four noble truths - by bhikkhu bodhi
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DESCRIPTIONTHE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS ² BHIKKHU BODHIPresentation prepared from Bhikkhu Bodhi's (MP3 format) series of lectures on 'Buddha's Teaching As It Is'
THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS BHIKKHU BODHI
SALIENT FEATURES OF THEDHAMMA
Salient feaures of Dhamma Many shades of meaning The Buddha's teaching is called the Dhamma. The word 'Dhamma' has several shades of meaning . In the most basic sense ' Dhamma' signifies the true nature of things. Dhamma is the fundamental element of lawfulness operating in the universe, structuring all events, all experience and all phenomena. All actual things, all phenomena are called dhammas in the plural because all of them embody the true nature of things. Dhamma also means the ethical law, the fundamental principle of righteousness, the cosmic law of virtue and goodness
Dhamma also has a practical sense, something applicable to our own life. Dhamma is that which sustains us , which supports us, or which upholds our own effort to live in virtue and goodness. In this sense Dhamma is the path. On the one hand it is the lower path of virtue, on the other, Dhamma is the Supramundane path, the higher path that leads to realization of the true nature of things. The Buddha's teaching is called the Dhamma, because this teaching makes known the true nature of things discloses the true nature of all existence.
THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS
SIGNIFICANCE OF FOUR, NOBLE TRUTHS
THE FIRST NOBLE TRUTH DUKKHA
THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS BHIKKHU BODHI
FIRST NOBLE TRUTH WHY IS IT TAUGHT?
EXISTENCE AS IT IS REAL HAPPINESS
Existence As It Is Real Happiness
II. SECOND NOBLE TRUTH ORIGIN OF DUKKHA
Second Noble Truth Origin: Craving
CRAVING -THE ORIGIN OF SUFFERINGNow we have to see how craving originates Dukkha. The causal role of craving can be seen at two levels - a psychological level and a universal or cosmic level. Psychological level We find that craving is the underlying root of unhappiness, sorrow, grief, fear, worry, and disapointment. Craving gives rise to sorrow when we are separated from the persons or things we are attached to. Also it gives rise to fear, we become afraid of losing what we have obtained, we are afraid that people might reject us or that circumstances might separate us.
There are several stages in the psychological process by which craving leads to Dukkha. They are as follows: (a) The very moment craving arises it brings along with it a feeling of dissatisfaction. This arises due to the contrast between one's present state of lack-of oneself without the object-and the possibility of fulfilling oneself by possession of the object. This is the Dukkha of striving and seeking. (b) In the enjoyment of the object The enjoyment of the object is accompanied by the suffering of protection. Once we get an object we have to protect it. (c) Loss of the object With the break up of an object or loss of a loved one there is suffering of deprivation.
Second Noble Truth Origin: CravingIf we examine our mind carefully we find that simply yielding to desire brings us only temporary satisfaction, which actually fuels the force of craving. Craving arises more strongly in the future. We need more money, more pleasure, more power. Thus it brings a stronger inner dissatisfaction. This is the way craving becomes the origin of suffering at the psychological level.
SECOND NOBLE TRUTH CAUSE: CRAVINGCosmic levelAt a deeper level, craving is the force which fuels the round of rebirth, samsara. Craving uses the body as a means of finding delight. At death the body can no longer support consciousness, but the craving remains. Therefore, It latches onto a new body as the physical form and brings about rebirth, and the new existence provides the base of craving. In this way it originates Dukkha over and over again.
THIRD NOBLE TRUTH - CESSATION
FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS ACTIONS