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Ancient Civilizations of Mesopotamia. Assyrian Empire 2400 -612 B.C.E. Essential Standards. 6.H. 2 Understand the political, economic and/or social significance of historical events, issues, individuals and cultural groups . - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Ancient Civilizations of MesopotamiaAssyrian Empire2400-612 B.C.E.

Essential Standards6.H.2 Understand the political, economic and/or social significance of historical events, issues, individuals and cultural groups.

6.G.1 Understand geographic factors that influenced the emergence, expansion and decline of civilizations, societies and regions (i.e. Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas) over time.

6.C&G.1 Understand the development of government in various civilizations, societies and regions.

6.E.1 Understand how the physical environment and human interaction affected the economic activities of various civilizations, societies and regions.Clarifying Objective6.H.2.1. Explain how invasions, conquests and migrations affected various civilizations, societies and regions (e.g., Mongol invasion, The Crusades, the Peopling of the Americas and Alexander the Great).

6.H.2.3 Explain how innovation and/or technology transformed civilizations, societies and regions over time (e.g., agricultural technology, weaponry, transportation and communication).

6.H.2.4. Explain the role that key historical figures and cultural groups had in transforming society (e.g., Mansa Musa, Confucius, Charlemagne and Qin Shi Huangdi).Clarifying Objective6.G.1.1 Explain how the physical features and human characteristics of a place influenced the development of civilizations, societies and regions (e.g., location near rivers and natural barriers, trading practices and spread of culture).

6.G.1.3 Compare distinguishing characteristics of various world regions (e.g., physical features, culture, political organization and ethnic make-up).Clarifying Objective6.C&G.1.1 Explain the origins and structures of various governmental systems (e.g., democracy, absolute monarchy and constitutional monarchy).

6.E.1.1. Explain how conflict, compromise and negotiation over the availability of resources (i.e. natural, human and capital) impacted the economic development of various civilizations, societies and regions (e.g., competition for scarce resources, unequal distribution of wealth and the emergence of powerful trading networks).Ancient MesopotamiaMesopotamian Civilizations survived because of the water resources known as the Tigris & Euphrates Rivers

Mesopotamian cultures used mud bricks to build with

Ancient MesopotamiaThe Tigris & Euphrates Rivers opened up trade within all of the civilizations around the Mesopotamian Region

The SAIL & BOAT became very important to trade & transport of goods

The SAIL & BOAT allowed different civilizations to trade over long distances

Lesson PrefaceThe Ancient Babylon & Ancient Assyrian & Ancient Persia lessons are a little bit different because they happened during the same time period. These were the next two great civilizations after Sumer to occupy the Fertile Crescent Region of Mesopotamia. They were friends at first but later became enemies and fought each other (frienimies) Ancient AssyriaAncient Assyria was located North of Ancient Babylonia and West of Persia on the Tigris River

The Assyrians started out as an Agricultural People but became a warrior culture

Theocratic GovernmentAncient Assyria had an Theocratic Government which means the people are governed based on their religion

In a Theocratic Government god himself is recognized as the head of state (empire)

There is a Civil leader for each theocratic government (Sargon 1st)

Sargon the GreatAncient Assyria starts with a story about their first great King

His name was Sargon the Great

He began ruling in 2334 B.C.E.

Legend of Sargon the GreatSargon the Greats mother was a high priestess woman

She was a woman of religion

She became pregnant even though high priestess were to remain celibate

Legend of Sargon the GreatShe gave birth to a son in secret and named him Sargon

Knowing if she was caught with a child she would be put to death

She wrapped Sargon in a blanket and put him in a basket and sealed the basket

Legend of Sargon the GreatHe was floated down the Tigris river until he was picked up by a date grower

The date grower raised him like his own son

Sargon became a date grower as well

Legend of Sargon the GreatOne day the date grower who had been raising Sargon kicked him out

He found himself homeless until he was offered the opportunity to serve for the King of Kish (the city state in which Sargon lived)

