first civilizations: mesopotamia

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First Civilizations

First CivilizationsMesopotamia and Egypt6,000 years ago in the Middle East. Agricultural and Commercial Prosperity = urban civilizationsThe First City State was in Sumer between the Tigris and Euphrates riversCity-states (Ur, Uruk, Lagash) were dependent on rivers to farm. Some People were craftsmen. Trade led to the invention of moneyCommanders who took over city States (for power) became the first monarchs (Kings)The First four Empires were the Akkadian Empire, The Babylonian Empire, The Assyrian Empire, and The Persian Empire in Mesopotamia between 3rdand 1stmillenniumThe Temple (ziggurat) was built to worship the gods. Priests lived there.The Ziggurat and the palace were the main buildings in the City States. They were made of adobe and covered in bitumen.Glazed ceramics decorated the Ziggurat. Worshipping men and women worshipping were sculptures, or representations of King Gudea were sculptures.The largest Contributions of these urban civilizations were the arch and the vault, They made more building possibilities.Another big contribution was Hammurabis Code.Hammurabis Code was a code for Babylonian law and written in Akkadian.Some of the Laws Are:If A Son strikes his father, his hands will be cut off.Some of the Laws Are:If A man puts out the eye of another man, his eye will be put out. An eye for an eye.Some of the Laws Are:If A man breaks another mans bone, his bone will be broken.Some of the Laws Are:If A man knocks out another mans teeth, his teeth will be knocked out. A tooth for a tooth.Hammurabis code did not treat slaves as equals. If a wrong was done to a slave, the man who committed the crime had to pay their master have of their cost.Hammurabis code is written on 12 tablets (Steles).Hammurabis code has 282 laws. It is kept in the Louvre Museum (largest museum in the world) in paris, France.Simply put, Hammurabis code is: An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.


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