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AL BURAIMI UNIVERSITY COLLEGE BUSINESS DEPARTMENT GRADUATION PROJECT
MOTIVATION THE EMPLOYEES IN MIDDLE SIZE COMPANYSUPERVISOR :
SUBMITTED BY: Talal Adnan Odima Hamdan Rashed Al Darmaki
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Acknowledgement: We want to start our project by thanking all Doctors, teachers and people who supported us to reach the final project. Also, we would like to thank Al Burami University with all their staff, who gave us the opportunity to study the Human Resource Management deeply, and to be prepared our career with perfect knowledge.
A common theme in justifications for autonomy, especially in general education but also in language learning, is that autonomous learners become more highly motivated and that autonomy leads to better, more effective work. Knowles' claim is illustrative: there is convincing evidence that people who take the initiative in learning (proactive learners) learn more things and learn better than do people who sit at the feet of teachers, passively waiting to be taught (reactive learners). They enter into learning more purposefully and with greater motivation (1975: p. 14). What is the link between autonomy and motivation? The writing on motivation in relation to language learning over the past several years has been dominated by the social -psychological approach to motivation of Gardner and his associates, which gives little help in attempts to link autonomy and motivation. To find such links it is necessary to turn to the literature on motivation in general education, and especially the literature on cognitive motivation. This paper will review the literature on motivation and suggest that there is an important link between autonomy and some educational theories of motivation which could account for the claimed power of autonomy.
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INTRODUCTIONMotivation in Human ResourcesThe motivation function is one of the most important, yet probably the least understood, aspects of the HRM process. Why? Because human behaviour is complex and difficult to understand. Trying to figure out what motivates various employees has long been a concern of behavioural scientists. However, research has given some important insights into employee motivation.
To retain good staff and to encourage them to give of their best while at work requires attention to the financial and psychological and even physiological rewards offered by the organization as a continuous exercise. Basic financial rewards and conditions of service (e.g. working hours pe r week) are determined externally (by national bargaining or government minimum wage legislation) in many occupations but as much as 50 per cent of the gross pay of manual workers is often the result of local negotiations and details (e.g. which particular hours shall be worked) of conditions of service are often more important than the basics. Hence there is scope for financial and other motivations to be used at local levels. As staffing needs will vary with the productivity of the workforce (and the industrial peace achieved) so good personnel policies are desirable. The latter can depend upon other factors (like environment, welfare, employee benefits, etc.) but unless the wage packet is accepted as 'fair and just' there will be no motivation. Hence while the technicalities of payment and other systems may be the concern of others, the outcome of them is a matter of great concern to human resource management. Increasingly the influences of behavioural science discoveries are becoming important not merely because of the widely-acknowledged limitations of money as a motivator, but because of the changing mix and nature of tasks (e.g. more service and professional jobs and far fewer unskilled and repetitive production jobs).4 Graduation project 2010 Talal Adnan Odima Hamdan Rashed Al darmaki Motivation
The former demand better-educated, mobile and multi-skilled employees much more likely to be influenced by things like job satisfaction, involvement, participation, etc. than the economically dependent employees of yesteryear. Hence human resource management must act as a source of informa tion about and a source of inspiration for the application of the findings of behavioural science. It may be a matter of drawing the attention of senior managers to what is being achieved elsewhere and the gradual education of middle managers to new points of view on job design, work organization and worker autonomy. First of all, one must begin to think of motivation as a multifaceted process one that has individual, managerial, and organizat ional implications. Motivation is not just what the employee exhibits, but also a compilation of environmental issues surrounding the job. It has been proposed that one's performance in an organization is a function of two factors: ability and willingness to do the job. Thus, from a performance perspective, employees need to have the appropriate skills and abilities to adequately do the job. This should have been accomplished in the first two phases of HRM, by correctly defining the requirements of the job, matching applicants to those requirements, and training the new employee on how to do the job. But there is also another concern, which is the job design itself. If jobs are poorly designed, poorly laid out, or improperly described, employees will perform below their capability. Consequently, HRM must look at the job. Has the latest technology being provided in order to permit maximum efficiency? Is the office setting appropriate (properly lit and adequately ventilated, for example) for the job? Are the necessary tools readily available for the employee use? For example, If an employee prints on a laser printer throughout the day, and the printer is networked to a station two floors up, that