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  • River Valley CivilizationsEgyptMesopotamia

  • Egypt

  • Favorable GeographyBenefits of NileRich soilWaterTransportationNatural Boundaries

  • Egyptian HistoryEarly govts to control NileEventually combined: Lower Egypt (north)Upper Egypt (south)Old Kingdom 3,100-2,200 BCPyramids built as tombs

  • Egyptian HistoryMiddle Kingdom2,200-1,730 BCAge of NoblesCanal from Nile to Red SeaEnded by Hyksos with horses/chariots

  • Egyptian HistoryNew Kingdom1,570-1100 BCThe EmpireRamses IITutankhamen

  • Egyptian LifePharaoh=absolute monarchPrivileged aristocracyPharaoh & his familyNoblesPriestsUnprivileged massesPeasantsSlaves

  • Egyptian LifeEconomic activitiesDepended chiefly on agricultureGlassblowingImported timber and copperReligious beliefsPolytheisticMummification

  • Egyptian ContributionsMathSurveyed landArtHuge stone statuesCarved/painted various scenesArchitecture & engineeringPyramids and templesDams and irrigation canals

  • Egyptian ContributionsHieroglyphs on papyrusHistoryScientific/Math knowledgeGovernment/Business recordsScienceSolar-year calendar (365 days)Prepared mummies Recognized/Treated diseases

  • Mesopotamia

  • Fertile CrescentDivided into:EastTigris and Euphrates river valleys (Mesopotamia)WestEastern Mediterranean coast

  • Influence of GeographyRivers/CoastlineSeaports/trade developedLack of stoneClay for construction & writingLow, level plainsNo natural barriers to invasion

  • PeoplesSumeriansBabyloniansHebrewsPhoeniciansLydiansHittitesAssyriansChaldeansPersians

  • Sumerians4,000BC-Independent city-statesContributionsCuneiform on clay tabletsSystem of numbers based on 60Basis of time and rotation units ArchitectureInvented archBuilt ziggurats

  • Babylonians1750 BC led by HammurabiConquered other city-states ContributionsCode of Hammurabi AstronomyLed to astrology

  • Hebrews1400-1200 BC-moved from SE tip of Fertile Crescent to SWConquered by various Mesopotamian peoplesContributionsMonotheismOld TestamentEmphasis on high moral principles

  • Phoenicians1200-800 BC-north of Palestine on Mediterranean coast Traded throughout MediterraneanEstablished coloniesSpecialized in purple (royal color)ContributionsMissionaries of civilizationAlphabet

  • LydiansAfter 1000 BC lived in Asia MinorContributionCoinage of money

  • HittitesAbout 2000 BC appeared in northern Asia Minor (area rich in iron)ContributionIron

  • AssyriansAfter 800 BC built an empireLearned about iron from HittitesConquered Fertile Crescent/EgyptTerrorized enemies and subjectsContributionsGovernmentDivided empire into provincesBuilt military roads LibraryArt

  • Chaldeans612 BC overthrew AssyriansGained control of Fertile CrescentEstablished 2nd Babylonian EmpireContributionsArchitectureNebuchadnezzar-Hanging Gardens of BabylonAstronomy

  • Persians6th century BC expanded from Plateau of IranLargest empire yet seenContributionsGovernmentProvinces ruled by satrap Eyes and Ears of the KingRoads for military and tradeCoined money

  • Persians (contd.)ContributionsSpread of cultureTreated subject peoples humanely Adopted ideas and practices from their conquered peoples Stimulated interchange among peoplesReligionGood and evil

  • River Valley CivilizationsEgyptMesopotamia

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