1987A (Feb 23)
25 neutrinos = all extragalactic neutrino astronomy...confirms core-collapse model(and limits neutrino mass)
Stellar evolution is the struggle of pressure against gravity.
Gravity always defeats gas pressure, eventually
For solar-type stars, the last defence is electron degeneracy pressure(the sun will end its life as a white dwarf).
For more massive stars, the final fate is a neutron star, or a black hole,formed in a supernova explosion
On the way, massive stars make pretty much all the elements heavier thanoxygen (and quite a lot of the lighter ones): we are stardusthttp://www.star.ucl.ac.uk/~idh/