employee is going to be less productive that one who has a printer on his desk. While not trying to belittle the problem with such an example, the point should be clear. Office automation and Industrial engineering techniques must be incorporated into the job design. Without such planning, the best intention of managers to motivate employees may be lost or significantly reduced. Once the measures have been taken to ensure that jobs have been properly designed, the next step in the motivation process is to understand the implications of motivational theories. Some motiva tional theories are well known by practicing managers, but recent motivation research has given us new and more valid theories for understanding what motivates people at work. Performance standards for each employee must also be set. While no easy task,5 Graduation project 2010 Talal Adnan Odima Hamdan Rashed Al darmaki Motivation
managers must be sure t at t e performance evaluation system is designed to provide feedback to employees regarding t eir past performance, while simultaneously, addressing any performance weakness the employee may have. A link must be established between employee compensation and performance: The compensation and benefit activity in the organi ation must be adapted to, and coordinated with, a pay - for - performance plan. Throughout the activities required in the motivation function, the efforts will focus on one primary goal: to have those competent and adapted employees, with up - to - date skills, knowledge and abilities, exerting high energy levels. Once that is achieved, it is time to turn the HRM focus to the maintenance function covered in the next article. So, to motivate employees should have a good knowledge about the needs in the following explaination, we are going to talk about the same theory build and improved by expert in management and Human Resource Management like Abraham Maslow, Clayton Alderfer, Mic ael J. Papa, Fred Herzberg and others.. Abraham Maslow developed a model say that if motivation is driven by the existence of unsatisfied needs, then it is worthwhile for a manager to understand which needs are the more important for individual employees. The model in which basic, low-level needs such as physiological requirements and safety must be satisfied before higher-level needs such as self-fulfillment are pursued. In this hierarchical model, when a need is mostly satisfied it no longer motivates and the next higher need takes its place. Maslows hierarchy of needs is shown in the following diagram:
Hierarchy of needs
As the diagram, we have to start fulfill the needs from the bottom to the top, as per the following steps:6 Graduation project 2010 Talal Adnan Odima Hamdan Ras ed Al darmaki Motivation
1. Physi l gi l N
Physiological needs are those required to sustain life, such as:y y y y
air water nourishment sleep
According to Maslows theory, if such needs are not satisfied then ones motivation will arise from the quest to satisfy them. Higher needs such as social needs and esteem are not felt until one has met the needs basic to ones bodily functioning. 2. Safety and security needs Once physiological needs are met, ones attention turns to safety and security in order to be free from the threat of physical and emotional harm. Such needs might be fulfilled by:y y y y
Living in a safe area Medical insurance Job security Financial reserves
According to Maslows hierarchy, if a person feels that he or she is in harms way, higher needs will not receive much attention. 3. Social Needs Once a person has met the lower level physiological and safety needs, higher level needs become important, the first of which are social needs. Social needs are those related to interaction with other people and may include:y y y
Need for friends Need for belonging Need to give and receive love
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4. Esteem Once a person feels a sense of belonging, the need to feel important arises. Esteem needs may be classified as internal or external. Internal esteem needs are those related to self-esteem such as self respect and achievement. External esteem needs are those such as social status and recognition. Some esteem needs are:y y y y y
Self-respect Achievement Attention Recognition Reputation
Maslow later refined his model to include a level between esteem needs and self-actualization: the need for knowledge and aesthetics. 5. Self-Actualization Self-actualization is the summit of Maslows hierarchy of needs. It is the quest of reaching ones full potential as a person. Unlike lower level needs, this need is never fully satisfied; as one grows psychologically there are always new opportunities to continue to grow. Self-actualized people tend to have needs such as:y y y y
Truth Justice Wisdom Meaning
Self-actualized persons have frequent occurrences of peak experiences, which are energized moments of profound happiness and harmony. According to Maslow, only a small percentage of the population reaches the level of self actualization.
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If Maslows theory holds, there are some important implications for management. There are opportunities to motivate employees through management style, job design, company events, and compensation packages, some examples of which follow:y y y y
Physiological needs: Provide lunch breaks, rest breaks, and wages that are sufficient to purchase the essentials of life. Safety Needs: Provide a safe working environment, retirement benefits, and job security. Social Needs: Create a sense of community via team-based projects and social events. Esteem Needs: Recognize achievements to make employees feel appreciated and valued. Offer job titles that convey the importance of the position. Self-Actualization: Provide employees a challenge and the opportunity to reach their full career potential.