Legend of Sargon the GreatThe Kingdom of Kish became unstable a few years later and Sargon seized his opportunity

He overthrew the King Zababa of Kish and became King himself

He became King Sargon the 1st (Sargon the Great)

Emerging & Expanding the CivilizationUnder Sargon the Great the Assyrians expanded their civilization by taking over other villages & towns

The would raid the towns and steal everything and feed themselves from what they captured

End of Sargons AssyriaUnder Sargon the Great Each year the Assyrians would go out and defeat other Mesopotamian colonies but there stronghold would not last because of the changes in the seasons

With the changing of the seasons the soldiers would go home to take care of their farmlands so they could yield more crops

Relief SculpturesSargon The Great was known for making Relief Sculptures

On the right you see a Relief Sculpture

These were used to decorate the sides of important buildings

Tiglath Pileser IIITo stop this trend the new King Tiglath Pileser III built the first professional army

To keep soldiers from returning to their farms he bought the farms from them and then reached an agreement with them to become professional soldiers

They would no longer be farmers, their new jobs would be from the army

Tiglath Pileser III ArmyThousands of men became professional soldiers ready to take over

Tiglath Pileser III created military training camps

He provided them with an armory to store weapons

He gave the Assyrian soldiers everything they would need to become successfulhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vpKxRJDmnQI 6:48- 7:41Iron ArmyEach soldier was given an iron helmet

They got an iron shield

They got an Iron breast plate

A pair of sturdy leather boots

HorsemanThe Assyrian Army was the first army in World History to use Horseman

A Horseman would be the first to ride into battle

They either carried a bow & arrow or a long spear

The Assyrians were able to crash into the front lines of their enemies using speed & power

Tiglath Pileser III ArmyArchers would shoot arrows into the enemies

Then Horsemen would ride into the front of the enemy lines to soften them up

Then the chariots would ride in firing more arrows at the enemy

Finally the foot soldiers would attack the enemy

Feeding an ArmyThousands of men become very hungry when they are traveling

Assyrian Kings set up huge granaries in towns that they had captured to feed his army as they passed by

Army opens up TradeThe Assyrian Army became the best in the world at that time period

They wanted to be better

They traded textiles & food to other civilizations

They received Horses (Chariots)Iron (Weapons)Timber (Ships)

Prisoners of WarThe people from the lands that the Assyrians conquered would pay TRIBUTE to Assyria

Tribute was a service or monetary amount that would be paid to the King so he would not come & kill them

Prisoners of WarPrisoners of War would maintain the road network that the Assyrians built throughout Mesopotamia

They would also collect the tribute from city states taken over by Assyria

Assyria Becomes Too BigThe Assyrian Empire had become too large

There were not enough people that were Assyrians to manage all the prisoners of war they had accumulated

Nineveh, Assyria In 612 B.C.E. the Babylonians had had enough

Under Nebakanezer II the marched on Nineveh and sacked it destroying the city

Babylonia takes the city for their own

Important Points6.H.2.1. (Invasions, Conquests & Migrations) The Assyrians invaded and conquered almost all of Mesopotamia at some point or another. This led to migrations all over the Mesopotamian Region

6.H.2.3 (Weaponry & Transportation) Assyrian prisoners would maintain roads for the army to travel on. Assyrians were the first to use horsemen to utilize speed on the battlefield

6.H.2.4. (Key Historical Figures) Sargon the Great was an important historical figure because he emerged & expanded the Assyrians Empire

Important Points6.G.1.1 (Physical Features Why do they live there) Assyrians lived along the Tigris River which allowed them to farm

6.G.1.3 (Distinguishing Physical Feature) The features of the Mesopotamian Region were the Tigris & Euphrates Rivers

6.C&G.1.1 (Theocratic Government) Assyrians operated under a Theocratic Government that was controlled by religion

6.E.1.1. (Unequal distribution of wealth) The Assyrians became very wealthy because they took over other lands and took TRIBUTES from the people of those lands

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