However, not all people are driven by the same needs at any time different people may be motivated by entirely different factors. It is important to understand the needs being pursued by each employee. To motivate an employee, the manager must be able to recognize the needs level at which the employee is operating, and use those needs as levers of motivation.o
Limitations of Maslows Hierarchy
While Maslows hierarchy makes sense from an intuitive standpoint, there is little evidence to support its hierarchical aspect. In fact, there is evidence that contradicts the order of needs specified by the model. For example, some cultures appear to place social needs before any others. Maslows hierarchy also has difficulty explaining cases such as the starving artist in which a person neglects lower needs in pursuit of higher ones. Finally, there is little evidence to suggest that people are motivated to satisfy only one need level at a time, except in situations where there is a conflict between needs . Even though Maslows hierarchy lacks scientific support, it is quite well -known and is the first theory of motivation to which many people they are exposed. To address some of the issues of Maslows theory, Clayton Alderfer developed the ERG theory, a needs-based model that is more consistent with empirical findings.
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There is another theory provided by Michael J. Papa (Ph.D., Temple University; M.A., Central Michigan University; B.A., St. Johns University) which explain the X and Y employees as follows:
In this theory, which has been proven counter -effective in most modern practice, management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work if they can and that they inherently dislike work. As a result of this, management believes that workers need to be closely supervised and comprehensive systems of controls developed. A hierarchical structure is needed with narrow span of control at each and every level. According to this theory, employees will show little ambition without an enticing incentive program and will avoid responsibility whenever they can. According to Michael, if the organizational goals are to be met, theory X manager s rely heavily on threat and coercion to gain their employee's compliance. Beliefs of this theory lead to mistrust, highly restrictive supervision, and a punitive atmosphere. The Theory X manager tends to believe that everything must end in blaming someone. He or she thinks all prospective employees are only out for themselves. Usually these managers feel the sole purpose of the employee's interest in the job is money. They will blame the per son first in most situations, without questioning whether it may be the system, policy, or lack of training that deserves the blame. A Theory X manager believes that his or her employees do not really want to work, that they would rather avoid responsibili ty and that it is the manager's job to structure the work and energize the employee. One major flaw of this management style is it is much more likely to cause Diseconomies of Scale in large businesses. Theory Y In this theory, management assumes employees may be ambitious and selfmotivated and exercise self-control. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. According to Papa, to the m work is as natural as play. They possess the ability for creative problem solving, but their talents are underused in most organizations. Given the proper conditions, theory Y managers believe that employees will learn to seek out and accept responsibili ty and to exercise self-control and self-direction in accomplishing objectives to which they are committed. A Theory Y manager believes that, given the right conditions, most people will want to do well at work. They believe that the satisfaction of doing a good job is a strong motivation. Many people interpret Theory Y as a positive set of beliefs about workers. A close reading of The10 Graduation project 2010 Talal Adnan Odima Hamdan Rashed Al darmaki Motivation
Human Side of Enterprise reveals that McGregor simply argues for managers to be open to a more positive view of workers and the possibilities that this creates. He thinks that Theory Y managers are more likely than Theory X managers to develop the climate of trust with employees that is required for human resource development. It's here through human resource development that is a crucial aspect of any organization. This would include managers communicating openly with subordinates, minimizing the difference between superior-subordinate relationships, creating a comfortable environment in which subordinates can develop and use their abilities. This climate would include the sharing of decision making so that subordinates have say in decisions that influence them. This theory is a positive view to the employees, meaning that the employer is under a lot less pressure than someone who is influenced by a theory X management style.Theory X and Theory Y combined
For McGregor, Theory X and Y are not different ends of the same continuum. Rather they are two different continua in themselves. Thus, if a manager needs to apply Theory Y principles, that does not preclude them from being a part of Theory X & Y.
Motivation The motivations is the emotional tendencies that guide or facilitate reaching goals. It consists of: I. II. III. IV. Achievement drive Commitment Initiative Optimism
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Chapter 2 Review of literature On Motivation
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Scholars and researchers
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Chapter 3 The Emirates fire and rescue company
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History of the company Employees and department
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Chapter 4 Research methods and designy y y y y y y y y y Is your lack of motivation short-term or is it deeper than that? Are you part of a team that makes you feel good? Are you working in isolation? Is that good or bad for you? What are the details of your daily tasks you most enjoy and how can you incorporate more of those into your life? What are the details of your daily tasks that you hate and how can you do less of those? Can you end each day by envisioning the positive outcome of your work and the successes, even the smallest ones? Do you surround yourself with uplifting people? Do you practice good self-care techniques? Can you see the long-term rewards of what you're doing? Are you doing something each day that moves you toward your goal?
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Research methods and design
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Clearing Up Common Myths About Employee MotivationThe topic of motivating employees is extremely important to managers and supervisors. Despite the important of the topic, several myths persist -- especially among new managers and supervisors. Before looking at what management can do to support the motivation of employees, it's important first to clear up these common myths. 1. Myth #1 -"I can motivate people" Not really -- they have to motivate themselves. You can't motivate people anymore than you can empower them. Employees have to motivate and empower themselves. However, you can set up an environment where they best motivate and empower themselves. The key is knowing how to set up the environment for each of your employees. 2. Myth #2 -"Money is a good motivator" Not really. Certain things like money, a nice office and job security can help people from becoming less motivated, but they usually don't help people to become more motivated. A key goal is to understand the motivations of each of your employees. 3. Myth #3 -"Fear is a damn good motivator" Fear is a great motivator -- for a very short time. That's why a lot of yelling from the boss won't seem to "light a spark under employees" for a very long time. 4. Myth #4 -- "I know what motivates me, so I know what m otivates my employees" Not really. Different people are motivated by different things. I may be greatly motivated by earning time away from my job to spend more time my family. You might be motivated much more by recognition of a job well done. People are not motivated by the same things. Again, a key goal is to understand what motivates each of your employees. 5. Myth #5 -- "Increased job satisfaction means increased job performance" Research shows this isn't necessarily true at all. Increased job satisfac tion does not necessarily mean increased job performance. If the goals of the organization are not aligned with the goals of employees, then employees aren't effectively working toward the mission of the organization. 6. Myth #6 -- "I can't comprehend employee motivation -- it's a science" Nah. Not true. There are some very basic steps you can take that will go a long way toward supporting your employees to motivate themselves toward increased performance in their jobs. (More about these steps is provided l ater on in this article.)
Basic Principles to Remember1. Motivating employees starts with motivating yourself It's amazing how, if you hate your job, it seems like everyone else does, too. If you are
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very stressed out, it seems like everyone else is, too. Enthusiasm is contagious. If you're enthusiastic about your job, it's much easier for others to be, too. Also, if you're doing a good job of taking care of yourself and your own job, you'll have much clearer perspective on how others are doing in theirs. A great place to start learning about motivation is to start understanding your own motivations. The key to helping to motivate your employees is to understand what motivates them. So what motivates you? Consider, for example, time with family, recognition, a job well done, service, learning, etc. How is your job configured to support your own motivations? What can you do to better motivate yourself? 2. Always work to align goals of the organization wi th goals of employees As mentioned above, employees can be all fired up about their work and be working very hard. However, if the results of their work don't contribute to the goals of the organization, then the organization is not any better off than if the employees were sitting on their hands -- maybe worse off! Therefore, it's critical that managers and supervisors know what they want from their employees. These preferences should be worded in terms of goals for the organization. Identifying the goals for the organization is usually done during strategic planning. Whatever steps you take to support the motivation of your employees (various steps are suggested below), ensure that employees have strong input to identifying their goals and that these goals are aligned with goals of the organization. (Goals should be worded to be "SMARTER". More about this later on below.) 3. Key to supporting the motivation of your employees is understanding what motivates each of them Each person is motivated by different things. Whatever steps you take to support the motivation of your employees, they should first include finding out what it is that really motivates each of your employees. You can find this out by asking them, listening to them and observing them. (More about this later on below.) 4. Recognize that supporting employee motivation is a process, not a task Organizations change all the time, as do people. Indeed, it is an ongoing process to sustain an environment where each employee can strongly motivate themselves. If you look at sustaining employee motivation as an ongoing process, then you'll be much more fulfilled and motivated yourself. 5. Support employee motivation by using organizational systems (for example, policies and procedures) -- don't just count on good intentions Don't just count on cultivating strong interpersonal relationships with employees to help motivate them. The nature of these relationships can change greatly, for example, during times of stress. Instead, use reliable and comprehensive systems in the workplace to help motivate employees. For example, establish compensation systems, employee performance systems, organizational policies and procedures, etc., to support employee motivation. Also, establishing various systems and structures h elps ensure clear understanding and equitable treatment of employees.
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Steps You Can TakeThe following specific steps can help you go a long way toward supporting your employees to motivate themselves in your organization. 1. Do more than read this article -- apply what you're This maxim is true when reading any management publication. reading here
2. Briefly write down the motivational factors that sustain you and what you can do to sustain them This little bit of "motivation planning" can give you str ong perspective on how to think about supporting the motivations of your employees. 3. Make of list of three to five things that motivate each of your employees Read the checklist of possible motivators . Fill out the list yourself for each of your employees and then have each of your employees fill out the list for themselves. Compare your answers to theirs. Recognize the differences between your impression of what you think is important to them and what they think is important to them. Then meet with each of your employees to discuss what they think are the most important motivational factors to them. Lastly, take some time alone to write down how you will modify your approaches with each employee to ensure their motivational factors are being met. (NOTE: This may seem like a "soft, touchy-feely exercise" to you. If it does, then talk to a peer or your boss about it. Much of what's important in management is based very much on "soft, touchy-feely exercises". Learn to become more comfortable with them. The place to start is to recognize their importance.) 4. Work with each employee to ensure their motivational factors are taken into consideration in your reward systems For example, their jobs might be redesigned to be more fulfilling. You might find more means to provide recognition, if that is important to them. You might develop a personnel policy that rewards employees with more family time, etc. 5. Have one-on-one meetings with each employee Employees are motivated more by your care and concern for them than by your attention to them. Get to know your employees, their families, their favorite foods, names of their children, etc. This can sound manipulative -- and it will be if not done sincerely. However, even if you sincerely want to get to know each of your employees, it may not happen unless you intentionally set aside time to be with each of them. 6. Cultivate strong skills in delegation Delegation includes conveying responsibility and authority to your employees so they can carry out certain tasks. However, you leave it up to your employees to decide how they will carry out the tasks. Skills in delegation can free up a great deal of time for managers and supervisors. It also allows employees to take a stronger role in their jobs, which usually means more fulfillment and motivation in their jobs, as well. 7. Reward it when you see it A critical lesson for new managers and supervisors is to learn to focus on employee
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behaviors, not on employee personalities. Performance in the workplace should be based on behaviors toward goals, not on popularity of employees. You can get in a great deal of trouble (legally, morally and interpersonally) for focusing only on how you feel about your employees rather than on what you're seeing with your eyeballs. 8. Reward it soon after you see it This helps to reinforce the notion that you highly prefer the behaviors that you're currently seeing from your employees. Often, the shorter the time between an employee's action and your reward for the action, the clearer it is to the employee that you highly prefer that action. 9. Implement at least the basic principles of performance management Good performance management includes identifying goals, measures to indicate if the goals are being met or not, ongoing attention and feedback about measures to ward the goals, and corrective actions to redirect activities back toward achieving the goals when necessary. Performance management can focus on organizations, groups, processes in the organization and employees. 10. Establish goals that are SMARTER SMARTER goals are: specific, measurable, acceptable, realistic, timely, extending of capabilities, and rewarding to those involved. 11. Clearly convey how employee results contribute to organizational results Employees often feel strong fulfillment from realizi ng that they're actually making a difference. This realization often requires clear communication about organizational goals, employee progress toward those goals and celebration when the goals are met. 12. Celebrate achievements This critical step is often forgotten. New managers and supervisors are often focused on a getting "a lot done". This usually means identifying and solving problems. Experienced managers come to understand that acknowledging and celebrating a solution to a problem can be every bit as important as the solution itself. Without ongoing acknowledgement of success, employees become frustrated, skeptical and even cynical about efforts in the organization. 13. Let employees hear from their customers (internal or external) Let employees hear customers proclaim the benefits of the efforts of the employee . For example, if the employee is working to keep internal computer systems running for other employees (internal customers) in the organization, then have other employees express their gratitude to the employee. If an employee is providing a product or service to external customers, then bring in a customer to express their appreciation to the employee. 14. Admit to yourself (and to an appropriate someone else) if you don't like an employee -Managers and supervisors are people. It's not unusual to just not like someone who works for you. That someone could, for example, look like an uncle you don't like. In this case, admit to yourself that you don't like the employee. Then talk to someone else who is appropriate to hear about your distaste for the employee, for example, a peer, your
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boss, your spouse, etc. Indicate to the appropriate person that you want to explore what it is that you don't like about the employee and would like to come to a clearer perception of how you can accomplish a positive working relationship with the employee. It often helps a great deal just to talk out loud about how you feel and get someone else's opinion about the situation. As noted above, if you continue to fo cus on what you see about employee performance, you'll go a long way toward ensuring that your treatment of employees remains fair and equitable.
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Abraham MaslowHierarchy of needs theory
Basics About Employee Motivation (Including Steps You Can Take) Copyright Carter McNamara, MBA, PhD, Authenticity Consulting, LLC. Adapted from the Field Guide to Leadership and Supervision .
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Graduation project 2010 Talal Adnan Odima Hamdan Rashed Al darmaki